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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, 13 March 2013, Vol.135(10), pp.3964-70
    Description: Described herein is the enantioselective synthesis of multisubstituted biaryl derivatives by chiral phosphoric acid catalyzed asymmetric bromination. Two asymmetric reactions (desymmetrization and kinetic resolution) proceeded successively to afford chiral biaryls in excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee). Both experimental and computational studies suggested that this excellent selectivity could be achieved via a highly organized hydrogen bond network among a substrate, a catalyst (chiral phosphoric acid), and a brominating reagent (N-bromophthalimide).
    Keywords: Hydrocarbons, Aromatic -- Chemical Synthesis ; Phosphoric Acids -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00027863
    E-ISSN: 1520-5126
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 15 May 2012, Vol.111(10)
    Description: Evidence is given for the mechanism of hole-trap-related random telegraph noise (RTN) in reverse-biased junction leakage current occurring in the off-state of sub-micron scaled metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). It was found that such RTN in junction leakage current, namely, variable junction leakage (VJL), is induced by applying hole-accumulation bias to the gate of the MOSFET. This result indicates that a hole captured in the gate oxide near the silicon surface influences the channel surface potential and causes fluctuation in generation-recombination (g-r) current generated at interface states. The fluctuation in g-r current is observed as VJL. It was also found that occurrence rate of VJL increases under hot-carrier stress. On the basis of these results, a model for VJL that can more concretely explain the mechanism of VJL quantitatively was developed.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Radiological Physics and Technology, 2015, Vol.8(1), pp.146-152
    Description: Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is a new contrast enhancement approach for imaging exogenous or endogenous substances such as creatine (Cr), amide protons, and glutamate in the human body. An increase in field strength is beneficial for CEST imaging because of the increased chemical shift and longer longitudinal relaxation time (T 1 ). In high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), establishing and evaluating the CEST effect is important for optimizing the magnetization transfer (MT) saturation radio frequency (RF) pulses. In this study, the CEST effect on Cr was evaluated at different concentrations in pH phantoms by appropriately selecting MT saturation RF pulses using 11.7 T MRI. The results showed that the CEST efficiency increased gradually with increasing applied saturation RF pulse power and that it was affected by the number of saturation RF pulses and their bandwidths. However, spillover effects were observed with higher saturation RF pulse powers. In conclusion, we successfully performed in vitro Cr CEST imaging under optimized conditions of MT saturation RF pulses.
    Keywords: Chemical exchange saturation transfer ; Creatine ; Magnetization transfer ; Spillover effect
    ISSN: 1865-0333
    E-ISSN: 1865-0341
    E-ISSN: 19326203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, July 5, 2013, Vol.436(3), p.455(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.05.126 Byline: Nozomi Akimoto, Masataka Ifuku, Yuki Mori, Mami Noda Abstract: acents CCR8, a specific receptor for CCL-1, was expressed on primary cultured microglia. acents Expression of CCR-8 in microglia was upregulated in the presence of CCL-1. acents CCL-1 increased motility, proliferation and phagocytosis of cultured microglia. acents CCL-1promoted BDNF and IL-6 mRNA, and the release of NO from microglia. acents CCL-1 activates microglia and may contribute to the development of neuropathic pain. Article History: Received 23 May 2013
    Keywords: Rna;
    ISSN: 0006-291X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 01 January 2010, Vol.107(1)
    Description: A random telegraph noise in submicron metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) has been found, and the noise fluctuation is examined in detail to clarify the mechanism causing it. This fluctuation, named variable junction leakage (VJL), was observed in the leakage current that occurred at a p - n junction in MOSFETs. We measured the temperature and bias dependences of the VJL in detail, and measured some VJLs in samples fabricated with different process conditions. We found that the activation energy of the fluctuation amplitude in VJL varied from 0.3 to 0.7 eV among the samples and that the fluctuation amplitude of VJL increased as the electric field increased at a junction in a MOSFET. These results support the model that regards VJL as the dynamic fluctuation in Shockley–Read–Hall current or trap-assisted-tunneling current. We suggest the possibility that the origin of VJL is a fluctuation in the trap energy level or capture cross section of a defect. These results provide fresh insight into defects in silicon.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Sensors & Actuators: B. Chemical, April, 2013, Vol.180, p.8(6)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2011.10.080 Byline: Taizo Kobayashi (a), Akira Akazawa (b), Yuki Mori (b), Yutaro Furuno (b), Satoshi Konishi (c) Keywords: Pyrolyzed polymer; Lift-off transfer Abstract: We present a novel process for the lift-off transfer of a pyrolyzed polymer onto a low thermal tolerance substrate. Pyrolyzed polymer is a promising carbon material for applications of electrochemical bio-sensors. However, it is difficult to form pyrolyzed polymer on low thermal tolerance substrates because annealing temperatures greater than 600[degrees]C are necessary to transform dielectric polymers to conductive carbon materials. From a practical viewpoint, it is essential to form metal patterns such as Au electrodes with the transferred pyrolyzed polymer. Therefore, we propose a process for the transfer of the Au/pyrolyzed polymer combined layer. The materials and the thickness of the barrier layer, parameters of the post-annealing process, and surface activation are investigated to ensure successful transfer using the proposed process. Because it became possible to transfer pyrolyzed polymer even onto heat workable polymer substrates such as cyclic olefin polymer films, the developed technology can be employed in lab-on-a-chip applications such as biosensors on polymer based microfluidic chips. Author Affiliation: (a) Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization, 1-1-1 Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan (b) Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan (c) Department of Micro System Technology, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan Article History: Received 9 August 2011; Revised 23 October 2011; Accepted 31 October 2011
    Keywords: Microfluidics ; Polymers
    ISSN: 0925-4005
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 26 November 2018, Vol.57(48), pp.15792-15796
    Description: The development of hydrogen fuel cells is greatly hindered by the unwanted generation of HO at the cathode. A non‐Pt cathode catalyst is now shown to be capable of simultaneously reducing both O and HO, thus rendering HO a useful part of the feed stream. The applicability of this unique catalyst is demonstrated by employing it in a fuel cell running on H/CO and O/HO. : The development of hydrogen fuel cells is greatly hindered by the unwanted generation of HO at the cathode. A non‐Pt cathode catalyst is now shown to be capable of simultaneously reducing both O and HO, thus rendering HO a useful part of the feed stream. The applicability of this unique catalyst is demonstrated by employing it in a fuel cell running on H/CO and O/HO.
    Keywords: Electrocatalysis ; Fuel Cells ; Hydrogen Peroxide ; Nickel ; Ruthenium
    ISSN: 1433-7851
    E-ISSN: 1521-3773
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Inorganic chemistry, 20 June 2011, Vol.50(12), pp.5389-95
    Description: We synthesized polycrystalline pristine and Pr(3+)-doped perovskites La(1/3)MO(3) (M = Nb, Ta):Pr(3+) and investigated their crystal structure, optical absorption, and luminescence properties. The optical band gap of La(1/3)NbO(3) (3.2 eV) is smaller than that of La(1/3)TaO(3) (3.9 eV), which is primarily due to the difference in electronegativity between Nb and Ta. In La(1/3)NbO(3):Pr(3+), the red emission assigned to the f-f transition of Pr(3+) from the excited (1)D(2) level to the ground (3)H(4) state upon band gap photoexcitation (near-UV) was observed, whereas the f-f transition of Pr(3+) with blue-green emission from the excited (3)P(0) level to the ground (3)H(4) state was quenched. On the other hand, in La(1/3)TaO(3):Pr(3+), the blue-green emission upon band gap photoexcitation was observed. Their differences in emission behavior are attributed to the energy level of the ground and excited states of 4f(2) for Pr(3+), relative to the energy levels of the conduction and valence bands, and the trapped electron state, which mediates the relaxation of electron from the conduction band to the excited state of Pr(3+). La(1/3)NbO(3):Pr(3+) is a candidate red phosphor utilizing near-UV LED chips (e.g., λ = 375 nm) as an excitation source.
    Keywords: Crystal Structure -- Structure ; Perovskite -- Spectra ; Perovskite -- Structure ; Photoluminescence -- Analysis ; Praseodymium -- Spectra ; Praseodymium -- Structure;
    ISSN: 00201669
    E-ISSN: 1520-510X
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Physiology & Behavior, 18 January 2012, Vol.105(2), pp.536-543
    Description: We evaluated the effect of plasma hyperosmolality on behavioral thermoregulation in mice, using a new experimental system. The system consisted of Plexiglas box (dimensions: 50 × 12 × 19 cm) with five computer-controlled Peltier boards (dimensions: 10 × 10 cm) at the bottom. Experiments were conducted in two different settings of the system. An operant behavior setting: each board was first set to 39 °C, and the right-end board was changed to 20 °C for 1 min when a mouse moved to a specific position. A temperature mosaic setting: each board was randomly set to 15 °C, 22 °C, 28 °C, 35 °C, or 39 °C with a 6-min interval, but each board temperature was different from the others at a given time point. Mice were injected subcutaneous (s.c.) isotonic or hypertonic saline (154 mM (IS group) or 2,500 mM (HS group), 10 ml/kg body wt), and exposed to either setting for 90 min. In the operant setting, the HS group showed fewer operant behavior counts than the IS group (11 ± 5 and 25 ± 4 counts, respectively; P 〈 0.05) with greater increase in body temperature (1.6 ± 0.4 °C vs. 0.0 ± 0.2 °C, respectively; P 〈 0.05). In the mosaic setting, the HS group selected the board temperature of 35 °C more frequently than the other temperatures (P 〈 0.05) with the same increase in body temperature. These results may suggest that plasma hyperosmolality modulates behavioral thermoregulatory response to heat and induce regulated hyperthermia.
    Keywords: Heat ; Thermal Preference ; Temperature Gradient ; Temperature Mosaic ; Operant Behavior ; Anatomy & Physiology ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0031-9384
    E-ISSN: 1873-507X
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, Nov 1, 2015, Vol.796, p.73(4)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jorganchem.2014.09.025 Byline: Takahiro Matsumoto, Tatsuya Ando, Yuki Mori, Takeshi Yatabe, Hidetaka Nakai, Seiji Ogo Abstract: We report the synthesis and characterization of a [mu]-hydroxo NiRu complex as a model for the active site of (Ni-SIr).sub.I of [NiFe]hydrogenase. This is the first example of the (Ni-SIr).sub.I model with a bridging hydroxo ligand between dimetal centers and an available coordination site on Ni center cis to the bridging hydroxo ligand. We have determined the structure of the (Ni-SIr).sub.I model complex by X-ray analysis and reported reversible switching between the catalytically inactive (Ni-SIr).sub.I and a catalytically active (Ni-SIr).sub.II models. Author Affiliation: (a) Center for Small Molecule Energy, Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan (b) Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan (c) International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan Article History: Received 26 August 2014; Revised 18 September 2014; Accepted 20 September 2014 Article Note: (dedication) Dedicated to Professor Georg Suss-Fink on the occasion of his 65th birthday.
    ISSN: 0022-328X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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