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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Analytical chemistry, 01 December 2011, Vol.83(23), pp.8984-91
    Description: Manganese (Mn) is an essential plant nutrient, receiving increased attention due to significant deficiency problems in modern crop production. In aquatic sediments, Mn plays an important role in controlling the mobility of other elements due to its high redox sensitivity. Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) is recognized as one of the most promising techniques to assess plant availability of nutrients in soils and mobility in sediments. However, the appropriate conditions where DGT can be used to measure Mn in soils and sediments have not been thoroughly investigated. We deployed DGTs in soil, sediment, and solution to investigate the effect of pH and competition from Ca and Fe ions. We found that by using DGT it is possible to accurately measure Mn in soils at pH levels and Ca and Fe concentrations resembling those of normal and fertile agricultural soils. However, in acid soils at pH below 5.5, Mn measurements might be biased due to potential competition effects caused by Ca. Soil deployments showed that changes in soil redox conditions were closely reflected by the DGT based Mn measurements. This might enable a novel approach of using DGT to predict Mn mobility and plant availability in soils. In reducing aquatic sediments, high concentrations of ferrous ions can displace Mn from the resin-gel of the DGT device. We found this to be a significant problem with longer deployment times.
    Keywords: Manganese (Metal) -- Research ; Thin Films -- Usage ; Thin Films -- Research ; Analytical Chemistry -- Methods ; Analytical Chemistry -- Research ; Sediments (Geology) -- Research;
    ISSN: 00032700
    E-ISSN: 1520-6882
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, Sept, 2014, Vol.111, p.352(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.03.116 Byline: Enzo Lombi, Erica Donner, Kirk G. Scheckel, Ryo Sekine, Christiane Lorenz, Natalie Von Goetz, Bernd Nowack Abstract: Display Omitted Article History: Received 24 January 2014; Revised 20 March 2014; Accepted 24 March 2014 Article Note: (miscellaneous) Handling Editor: I. Cousins
    Keywords: Textiles ; Textile Industry
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2012, Vol.402(10), pp.3287-3298
    Description: Functional characterisation of the genes regulating metal(loid) homeostasis in plants is a major focus for phytoremediation, crop biofortification and food security research. Recent advances in X-ray focussing optics and fluorescence detection have greatly improved the potential to use synchrotron techniques in plant science research. With use of methods such as micro X-ray fluorescence mapping, micro computed tomography and micro X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy, metal(loids) can be imaged in vivo in hydrated plant tissues at submicron resolution, and laterally resolved metal(loid) speciation can also be determined under physiologically relevant conditions. This article focuses on the benefits of combining molecular biology and synchrotron-based techniques. By using molecular techniques to probe the location of gene expression and protein production in combination with laterally resolved synchrotron techniques, one can effectively and efficiently assign functional information to specific genes. A review of the state of the art in this field is presented, together with examples as to how synchrotron-based methods can be combined with molecular techniques to facilitate functional characterisation of genes in planta . The article concludes with a summary of the technical challenges still remaining for synchrotron-based hard X-ray plant science research, particularly those relating to subcellular level research. Figure Elemental distribution in Arabidopsis seeds collected by synchrotron micro-XRF
    Keywords: X-ray fluorescence ; Tomography ; Speciation ; Functional genomics ; Plants ; Metals
    ISSN: 1618-2642
    E-ISSN: 1618-2650
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Water Research, 01 September 2013, Vol.47(13), pp.4585-4599
    Description: Iron nanoparticles are becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of contaminated soil and groundwater; however, their mobility and reactivity in subsurface environments are significantly affected by their tendency to aggregate. Assessing their stability under environmental conditions is crucial for determining their environmental fate. A multi-method approach (including different size-measurement techniques and the DLVO theory) was used to thoroughly characterise the behaviour of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe O NPs) under environmentally relevant conditions. Although recent studies have demonstrated the importance of using a multi-method approach when characterising nanoparticles, the majority of current studies continue to use a single-method approach. Under some soil conditions (i.e. pH 7, 10 mM NaCl and 2 mM CaCl ) and increasing particle concentration, Fe O NPs underwent extensive aggregation to form large aggregates (〉1 μm). Coating the nanoparticles with dissolved organic matter (DOM) was investigated as an alternative “green” solution to overcoming the aggregation issue instead of using the more commonly proposed polyelectrolytes. At high concentrations, DOM effectively covered the surface of the Fe O NPs, thereby conferring negative surface charge on the particles across a wide range of pH values. This provided electrostatic stabilisation and considerably reduced the particle aggregation effect. DOM-coated Fe O NPs also proved to be more stable under high ionic strength conditions. The presence of CaCl , however, even at low concentrations, induced the aggregation of DOM-coated Fe O NPs, mainly via charge neutralisation and bridging. This has significant implications in regards to the reactivity and fate of these materials in the environment.
    Keywords: Iron Oxide ; Nanoparticles ; Aggregation ; Flow Field-Flow Fractionation ; Dlvo Theory ; Surface Coating ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0043-1354
    E-ISSN: 1879-2448
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Environmental and Experimental Botany, 2011, Vol.72(1), pp.3-17
    Description: Metals and metalloids play important roles in plant function and metabolism. Likewise, plants subsequently introduce vital dietary nutrition to people and animals. Understanding the transport, localisation and speciation of these elements is critical for understanding availability and metabolic pathways. Subsequently this knowledge can be applied to plant physiology and agricultural research, food science and genetic engineering. This review focuses on the most recent status of techniques to visualise spatial distributions and assess the speciation of metals and metalloids. The techniques addressed include: histochemical analysis, autoradiography, LA-ICP-MS, SIMS, SEM including EDX, PIXE; and synchrotron methods: XRF, differential and fluorescence tomography, and X-ray absorption techniques. This review has been written with the intent of plant researchers to gain familiarity with techniques to which they are not accustom but wish to extend their research with alternative, but complementary, capabilities. Importantly, the disadvantages as well as advantages, have been highlighted for each technique and potential artefacts induced by the analysis or sample preparation are reviewed. These often overlooked aspects are the points critical for novice use of unfamiliar techniques and are offered for advancing research approaches commensurate with the accelerating interest regarding metal(loid)s in botanical specimens.
    Keywords: Metals ; Metalloids ; Spectroscopy ; Elemental Distribution ; Speciation ; Environmental Sciences ; Botany
    ISSN: 0098-8472
    E-ISSN: 1873-7307
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2012, Vol.402(10), pp.3263-3273
    Description: The ability to locate and quantify elemental distributions in plants is crucial to understanding plant metabolisms, the mechanisms of uptake and transport of minerals and how plants cope with toxic elements or elemental deficiencies. High-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is emerging as an important technique for the analysis of biological material at the subcellular scale. This article reviews recent work using the CAMECA NanoSIMS to determine elemental distributions in plants. The NanoSIMS is able to map elemental distributions at high resolution, down to 50 nm, and can detect very low concentrations (milligrams per kilogram) for some elements. It is also capable of mapping almost all elements in the periodic table (from hydrogen to uranium) and can distinguish between stable isotopes, which allows the design of tracer experiments. In this review, particular focus is placed upon studying the same or similar specimens with both the NanoSIMS and a wide range of complementary techniques, showing how the advantages of each technique can be combined to provide a fuller data set to address complex scientific questions. Techniques covered include optical microscopy, synchrotron techniques, including X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, particle-induced X-ray emission and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Some of the challenges associated with sample preparation of plant material for SIMS analysis, the artefacts and limitations of the technique and future trends are also discussed.
    Keywords: Secondary ion mass spectrometry ; NanoSIMS ; Complementary techniques ; Trace elements ; X-ray spectroscopy
    ISSN: 1618-2642
    E-ISSN: 1618-2650
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2013, Vol.372(1), pp.125-136
    Keywords: Lateral roots ; OsIAA11 ; Auxin signalling pathway ; Nutrient uptake ; Rice
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
    Source: Springer Science & Business Media B.V.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2009, Vol.320(1), pp.1-35
    Description: Spectroscopic approaches to plant and soil sciences have provided important information for several decades. However, many of these approaches suffered from a number of limitations and drawbacks especially in terms of spatial resolution and requirements for sample preparation. The advent of dedicated synchrotron facilities, that allow the exploitation of the particular qualities of synchrotron radiation as a research tool, has revolutionised the way we approach the investigation of nutrients and contaminants in environmental samples. Various synchrotron-based techniques are currently available that permit such investigations in situ and at the molecular level. The continuous development of these techniques is delivering substantial gains in terms of sensitivity and spatial resolution which allows analyses of diluted samples at the sub-micron scale. This paper aims at providing an introduction to synchrotron radiation and to the fundamentals of some widely used synchrotron-based techniques, in particular X-ray absorption, fluorescence and tomography. Furthermore, examples are provided regarding the applications of synchrotron-based techniques in the field of plant, soil and rhizosphere research. Finally, current limitations and future perspectives of synchrotron techniques are discussed.
    Keywords: Synchrotron ; Plant ; Rhizosphere ; Soil
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, August, 2013, Vol.179, p.177(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2013.04.010 Byline: Steven Wakelin, Enzo Lombi, Erica Donner, Lynne MacDonald, Amanda Black, Maureen O'Callaghan Abstract: MicroRespacents is a miniaturised method for measuring substrate induced respiration (SIR) in soil. We modified the MicroRespacents method to develop a rapid tool for quantifying the ecotoxicological impact of contaminants. The method is based on reduction in SIR across a gradient of contaminant, allowing for determination of dose-response curves EC-values. Contaminants are mixed into soil samples at a range of concentrations; each sample is then dispensed into a column of eight wells in 96 well format (deep) plates. Moisture and glucose are added to the samples at levels to provide maximum response. Released CO.sub.2 from the soils is then measured using colorimetric gel-traps, following the standard MicroRespacents methodology. Examination revealed that this method works over a range of soil types and is insensitive to minor variations in assay length (2-7 h), alteration of moisture content ([+ or -]20 [mu]L from optimum), and soil storage conditions (4 [degrees]C versus fresh). Author Affiliation: (a) AgResearch Ltd, Lincoln Science Centre, Private Bag 4749, Christchurch, New Zealand (b) Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, SA 5095, Australia (c) CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia (d) Bio-Protection Research Centre, P.O. Box 84, Lincoln University, 7647 Christchurch, New Zealand Article History: Received 21 December 2012; Revised 5 April 2013; Accepted 6 April 2013
    Keywords: Glucose ; Glucose Metabolism ; Environmental Toxicology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, July, 2014, Vol.74, p.1(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2014.01.012 Byline: L. Brinza, Paul F. Schofield, J. Fred W. Mosselmans, Erica Donner, Enzo Lombi, David Paterson, Mark E. Hodson Abstract: We investigated the interaction of soil Zn with calcium carbonate granules secreted by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. Earthworms were kept in agricultural soil amended with ZnSO.sub.4 to give Zn concentrations up to 750 mg kg.sup.-1 and in two former mine site soils containing 500 and 120 mg Zn kg.sup.-1. After 21-42 days the earthworms accumulated 260-470 mg Zn kg.sup.-1. Granule production was 0.027-2.11 mg CaCO.sub.3 earthworm.sup.-1 day.sup.-1 and was positively correlated with soil and soil solution pH (r = 0.66 and 0.85 respectively, p [less than or equal to] 0.01). Granule Zn concentration was 34-163 mg kg.sup.-1. Granules collected from Zn-free control soil and left in Zn-bearing soil for 28 days contained 49-60 mg Zn kg.sup.-1 suggesting that the majority of Zn associates with granules after their secretion. However, synchrotron X-ray fluorescence indicates some incorporation of Zn into granules during their formation. X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicate that the granules are predominantly calcite and the spectroscopy suggests that the Zn is either adsorbed to, or incorporated into, the calcite lattice. X-ray diffraction of the outer c. 35 [mu]m of the granules supports incorporation of Zn into the calcite lattice. The low granule production rates in the mine site soils and the granule Zn concentrations suggest that earthworm secreted calcium carbonate is unlikely to impact significantly on Zn mobility in soils. Author Affiliation: (a) Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0DE, UK (b) Mineral and Planetary Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK (c) Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095, Australia (d) X-ray Microanalysis Beamline, Australian Synchrotron Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia (e) Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK Article History: Received 23 October 2013; Revised 28 December 2013; Accepted 12 January 2014
    Keywords: Calcite Crystals ; X-Ray Spectroscopy ; Fluorescence ; Zinc Compounds ; Calcium Carbonate ; Soils
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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