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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2018, Vol.190(12), pp.1-16
    Description: This research has developed mathematical models for computing lifetime greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with materials. The models include embodied carbon (EC) emissions from the manufacture of materials, and GHG emissions from incineration, or landfill gas (LFG) production from landfill disposal of the material beyond their service lives. The models are applicable to all materials; however, their applications here are demonstrated for the lumber from a residential building with 50- and 100-year service lives, and with incineration, landfill, and deconstruction as end-of-life treatments. This paper introduces a new metric for lifetime GHG emissions associated with materials termed “Global Warming Impact of Materials (GWIM).” The GWIM is subdivided into two portions: (i) productive portion (GWIM p ) that includes the materials’ emissions until the service life of the facility and (ii) non-productive portion (GWIM np ) which includes the materials’ GHG emissions beyond the service life until they are eliminated from the atmosphere. In place of the current, static, EC measurements (kgCO 2 e or MTCO 2 e), this model reports the GWIMs in units of kgCO 2 e-years or MTCO 2 e-years, which includes the effects of “time of use” of a facility. Using the models, this paper has computed GHG reductions by deconstruction, with material recoveries of 30%, 50%, and 70% at demolition for reuse, recycle, or repurpose. A 70% material recovery, after a 50-year service life of the building, affected a savings of 47% and 52% if the remaining 30% debris was incinerated or landfilled respectively. All of the values computed using models checked out with manual calculations.
    Keywords: Global warming ; Global warming potential (GWP) ; Building materials ; Deconstruction ; Mathematical modeling ; Global Warming Impact of Materials (GWIM)
    ISSN: 0167-6369
    E-ISSN: 1573-2959
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Biochemistry, 23 December 2003, Vol.42(50), pp.14893-902
    Description: The 170 kDa glucose-regulated protein (grp170) is an endoplasmic reticulum resident protein that shares some sequence homology with both the hsp70 and hsp110 heat shock protein (hsp) families, yet is representative of a third and unique family of stress proteins. Despite observations indicating important roles in normal cellular functions, the in vitro chaperone properties of grp170 have not been rigorously examined. We have cloned mouse grp170 and expressed the recombinant protein in a baculovirus expression system. The function of recombinant grp170 was then assessed by determining its ability to bind to and prevent aggregation of heat-denatured luciferase. Grp170 maintains heat-denatured luciferase in a soluble state in the absence of ATP. In the presence of rabbit reticulocyte lysate, grp170 can refold and partially restore function to denatured luciferase. The chaperoning function of grp170 was also studied using domain deletion mutants, designed using the crystal structure of DnaK and the theoretical secondary structure of hsp110 as guides. Unlike hsp70 and hsp110, grp170 appears to have two domains capable of binding denatured luciferase and inhibiting its heat-induced aggregation. The two domains were identified as being similar to the classical beta-sandwich peptide binding domain and the C-terminal alpha-helical domain in hsp70 and hsp110. The ability of the C-terminal region to bind peptides is a unique feature of grp170.
    Keywords: Multigene Family ; Antigens, Neoplasm -- Physiology ; Glycoproteins -- Physiology ; Hsp70 Heat-Shock Proteins -- Physiology ; Molecular Chaperones -- Physiology
    ISSN: 0006-2960
    E-ISSN: 15204995
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of bacteriology, July 2013, Vol.195(13), pp.2971-81
    Description: As an opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa must be able to adapt and survive changes and stressors in its environment during the course of infection. To aid survival in the hostile host environment, P. aeruginosa has evolved defense mechanisms, including the production of an exopolysaccharide capsule and the secretion of a myriad of degradative proteases and lipases. The production of outer membrane-derived vesicles (OMVs) serves as a secretion mechanism for virulence factors as well as a general bacterial response to envelope-acting stressors. This study investigated the effect of sublethal physiological stressors on OMV production by P. aeruginosa and whether the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) and the MucD periplasmic protease are critical mechanistic factors in this response. Exposure to some environmental stressors was determined to increase the level of OMV production as well as the activity of AlgU, the sigma factor that controls MucD expression. Overexpression of AlgU was shown to be sufficient to induce OMV production; however, stress-induced OMV production was not dependent on activation of AlgU, since stress caused increased vesiculation in strains lacking algU. We further determined that MucD levels were not an indicator of OMV production under acute stress, and PQS was not required for OMV production under stress or unstressed conditions. Finally, an investigation of the response of P. aeruginosa to oxidative stress revealed that peroxide-induced OMV production requires the presence of B-band but not A-band lipopolysaccharide. Together, these results demonstrate that distinct mechanisms exist for stress-induced OMV production in P. aeruginosa.
    Keywords: Cell Membrane -- Metabolism ; Pseudomonas Aeruginosa -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 1098-5530
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 2016, Vol.78(6), pp.1189-1217
    Description: Whilst the human body expends energy constantly, the human diet consists of a mix of carbohydrates and fats delivered in a discontinuous manner. To deal with this sporadic supply of energy, there are transport, storage and utilisation mechanisms, for both carbohydrates and fats, around all tissues of the body. Insulin-resistant states such as type 2 diabetes and obesity are characterised by reduced efficiency of these mechanisms. Exactly how these insulin-resistant states develop, for example whether there is an order in which tissues become insulin resistant, is an active area of research with the hope of gaining a better overall understanding of insulin resistance. In this paper, we use a previously derived system of 12 first-order coupled differential equations that describe the transport between, and storage in, different tissues of the human body. We briefly revisit the derivation of the model before parametrising the model to account for insulin resistance. We then solve the model numerically, separately simulating each individual tissue as insulin resistant, and discuss and compare these results, drawing three main conclusions. The implications of these results are in accordance with biological intuition. First, insulin resistance in a tissue creates a knock-on effect on the other tissues in the body, whereby they attempt to compensate for the reduced efficiency of the insulin-resistant tissue. Second, insulin resistance causes a fatty liver, and the insulin resistance of tissues other than the liver can cause fat to accumulate in the liver. Finally, although insulin resistance in individual tissues can cause slightly reduced skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility, it is when the whole body is insulin resistant that the biggest effect on skeletal muscle flexibility is seen.
    Keywords: Multicompartmental modelling ; Metabolic flexibility ; Insulin resistance
    ISSN: 0092-8240
    E-ISSN: 1522-9602
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of infectious diseases, 15 February 2009, Vol.199(4), pp.513-21
    Description: Acinetobacter baumannii is a bacterial pathogen of increasing medical importance. Little is known about genes important for its survival in vivo. Screening of random transposon mutants of the model pathogen AB307-0294 identified the mutant AB307.27. AB307.27 contained its transposon insertion in pbpG, which encodes the putative low-molecular-mass penicillin-binding protein 7/8 (PBP-7/8). AB307.27 was significantly killed in ascites (P〈.001), but its growth in Luria-Bertani broth was similar to that of its parent, AB307-0294 (P=.13). The survival of AB307.27 was significantly decreased in a rat soft-tissue infection model (P〈.001) and a rat pneumonia model (P=.002), compared with AB307-0294. AB307.27 was significantly killed in 90% human serum in vitro, compared with AB307-0294 (P〈.001). Electron microscopy demonstrated more coccobacillary forms of AB307.27, compared with AB307-0294, suggesting a possible modulation in the peptidoglycan, which may affect susceptibility to host defense factors. These findings demonstrate that PBP-7/8 contributes to the pathogenesis of A. baumannii. PBP-7/8 either directly or indirectly contributes to the resistance of AB307-0294 to complement-mediated bactericidal activity. An understanding of how PBP-7/8 contributes to serum resistance will lend insight into the role of this low-molecular-mass PBP whose function is poorly understood.
    Keywords: Acinetobacter Infections -- Immunology ; Acinetobacter Baumannii -- Growth & Development ; Penicillin-Binding Proteins -- Physiology
    ISSN: 0022-1899
    E-ISSN: 15376613
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Bacteriology, Dec, 2008, Vol.190(23-24), p.8053(12)
    Description: The recent emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in Acinetobacter baumannii has raised concern in health care settings worldwide. In order to understand the repertoire of resistance determinants and their organization and origins, we compared the genome sequences of three MDR and three drug-susceptible A. baumannii isolates. The entire MDR phenotype can be explained by the acquisition of discrete resistance determinants distributed throughout the genome. A comparison of closely related MDR and drug-susceptible isolates suggests that drug efflux may be a less significant contributor to resistance to certain classes of antibiotics than inactivation enzymes are. A resistance island with a variable composition of resistance determinants interspersed with transposons, integrons, and other mobile genetic elements is a significant but not universal contributor to the MDR phenotype. Four hundred seventy-five genes are shared among all six clinical isolates but absent from the related environmental species Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. These genes are enriched for transcription factors and transporters and suggest physiological features of A. baumannii that are related to adaptation for growth in association with humans.
    Keywords: Microbial Drug Resistance -- Genetic Aspects ; Bacillus -- Genetic Aspects ; Bacillus -- Physiological Aspects ; Bacterial Genetics -- Research
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: British Journal of Psychiatry, 03/1963, Vol.109(459), pp.206-210
    Description: The literature concerning this rare syndrome, alternatively known as maladie des tics, has been mainly descriptive since it was first mentioned by Itard (1825) and later by Gilles de la Tourette (1885 and 1899). Its nature remains in doubt, and until recently it has been believed to be a progressive condition inevitably ending in psychosis or pursuing a chronic course.
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0007-1250
    E-ISSN: 1472-1465
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 8
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: British Journal of Psychiatry, 07/1963, Vol.109(461), pp.586-586
    ISSN: 0007-1250
    E-ISSN: 1472-1465
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines (JPP), 02/2001, Vol.05(02), pp.105-129
    ISSN: 1088-4246
    E-ISSN: 1099-1409
    Source: Wiley (via CrossRef)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Research in Microbiology, November 2012, Vol.163(9-10), pp.607-618
    Description: Microbes have evolved over millennia to become adapted and specialized to the environments that they occupy. These environments may include water or soil, extreme environments such as hydrothermal vents, and can even include a host organism. To become adapted to these locations, microbes have evolved specific tools to mediate interactions with the environment. One such tool that prokaryotes have evolved includes the production of membrane vesicles (MVs). MVs are 10–300 nm spherical blebs derived from the outermost membrane and have known functions in protein secretion, immune activation and suppression, stress response, attachment, internalization and virulence. In this review, we consider the highly conserved role of membrane vesicles derived from Gram-negative, Gram-positive and archaeal species as a mechanism to facilitate intermicrobial and microbe-host interaction. We examine both the offensive and defensive capabilities of MVs in regard to the interaction of MVs with both host and microbial cells in their environment.
    Keywords: Omv ; Mv ; Bacterial Pathogenesis ; Archaea ; Biofilm ; Antimicrobial Resistance ; Envelope Stress Response ; Biology
    ISSN: 0923-2508
    E-ISSN: 1769-7123
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