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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 15 September 2019, Vol.350, pp.61-72
    Description: During soil formation, the interaction of different biota (plants, soil fauna, microbes) with weathered mineral material shapes unique structures depending on the parental material and the site specific climatic conditions. While many of these interactions are known, the relative importance of the different biota is difficult to unravel and therefore difficult to quantify. Biological soil structure formation is often superimposed by soil management and swell-shrink dynamics, making it even more difficult to derive mechanistic understanding. We here explore soil structure formation within a “space-for-time” chronosequence in the Rhenish lignite mining area. Loess material from a depth of 4–10 m has been used for reclamation in a standardized procedure for 24 years. Changes in soil pore system are characterized by properties such as connectivity (Euler number) and pore size distribution using undisturbed soil columns with a diameter of 10 cm. They were taken from two different depths (0–20 cm and 40–60 cm) at different sites ranging in age from 0 to 24 years. X-ray CT is used for scanning the original columns as well as undisturbed subsamples of 3 and 0.7 cm diameter. This hierarchical sampling scheme was developed to overcome the trade-off between sample size and resolution. For the first time also information on the development of biopores could be measured by separating them from other structural pores based on their unique shape. The data were complemented by destructive sampling and determination of root length with WinRHIZO to give an estimate of how many biopores are filled with roots. Furthermore HYPROP measurements of water retention curves were conducted and showed a general agreement with the image-derived pore size distribution merged across three scales. An increase in biopore density throughout year zero to year 12, in particular in 40–60 cm soil depth, was observed. The biopore length densities of approximately 17 cm/cm obtained in year 12 was similar to the one measured in year 24, suggesting that equilibrium was reached. Only about 10% of these biopores were filled with roots. In the topsoil (0–20 cm) the equilibrium value in biopore density is already reached after six years due to a higher root length density. Ploughing lead to higher mean pore size and to lower connectivity compared to the well-connected, very stable pore network in 40–60 cm depth. This study shows how fast plant roots create a stable and connected biopore system and how this is disrupted by soil tillage, which produces completely contrasting pore characteristics.
    Keywords: Biopores ; Structure Formation ; X-Ray CT ; Tilled Soil ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 2
    In: PLoS ONE, 2018, Vol.13(10)
    Description: Apple replant disease (ARD) is the phenomenon of soil decline occurring after repeated planting of apple trees at the same site. This study aimed to elucidate whether ARD is systemic, i.e. whether the contact of parts of the root system with ARD soil causes the whole plant to show poor shoot and root growth. A split-root experiment was conducted with seedlings of ‘M26’, offering the same plant for its root system the choice between the substrates ARD soil (+ARD), γ-sterilized ARD soil (-ARD) or soil from a grass parcel (Control) with the following combinations: +ARD/+ARD, -ARD/-ARD; +ARD/-ARD; +ARD/Control. Root growth was analysed throughout the 34-day growing period. Samples from bulk, rhizosphere and rhizoplane soil were collected separately for each compartment, and analysed by fingerprints of 16S rRNA gene or ITS fragments amplified from total community (TC) DNA. The response of the plant to +ARD was not systemic as root growth in -ARD compartment was always superior to root growth in +ARD soil. Crosswise 15 N-labelling of the N-fertilizer applied to the split-root compartments showed that nitrate-N uptake efficiency was higher for roots in -ARD soil compared to those in +ARD. Bacterial and fungal community composition in the rhizoplane and rhizosphere of the same plants differed significantly between the compartments containing +ARD/-ARD or +ARD/Control. The strongest differences between the bacterial fingerprints were observed in the rhizoplane and rhizosphere. Bacterial genera with increased abundance in response to ARD were mainly Streptomyces but also Sphingobium , Novosphingobium , Rhizobium , Lysobacter and Variovorax . The strongest differences between the fungal fingerprints were observed in bulk soil. Our data showed that the response of the apple plant to ARD soil is local and not systemic.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Ecology And Environmental Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Research Dataset
    Research Dataset
    Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF)
    Language: English
    Description: Total root length of the compartments of the individual split root boxes over time....
    Keywords: Bodennutzung ; Landwirtschaft ; Root Length
    Source: DataCite
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  • 4
    Research Dataset
    Research Dataset
    Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF)
    Language: English
    Description: Data about root diameter classes after 33 days....
    Keywords: Soil ; Bodennutzung ; Landwirtschaft ; Root Diameter
    Source: DataCite
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  • 5
    Research Dataset
    Research Dataset
    Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF)
    Language: English
    Description: C/N- and 15N-Daten from a Split-root-Experiment....
    Keywords: Carbon ; Nitrogen Content ; Bodennutzung ; Landwirtschaft ; 15n
    Source: DataCite
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  • 6
    Research Dataset
    Research Dataset
    Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF)
    Language: German
    Description: Measured data of leaf area sizes and chlorophyll (SPAD) over time of individual plants....
    Keywords: Leaf Area ; Chlorophylls ; Bodennutzung ; Landwirtschaft
    Source: DataCite
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  • 7
    Research Dataset
    Research Dataset
    Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF)
    Language: English
    Description: Dry weights of apple shoots....
    Keywords: Shoots ; Bodennutzung ; Landwirtschaft ; Dry Weight
    Source: DataCite
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  • 8
    Research Dataset
    Research Dataset
    Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF)
    Language: English
    Description: Data on leaf area growth of Malus (M26) over 32 days....
    Keywords: Leaf Area ; Chlorophylls ; Bodennutzung ; Landwirtschaft ; Leaf Growth ; Chlorophyll ; Spad
    Source: DataCite
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  • 9
    Research Dataset
    Research Dataset
    Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF)
    Language: English
    Description: Root length and root diameter classes after 33 days. In columns 3-12 the measured values are given in centimetres (cm), not in millimetres (mm) as indicated in the file....
    Keywords: Root Length ; Root Diameter ; Malus
    Source: DataCite
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  • 10
    Research Dataset
    Research Dataset
    Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF)
    Language: English
    Description: Treatment names of a split-root experiment to analyse the hypothesis whether apple replant disease is systemic....
    Keywords: ,Rhizosphere ; Rhizosphere ; Rhizosphere ; Rhizosphere ; Rhizosphere ; Sorbus ; Malus ; Bodennutzung ; Landwirtschaft
    Source: DataCite
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