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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 09 June 2009, Vol.106(23), pp.9385-90
    Description: Cell fusion is involved in many critical developmental processes, including zygote formation and organogenesis of placenta, bone, and skeletal muscle. In adult tissues, cell fusion has been shown to play an active role in tissue regeneration and repair, and its frequency of occurrence is significantly increased during chronic inflammation. Fusion between tumor cells and normal cells, or among tumor cells themselves, has also been speculated to contribute to tumor initiation, as well as phenotypic evolution during cancer progression and metastasis. Here, we show that dual metastasis organotropisms can be acquired in the same cell through in vitro or in vivo spontaneous fusion between bone- and lung-tropic sublines of the MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line. The synkaryonic hybrids assimilate organ-specific metastasis gene signatures from both parental cells and are genetically and phenotypically stable. Our study suggests cell fusion as an efficient means of phenotypic evolution during tumor progression and additionally demonstrates the compatibility of different metastasis organotropisms.
    Keywords: Cell Fusion ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Neoplasm Invasiveness ; Bone Neoplasms -- Secondary ; Breast Neoplasms -- Pathology ; Lung Neoplasms -- Secondary
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2012, Vol. 109(29), pp. 11576-11581
    Description: Most severe disasters cause large population movements. These movements make it difficult for relief organizations to efficiently reach people in need. Understanding and predicting the locations of affected people during disasters is key to effective humanitarian relief operations and to long-term societal reconstruction. We collaborated with the largest mobile phone operator in Haiti (Digicel) and analyzed the movements of 1.9 million mobile phone users during the period from 42 d before, to 341 d after the devastating Haiti earthquake of January 12, 2010. Nineteen days after the earthquake, population movements had caused the population of the capital Port-au-Prince to decrease by an estimated 23%. Both the travel distances and size of people’s movement trajectories grew after the earthquake. These findings, in combination with the disorder that was present after the disaster, suggest that people’s movements would have become less predictable. Instead, the predictability of people’s trajectories remained high and even increased slightly during the three-month period after the earthquake. Moreover, the destinations of people who left the capital during the first three weeks after the earthquake was highly correlated with their mobility patterns during normal times, and specifically with the locations in which people had significant social bonds. For the people who left Port-au-Prince, the duration of their stay outside the city, as well as the time for their return, all followed a skewed, fat-tailed distribution. The findings suggest that population movements during disasters may be significantly more predictable than previously thought.
    Keywords: Trajectory ; Human Mobility ; Disaster Informatics ; Disaster Relief ; Medical And Health Sciences ; Other Medical Sciences ; Other Medical Sciences Not Elsewhere Specified ; Medicin Och Hälsovetenskap ; Annan Medicin Och Hälsovetenskap ; Övrig Annan Medicin Och Hälsovetenskap
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 10916490
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Animal Behaviour, 2011, Vol.82(4), pp.861-867
    Description: Life history theory views parental effort as a dynamic response to current productivity benefits and personal survival costs. Classical provisioning models specific to avian cooperative breeding systems predict that nestling starvation caused by local food limitation will induce helped parents to maintain their effort to ensure fledging success. Yet, food shortages may impose such a high provisioning cost that selection favours parents that lighten their workload at the expense of offspring productivity. We tested this alternative prediction with the ground tit, , which is an insectivorous, facultative cooperative breeder; helpers are mostly philopatric male offspring. Our study was based on data from three breeding seasons over which rainfall, and hence food resources, varied greatly. Total amount of food delivered to the young was highest for group-fed broods in food-rich environments, although helped male and female parents invested less than their counterparts with no helpers, and provisioning rate of the latter in both types of environmental conditions was similar to that of group-fed broods in food-poor environments. The variation in care level was mirrored by the observed pattern of partial brood loss, the single largest cause limiting productivity. The lowered effort in association with increased brood reduction under poor foraging conditions suggests ground tit parents with helpers trade future fitness against current reproduction to cope with harsh, unpredictable environments. This finding broadens our understanding of interspecific variability of parental response to the presence of helpers across ecological gradients. ► Parents with high care costs may value own survival over current brood. ► This idea was tested for facultative cooperative breeding ground tits. ► Helped breeders in poor habitat fed less than nonhelped breeders despite brood reduction. ► This strategy should evolve to cope with low food availability at high elevations.
    Keywords: Environmental Variability ; Ground Tit ; Helping Behaviour ; Kin Selection ; Life History ; Parus Humilis ; Veterinary Medicine ; Zoology ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0003-3472
    E-ISSN: 1095-8282
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 20 February 2018, Vol.115(8), pp.1860-1864
    Description: How can altruism evolve or be maintained in a selfish world? Hamilton's rule shows that the former process will occur when 〉 -the benefits to the recipients of an altruistic act , weighted by the relatedness between the social partners , exceed the costs to the altruists -drives altruistic genotypes spreading against nonaltruistic ones. From this rule, we infer that altruistic genotypes will persist in a population by forming a stable heritable polymorphism with nonaltruistic genotypes if = makes inclusive fitness of the two morphs equal. We test this prediction using the data of 12 years of study on a cooperatively breeding bird, the Tibetan ground tit , where helping is performed by males only and kin-directed. Individual variation in ever acting as a helper was heritable ( = 0.47), and the resultant altruism polymorphism remained stable as indicated by low-level annual fluctuation of the percentage of helpers among all adult males (24-28%). Helpers' indirect fitness gains from increased lifetime reproductive success of related breeders statistically fully compensated for their lifetime direct fitness losses, suggesting that = holds. While our work provides a fundamental support for Hamilton's idea, it highlights the equivalent inclusive fitness returns to altruists and nonaltruists mediated by = as a theoretically and realistically important mechanism to maintain social polymorphism.
    Keywords: Fisher'S Natural Selection Theorem ; Cooperative Breeding ; Kin Selection ; Lifetime Fitness ; Quantitative Genetics ; Altruism ; Genetic Fitness ; Models, Genetic ; Polymorphism, Genetic ; Birds -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 03 April 2018, Vol.115(14), pp.E3071-E3072
    Keywords: Altruism
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 27 November 2018, Vol.115(48), pp.E11210-E11211
    Keywords: Polymorphism ; Fitness ; Altruism ; Fitness;
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 28 January 2014, Vol.111(4), pp.1562-7
    Description: The Cytotoxin associated gene A (CagA) protein of Helicobacter pylori is associated with increased virulence and risk of cancer. Recent proteomic studies have demonstrated an association of CagA with the human tumor suppressor Apoptosis-stimulating Protein of p53-2 (ASPP2). We present here a genetic, biochemical, and structural analysis of CagA with ASPP2. Domain delineation of the 120-kDa CagA protein revealed a stable N-terminal subdomain that was used in a yeast two-hybrid screen that identified the proline-rich domain of ASPP2 as a host cellular target. Biochemical experiments confirm this interaction. The cocrystal structure to 2.0-Å resolution of this N-terminal subdomain of CagA with a 7-kDa proline-rich sequence of ASPP2 reveals that this domain of CagA forms a highly specialized three-helix bundle, with large insertions in the loops connecting the helices. These insertions come together to form a deep binding cleft for a highly conserved 20-aa peptide of ASPP2. ASPP2 forms an extended helix in this groove of CagA, burying more than 1,000 Å(2) of surface area. This interaction is disrupted in vitro and in vivo by structure-based, loss-of-contact point mutations of key residues in either CagA or ASPP2. Disruption of CagA and ASPP2 binding alters the function of ASPP2 and leads to the decreased survival of H. pylori-infected cells.
    Keywords: Genes, Tumor Suppressor ; Antigens, Bacterial -- Chemistry ; Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins -- Metabolism ; Bacterial Proteins -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, April 30, 2012, Vol.213-214, p.355(6)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.02.007 Byline: Xin Lu (a), Miao Li (a), Cuimei Tang (b), Chuanping Feng (c), Xiang Liu (a) Keywords: Cr(VI); Electro-PRB; Fe.sup.0; Passivation; Electrochemical depassivation Abstract: a* A new electrochemical permeable reactive barrier system for removal of Cr(VI) was developed. a* Electro-PRB was found to be effective for depassivation of Fe.sup.0 to remove Cr(VI) during treatment. a* After depassivation, 100.4-131.3% initial removal rate recovery was achieved. Author Affiliation: (a) School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China (b) School of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China (c) School of Water Resources and Environment, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China Article History: Received 12 December 2011; Revised 31 January 2012; Accepted 3 February 2012
    ISSN: 0304-3894
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 21 March 2013, Vol.113(11)
    Description: Plasmon resonances and the plasmon-induced field enhancement ( FE ) in sodium nanoring dimers are investigated by time-dependent density functional theory. For larger separations, the optical absorption, the induced charge response and the frequency dependent current demonstrate that there are two capacitive coupling plasmon modes. One feature of FE is that, in the surface region of the nanoring, it has a very large maximum. Another feature of FE is that, along the perpendicular bisector of the line segment joining the two nanoring center points in the middle region of the nanoring dimers, it has maxima. With the decrease of the gap distance, because of the electrons tunneling across the dimer junction and screening, collective excitation modes are changed, and the charge transfer plasmon modes emerge in the nanoring dimers. FE induced by any plasmon modes decreases in the gap region. Moreover, corresponding to different gap distances, the high-energy plasmon resonance peak almost does not shift, because this plasmon mode is mainly the collective excitation as a result of interactions among degenerate individual electronic states.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Power Sources, March 1, 2012, Vol.201, p.340(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.10.099 Byline: Xin Lu, Jianfeng Shen, Hongwei Ma, Bo Yan, Zhiqiang Li, Min Shi, Mingxin Ye Keywords: Metal-doped carbon xerogel; Catalytic graphitization; 2 Dimensional channel-like nanostructure; 3 Dimensional connective mesoporous structure; Electric double-layer capacitor; Electrochemical properties Abstract: a* Metal nitrates' double roles as catalyst of sol-gel reaction and graphitization to simplify the process. a* 2 dimensional channel-like active graphitic structure helps to show a better capacitive behavior. a* Co doped carbon xerogel exhibited the largest specific capacitance of 84Fg.sup.-1 and good cycling stability. Author Affiliation: Center of Special Materials and Technology, Fudan University, 220 Handan road, Shanghai 200433, China Article History: Received 29 July 2011; Revised 24 October 2011; Accepted 31 October 2011
    Keywords: Electronic Components Industry ; Electronic Components ; Nitrates ; Capacitors
    ISSN: 0378-7753
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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