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  • 1
    Keywords: Water Resources Research
    ISSN: 14391783
    Source: DataCite
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, November 2015, Vol.138, pp.856-862
    Description: Equilibrium sampling can be applied to measure freely dissolved concentrations ( ) of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) that are considered effective concentrations for diffusive uptake and partitioning. It can also yield concentrations in lipids at thermodynamic equilibrium with the sediment ( ) by multiplying concentrations in the equilibrium sampling polymer with lipid to polymer partition coefficients. We have applied silicone coated glass jars for equilibrium sampling of seven ‘indicator’ polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment samples from ten locations along the River Elbe to measure of PCBs and their . For three sites, we then related to lipid-normalized PCB concentrations ( ) that were determined independently by the German Environmental Specimen Bank in common bream, a fish species living in close contact with the sediment: (1) In all cases, were below , (2) there was proportionality between the two parameters with high values (0.92–1.00) and (3) the slopes of the linear regressions were very similar between the three stations (0.297; 0.327; 0.390). These results confirm the close link between PCB bioaccumulation and the thermodynamic potential of sediment-associated HOCs for partitioning into lipids. This novel approach gives clearer and more consistent results compared to conventional approaches that are based on total concentrations in sediment and biota-sediment accumulation factors. We propose to apply equilibrium sampling for determining bioavailability and bioaccumulation potential of HOCs, since this technique can provide a thermodynamic basis for the risk assessment and management of contaminated sediments.
    Keywords: Equilibrium Sampling ; Sediment ; Bioaccumulation ; Polychlorinated Biphenyl (Pcb) ; River Elbe ; Freely Dissolved Concentration (Cfree) ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Sciences Europe, 2018, Vol.30(1), pp.1-9
    Description: Background Chemical quality of sediment and suspended particulate matter (SPM) is usually assessed by total chemical concentrations ( C total ). However, the freely dissolved concentration ( C free ) is the ecologically more relevant parameter for bioavailability, diffusion and bioaccumulation. In recent studies, equilibrium sampling has been applied to determine C free of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in the sediment pore water, whereas such data are missing for SPM. We applied solid-phase micro-extraction to measure and compare C free of PAHs and PCBs in pore water of sediments and SPM sampled along the German part of the river Elbe. Moreover, site-specific distribution ratios were evaluated and C bio,lipid was predicted using C free . Results C free of PAHs remained largely constant while C free of PCBs varied along the Elbe River. The highest C total of PCBs and PAHs were found at Prossen (km 13) and Meißen (km 96). PCB C total even exceeded the environmental quality standard for sediment and SPM in Prossen. Site-specific distribution ratios ( K D ) revealed a stronger sorption for PAHs compared to PCBs, indicating a higher availability of PCBs. Equilibrium partitioning concentrations in lipids ( C lip↔sed ) showed a high correlation with actually measured lipid-normalised concentrations ( C bio,lipid ) in bream. This indicates that PCB bioaccumulation in this benthic fish species is closely linked to the sediment contamination. Conclusions In rivers, SPM functions as a transportation vehicle for HOCs along the stream until it eventually deposits to the sediment. This study demonstrates that due to weaker sorption of PAHs and PCBs to the SPM this matrix poses a higher risk to the aquatic environment compared to the sediment. The prediction of C bio,lipid of PCBs was correct and shows that solid-phase micro-extraction is highly suited to predict lipid concentration, and thus a valuable tool for risk-assessment or sediment management. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12302-018-0159-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Keywords: Passive sampling ; SPME ; C free ; HOCs ; SPM ; Sediment ; Elbe River
    ISSN: 2190-4707
    E-ISSN: 2190-4715
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  • 4
    In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, December 2016, Vol.35(12), pp.2987-2997
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/etc.3482/abstract Byline: Arne Haegerbaeumer, Sebastian Hoss, Kai Ristau, Evelyn Claus, Christel Mohlenkamp, Peter Heininger, Walter Traunspurger Abstract Soft sediments are often hotspots of chemical contamination, and a thorough ecotoxicological assessment of this habitat can help to identify the causes of stress and to improve the health of the respective ecosystems. As an important component of the ecologically relevant meiobenthic fauna, nematodes can be used for sediment assessments, with various assay tools ranging from single-species toxicity tests to field studies. In the present study, microcosms containing sediment were used to investigate direct and indirect effects of zinc on natural nematode assemblages, and acute community toxicity tests considering only direct toxicity were conducted. The responses of the various freshwater nematode species in both approaches were compared with those of Caenorhabditis elegans, determined in standardized tests (ISO 10872). At a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 20mgZn/L, C. elegans represented the median susceptibility of 15 examined nematode species examined in the acute community toxicity tests. In the microcosms, Zn affected the nematodes dose-dependently, with changes in species composition first detected at 13mgZn/kg to 19mgZn/kg sediment dry weight. The observed species sensitivities in the microcosms corresponded better to field observations than to the results of the acute community toxicity tests. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2987-2997. [c] 2016 SETAC Supporting information: Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article This article includes online-only Supplemental Data. CAPTION(S): Supporting Information.
    Keywords: Sediment Toxicity ; Microcosms ; Caenorhabditis Elegans ; Nematodes ; Zinc
    ISSN: 0730-7268
    E-ISSN: 1552-8618
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 06 September 2016, Vol.50(17), pp.9708-16
    Description: In chronic toxicity tests with Caenorhabditis elegans, it is necessary to feed the nematode with bacteria, which reduces the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree) of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs), leading to poorly defined exposure with conventional dosing procedures. We examined the efficacy of passive dosing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using silicone O-rings to control exposure during C. elegans toxicity testing and compared the results to those obtained with solvent spiking. Solid-phase microextraction and liquid-liquid extraction were used to measure Cfree and the chemicals taken up via ingestion. During toxicity testing, Cfree decreased by up to 89% after solvent spiking but remained constant with passive dosing. This led to a higher apparent toxicity on C. elegans exposed by passive dosing than by solvent spiking. With increasing bacterial cell densities, Cfree of solvent-spiked PAHs decreased while being maintained constant with passive dosing. This resulted in lower apparent toxicity under solvent spiking but an increased apparent toxicity with passive dosing, probably as a result of the higher chemical uptake rate via food (CUfood). Our results demonstrate the utility of passive dosing to control Cfree in routine chronic toxicity testing of HOCs. Moreover, both chemical uptake from water or via food ingestion can be controlled, thus enabling the discrimination of different uptake routes in chronic toxicity studies.
    Keywords: Caenorhabditis Elegans ; Toxicity Tests, Chronic
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, July 2012, Vol.31(7), pp.1525-1535
    Description: A ring test was carried out within the standardization process of ISO 10872 to evaluate the precision of the toxicity test for the nematode . Eight different laboratories tested aqueous solutions of the reference substance benzylcetyldimethylammonium chloride as well as native sediments and soils for toxic effects on the growth and reproduction of . Validity criteria were met in all laboratories. Average median‐ and low‐effect concentrations were determined to be 15.1 mg L (EC50) and 8.7 mg L (EC10) for growth and 7.5 mg L (EC50) and 3.8 mg L (EC10) for reproduction of , with ECx values showing a high degree of reproducibility (CV: 〈21% and 〈11% for EC10 and EC50, respectively) and repeatability (CV: 〈20% and 〈7% for EC10 and EC50, respectively). The toxic effects of the sediments and soils revealed by the different laboratories were well related to each samples' degree of chemical contamination. Moreover, the effects showed an acceptable reproducibility (CV: 5–33% and 0–28% for growth and reproduction, respectively) and repeatability (CV: 3–13% and 0–12% for growth and reproduction, respectively). The present study confirms that the toxicity test with according to ISO 10872 is a reliable and precise tool to assess the toxicity of aqueous media, freshwater sediments, and soils. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2012; 31: 1525–1535. © 2012 SETAC
    Keywords: Caenorhabditis Elegans ; Sediment Toxicity Test ; Soil Toxicity Test ; Ring Test ; Iso 10872
    ISSN: 0730-7268
    E-ISSN: 1552-8618
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Water research, 15 December 2019, Vol.167, pp.115090
    Description: The recent emergence of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (AR) in the aquatic environment emphasizes the relevance and impact of aquatic exposure pathways during rodent control. Pest control in municipal sewer systems of urban and suburban areas is thought to be an important emission pathway for AR to reach wastewater and municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), respectively. To circumstantiate that AR will enter streams via effluent discharges and bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms despite very low predicted environmental emissions, we conducted a retrospective biological monitoring of fish tissue samples from different WWTP fish monitoring ponds exclusively fed by municipal effluents in Bavaria, Germany. At the same time, information about rodent control in associated sewer systems was collected by telephone survey to assess relationships between sewer baiting and rodenticide residues in fish. In addition, mussel and fish tissue samples from several Bavarian surface waters with different effluent impact were analyzed to evaluate the prevalence of anticoagulants in indigenous aquatic organisms. Hepatic AR residues were detected at 12 out of 25 WWTP sampling sites in the low μg/kg range, thereof six sites with one or more second-generation AR (i.e., brodifacoum, difenacoum, bromadiolone). 14 of 18 surveyed sites confirmed sewer baiting with AR and detected hepatic residues matched the reported active ingredients used for sewer baiting at six sites. Furthermore, second-generation AR were detected in more than 80% of fish liver samples from investigated Bavarian streams. Highest total hepatic AR concentrations in these fish were 9.1 and 8.5 μg/kg wet weight, respectively and were observed at two riverine sampling sites characterized by close proximity to upstream WWTP outfalls. No anticoagulant residues were found in fish liver samples from two lakes without known influences of effluent discharges. The findings of our study clearly show incomplete removal of anticoagulants during conventional wastewater treatment and confirm exposure of aquatic organisms via municipal effluents. Based on the demonstrated temporal and spatial coherence between sewer baiting and hepatic AR residues in effluent-exposed fish, sewer baiting in combined sewer systems contributes to the release of active ingredients into the aquatic environment.
    Keywords: Bioaccumulation ; Biocides ; Monitoring ; Pbt-Substances ; Sewer Baiting ; Wastewater Treatment
    ISSN: 00431354
    E-ISSN: 1879-2448
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 8
    Description: Abstract Background Chemical quality of sediment and suspended particulate matter (SPM) is usually assessed by total chemical concentrations (Ctotal). However, the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree) is the ecologically more relevant parameter for bioavailability, diffusion and bioaccumulation. In recent studies, equilibrium sampling has been applied to determine Cfree of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in the sediment pore water, whereas such data are missing for SPM. We applied solid-phase micro-extraction to measure and compare Cfree of PAHs and PCBs in pore water of sediments and SPM sampled along the German part of the river Elbe. Moreover, site-specific distribution ratios were evaluated and Cbio,lipid was predicted using Cfree. Results Cfree of PAHs remained largely constant while Cfree of PCBs varied along the Elbe River. The highest Ctotal of PCBs and PAHs were found at Prossen (km 13) and Meißen (km 96). PCB Ctotal even exceeded the environmental quality standard for sediment and SPM in Prossen. Site-specific distribution ratios (KD) revealed a stronger sorption for PAHs compared to PCBs, indicating a higher availability of PCBs. Equilibrium partitioning concentrations in lipids (Clip↔sed) showed a high correlation with actually measured lipid-normalised concentrations (Cbio,lipid) in bream. This indicates that PCB bioaccumulation in this benthic fish species is...
    Keywords: Biochemistry ; Space Science ; Environmental Sciences Not Elsewhere Classified ; Chemical Sciences Not Elsewhere Classified ; Ecology ; Sociology ; Biological Sciences Not Elsewhere Classified ; Cancer ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: DataCite
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  • 9
    Description: Additional file 1: Table S1. Biometric data and information on the tissue treatment of the sampled fish. Table S2. Sampling stations in the German part of the River Elbe including the station name, river km, matrix (sediment or suspended particulate matter (SPM)), the geographical position (latitude, longitude) and the sampler. Sediment samples were collected in July and SPM in September 2014. Table S3. Ctotal of seven PCBs in sediment samples from the River Elbe in µg kg−1 (dw). Table S4. Ctotal of PAHs in sediment samples from the River Elbe in µg kg−1 (dw). Table S5. Ctotal of seven PCBs in SPM samples from the River Elbe in µg kg−1 (dw). Table S6. Ctotal of PAHs in SPM samples from the River Elbe in µg kg−1 (dw). Table S7. Cfree of PCBs in sediment samples from the River Elbe in pg L−1. Table S8. Cfree of PAHs in sediment samples from the River Elbe in pg L−1. Table S9. Cfree of PCBs in SPM samples from the River Elbe in pg L−1. Table S10. Cfree of PAHs in SPM samples from the River Elbe in pg L−1....
    Keywords: Space Science ; Environmental Sciences Not Elsewhere Classified ; Chemical Sciences Not Elsewhere Classified ; Ecology ; Biological Sciences Not Elsewhere Classified ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: DataCite
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  • 10
    Description: Abstract Background Chemical quality of sediment and suspended particulate matter (SPM) is usually assessed by total chemical concentrations (Ctotal). However, the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree) is the ecologically more relevant parameter for bioavailability, diffusion and bioaccumulation. In recent studies, equilibrium sampling has been applied to determine Cfree of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in the sediment pore water, whereas such data are missing for SPM. We applied solid-phase micro-extraction to measure and compare Cfree of PAHs and PCBs in pore water of sediments and SPM sampled along the German part of the river Elbe. Moreover, site-specific distribution ratios were evaluated and Cbio,lipid was predicted using Cfree. Results Cfree of PAHs remained largely constant while Cfree of PCBs varied along the Elbe River. The highest Ctotal of PCBs and PAHs were found at Prossen (km 13) and Meißen (km 96). PCB Ctotal even exceeded the environmental quality standard for sediment and SPM in Prossen. Site-specific distribution ratios (KD) revealed a stronger sorption for PAHs compared to PCBs, indicating a higher availability of PCBs. Equilibrium partitioning concentrations in lipids (Clip↔sed) showed a high correlation with actually measured lipid-normalised concentrations (Cbio,lipid) in bream. This indicates that PCB bioaccumulation in this benthic fish species is...
    Keywords: Biochemistry ; Space Science ; Environmental Sciences Not Elsewhere Classified ; Chemical Sciences Not Elsewhere Classified ; Ecology ; Sociology ; Biological Sciences Not Elsewhere Classified ; Cancer ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: DataCite
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