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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Applied Acoustics, 2010, Vol.71(10), pp.902-913
    Description: Shooter localization and estimation of bullet trajectory, caliber and speed have become essential tasks for example in peacekeeping and police assignments. A novel approach for such estimation and localization is presented in this paper, as a numerical estimation method is applied to the problem. Both simulated and recorded gunshot data are considered, as a known bullet shock wave model and detected firing sounds are utilized in creating a likelihood function corresponding to different bullet . For this, a state-space model of the underlying dynamic system is developed, and a well-known optimization algorithm is used to find the global maximum of the evaluated function. Two different criteria are used to measure the likelihood values, namely the and the . The achieved localization and estimation results are accurate and applicable when considering the usability of the method against hostile snipers. The shooter position and bullet state estimation errors vary between 2% and 10%, depending on the estimated parameter at stake.
    Keywords: Sniper Localization ; Shock Wave ; Muzzle Blast ; Simulated Annealing ; Monte Carlo Methods ; Engineering ; Physics
    ISSN: 0003-682X
    E-ISSN: 1872-910X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Neural Networks, October 2012, Vol.34, pp.80-95
    Description: In this paper, we propose a novel framework based on a collective network of evolutionary binary classifiers (CNBC) to address the problems of feature and class scalability. The main goal of the proposed framework is to achieve a high classification performance over dynamic audio and video repositories. The proposed framework adopts a “Divide and Conquer” approach in which an individual network of binary classifiers (NBC) is allocated to discriminate each audio class. An search is applied to find the best binary classifier in each NBC with respect to a given criterion. Through the incremental evolution sessions, the CNBC framework can dynamically adapt to each new incoming class or feature set without resorting to a full-scale re-training or re-configuration. Therefore, the CNBC framework is particularly designed for dynamically varying databases where no conventional static classifiers can adapt to such changes. In short, it is entirely a novel topology, an unprecedented approach for dynamic, content/data adaptive and scalable audio classification. A large set of audio features can be effectively used in the framework, where the CNBCs make appropriate selections and combinations so as to achieve the highest discrimination among individual audio classes. Experiments demonstrate a high classification accuracy (above 90%) and efficiency of the proposed framework over large and dynamic audio databases.
    Keywords: Audio Content-Based Classification ; Evolutionary Neural Networks ; Particle Swarm Optimization ; Multilayer Perceptron ; Computer Science
    ISSN: 0893-6080
    E-ISSN: 1879-2782
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: EURASIP Journal on Audio, Speech, and Music Processing, 2012, Vol.2012(1), pp.1-23
    Description: A vast amount of audio features have been proposed in the literature to characterize the content of audio signals. In order to overcome specific problems related to the existing features (such as lack of discriminative power), as well as to reduce the need for manual feature selection, in this article, we propose an evolutionary feature synthesis technique with a built-in feature selection scheme. The proposed synthesis process searches for optimal linear/nonlinear operators and feature weights from a pre-defined multi-dimensional search space to generate a highly discriminative set of new (artificial) features. The evolutionary search process is based on a stochastic optimization approach in which a multi-dimensional particle swarm optimization algorithm, along with fractional global best formation and heterogeneous particle behavior techniques, is applied. Unlike many existing feature generation approaches, the dimensionality of the synthesized feature vector is also searched and optimized within a set range in order to better meet the varying requirements set by many practical applications and classifiers. The new features generated by the proposed synthesis approach are compared with typical low-level audio features in several classification and retrieval tasks. The results demonstrate a clear improvement of up to 15–20% in average retrieval performance. Moreover, the proposed synthesis technique surpasses the synthesis performance of evolutionary artificial neural networks , exhibiting a considerable capability to accurately distinguish among different audio classes.
    Keywords: Content-based retrieval ; Evolutionary computation ; Particle swarm optimization ; Feature selection ; Feature generation
    E-ISSN: 1687-4722
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  • 4
    In: International Journal of Cancer, 01 July 2016, Vol.139(1), pp.112-121
    Description: Increased inflammatory cell infiltration correlates to improved survival in colorectal cancer (CRC). Development and progression of CRC is associated with alterations in serum cytokine levels but their significance is not well defined. In this study, we investigated the relationships between the serum levels of 13 cytokines and the densities of eight types of tumor infiltrating inflammatory cells and their impact on disease‐free survival (DFS), cancer‐specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) in a prospectively recruited group of 147 CRC patients. There were strong positive correlations between the serum concentrations of different cytokines, as well as between the different types of tumor infiltrating immune cells, whereas the associations between serum cytokines and tumor infiltrating immune cells were generally weak. High serum IL‐12 levels associated with increased densities of peritumoral CD8 T cells, intraepithelial CD3 T cells and intratumoral neutrophils, while high serum CCL4 levels associated with increased densities of peritumoral CD68 cells. In multivariate survival models, increased infiltration of intraepithelial CD3 T cells and increased serum CCL4 associated with improved DFS, whereas higher intratumoral CD83 dendritic cell density and increased serum interferon gamma levels associated with improved CSS and OS. Also high density of peritumoral CD3 T cells associated with improved CSS. In conclusion, serum cytokines and tumor infiltrating immune cells in CRC represent entities with high intragroup correlations but relatively weak intergroup correlations. The results suggest that tumor infiltrating CD3 T cells, CD83 dendritic cells, serum CCL4 and serum interferon gamma represent relevant markers of disease outcome. What's new? Increased inflammatory cell infiltration correlates to improved survival in colorectal cancer (CRC). On the other hand, development and progression of CRC is associated with alterations in serum cytokine levels but their significance is not well defined. Here, the authors evaluated the interrelationships and clinical impact of tumor infiltrating immune cells and serum cytokines in CRC. The results indicate that serum cytokines and tumor infiltrating immune cells in CRC represent entities with high intra‐group correlations but relatively weak inter‐group correlations. The analyses reveal several potentially clinically relevant prognostic markers, including CD3 T cells, CD83 dendritic cells, serum CCL4, and serum IFNγ.
    Keywords: Colorectal Cancer ; Serum ; Cytokine ; T Cell ; Dendritic Cell
    ISSN: 0020-7136
    E-ISSN: 1097-0215
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: British journal of cancer, July 2018, Vol.119(2), pp.213-219
    Description: Matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) is a protease mainly expressed by neutrophils that cleaves numerous substrates, including collagens and cytokines. We have previously shown that serum MMP-8 levels increase in colorectal cancer (CRC) and correlate with distant metastasis. However, short follow-up in our prospective cohort did not enable survival analyses at the time of the first publication. Preoperative serum MMP-8 levels were measured by immunofluorometric assay in 271 CRC patients and related to clinicopathological parameters, markers of systemic inflammation (modified Glasgow Prognostic Score, mGPS; serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin and 13 cytokines), the density of six types of tumour-infiltrating immune cells and survival. Increased MMP-8 levels associated with higher mGPS and higher serum levels of CRP and several cytokines, including IL-1ra, IL-7 and IL-8 (p 100 ng/mL) had poor cancer-specific survival, independent of tumour stage, grade, lymphatic invasion, patient age, BRAF VE1 immunohistochemistry, mismatch repair deficiency, Immunoscore and mGPS (multivariate HR 2.12, 95% CI 1.21-3.71, p = 0.009). High-serum MMP-8 levels are associated with systemic inflammation and adverse outcome in CRC.
    Keywords: Biomarkers, Tumor -- Blood ; Colorectal Neoplasms -- Blood ; Inflammation -- Blood ; Matrix Metalloproteinase 8 -- Blood
    ISSN: 00070920
    E-ISSN: 1532-1827
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Sci Rep, 2018, Vol.8(1), pp.1126-1126
    Description: Anemia is common in colorectal cancer (CRC) but its relationships with tumor characteristics, systemic inflammation, and survival have not been well characterized. In this study, blood hemoglobin levels and erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume (MCV) levels were measured in two independent cohorts of 148 CRC patients and 208 CRC patients, and their correlation with patient and tumor characteristics, systemic inflammatory markers (modified Glasgow Prognostic Score: mGPS; serum levels of thirteen cytokines, C-reactive protein, albumin), and survival were analyzed. We found that anemia, most frequently normocytic, followed by microcytic, was present in 43% of the patients. Microcytic anemia was most commonly associated with proximal colon tumor location. Average MCV and blood hemoglobin levels were lower in tumors with high T-class. Low blood hemoglobin associated with systemic inflammation, including high mGPS and high serum levels of C-reactive protein and IL-8. Particularly, normocytic anemia associated with higher mGPS. Normocytic anemia associated with a tendency towards worse overall survival (multivariate hazard ratio 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.07–2.42, p = 0.023; borderline statistical significance considering multiple hypothesis testing). In conclusion, anemia in CRC patients is most frequently normocytic. Proximal tumor location is associated with predominantly microcytic anemia and systemic inflammation is associated with normocytic anemia.
    Keywords: Article;
    ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Scientific reports, 07 November 2016, Vol.6, pp.36519
    Description: Deficiency of vitamin D is associated with increased risk of several types of cancer including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, factors contributing to low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in CRC are not clear. Therefore, in this study serum 25(OH)D levels in 117 CRC patients and 86 controls were analyzed and correlated with the clinicopathological data including morphological subtype (serrated or conventional), quantity of tumor infiltrating immune cells, levels of systemic inflammatory markers, and disease outcome. We found that the patients had lower serum 25(OH)D levels compared to the controls. Interestingly, among the patients mismatch repair deficiency, serrated morphology, and high body mass index associated with lowest serum 25(OH)D levels. In addition, patients operated in summer or autumn had higher serum 25(OH)D levels. Furthermore, serum 25(OH)D levels inversely correlated with several systemic inflammatory markers, e.g. serum C reactive protein, but did not associate with prognosis. Mechanism leading to vitamin D deficiency in these patients are not clear but could be related to the effects of systemic inflammation. Longitudinal studies are warranted to assess vitamin D deficiency as a potential risk factor for serrated colorectal polyps and adenocarcinoma.
    Keywords: Colorectal Neoplasms -- Blood ; Inflammation -- Blood ; Vitamin D -- Analogs & Derivatives ; Vitamin D Deficiency -- Blood
    E-ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Computers in Entertainment (CIE), 01 December 2010, Vol.8(3), pp.1-30
    Description: We present a multimodal media center interface designed for blind and partially sighted people. It features a zooming focus-plus-context graphical user interface coupled with speech output and haptic feedback. A multimodal combination of gestures, key input, and speech input is utilized to interact with the interface. The interface has been developed and evaluated in close cooperation with representatives from the target user groups. We discuss the results from longitudinal evaluations that took place in participants' homes, and compare the results to other pilot and laboratory studies carried out previously with physically disabled and nondisabled users.
    Keywords: Gestures ; Accessibility ; Digital Television ; Haptic Feedback ; Media Center ; Speech Recognition ; Speech Synthesis ; Computer Science
    E-ISSN: 1544-3574
    E-ISSN: 15443981
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the 15th international conference on human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services, 27 August 2013, pp.137-146
    Description: The spreading of mobile devices to all areas of everyday life impacts many contexts of use, including cars. Even though driving itself has remained relatively unchanged, there are now a wide variety of new in-car tasks, which people perform with both integrated infotainment systems and their mobile devices. To gain insights into this new task context and how it could be improved, we conducted a qualitative, contextual study in which we observed real-life car journeys with eight participants. The focus was on user interaction with touchscreen mobile devices, due to their wide range of functions and services. The findings show that the car is an extension of other contexts and it contains a rich set of infotainment tasks, including use of social media. Drivers emphasized gesture interaction and the use of non-visual modalities, for replacing visual information and notifying of changes in the driving context. Based on the findings, we present design implications for future in-car infotainment systems.
    Keywords: Contextual Inquiry ; Design Implications ; in-Car Infotainment ; Mobile Devices ; Computer Science
    ISBN: 9781450322737
    ISBN: 1450322735
    Source: ACM Digital Library (Association for Computing Machinery)
    Source: KESLI (ACM Digital Library)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: British journal of cancer, January 2019, Vol.120(2), pp.238-246
    Description: Cancer cachexia is a complex wasting syndrome affecting patients with advanced cancer, with systemic inflammation as a key component in pathogenesis. Protein degradation and release of amino acids (AAs) in skeletal muscle are stimulated in cachexia. Here, we define factors contributing to serum AA levels in colorectal cancer (CRC). Serum levels of nine AAs were characterised in 336 CRC patients and their relationships with 20 markers of systemic inflammatory reaction, clinicopathological features of cancers and patient survival were analysed. Low serum glutamine and histidine levels and high phenylalanine levels associated with indicators of systemic inflammation, including high modified Glasgow Prognostic Score, high blood neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and high serum levels of CRP, IL-6 and IL-8. Low levels of serum glutamine, histidine, alanine and high glycine levels also associated with advanced cancer stage and with poor cancer-specific survival in univariate analysis. In CRC, serum AA levels are associated with systemic inflammation and disease stage. These findings may reflect muscle catabolism induced by systemic inflammation in CRC.
    Keywords: Amino Acids -- Blood ; Biomarkers, Tumor -- Blood ; Colorectal Neoplasms -- Blood ; Cytokines -- Blood ; Inflammation -- Blood
    ISSN: 00070920
    E-ISSN: 1532-1827
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