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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Oct, 2013, Vol.65, p.144(14)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.05.023 Byline: Maha Chalhoub, Patricia Garnier, Yves Coquet, Bruno Mary, Francois Lafolie, Sabine Houot Abstract: Regular application of composts on cropped soils has been shown to restore soil organic matter contents. The effect of repeated applications of three urban composts on the nitrogen (N) dynamics in a cropped loamy soil was compared to farmyard manure application and a control receiving no amendment. Each amendment application brought on average 250-400 kg ha.sup.-1 of total N. After five applications, total organic N increased in amended soils from 9 to 27% compared to control and the increase of soil organic N corresponded to 32-79% of total N brought by the amendments. The PASTIS model was used to describe the N balance in the soil-plant system during the 2 years after a sixth amendment application and provided correct predictions of N dynamics in cropped plots. The N availability increased in all treatments receiving organic amendments. The N availability in the soils amended with urban composts or manure was predominantly driven by the biodegradability of the organic amendments, their mineral N content and by the cropping conditions. Composts with high biodegradability exhibited higher proportion of N recovery by plants (21% for the municipal solid waste compost) during the year following their application, while more stabilised composts (biowaste compost, co-compost of sludge and green wastes) increased the N availability mainly through the increase of soil organic N content and mineralisation after several compost applications (6-8% of the soil organic N increase). Mature composts behaved comparably to FYM, except that for FYM very little N from the last application was available. Regular compost applications equivalent to 200 kg N ha.sup.-1 every other year could increase N availability for crops of 50-70 kg N ha.sup.-1 over the 2 years of the crop rotation. However, the most stabilised composts led to a higher crop N recovery but also to potential higher amounts of leached N compared to less mature composts. Author Affiliation: (a) INRA, UMR 1091 INRA-AgroParisTech Environnement et Grandes Cultures, F-78850 Thiverval Grignon, France (b) AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 INRA-AgroParisTech Environnement et Grandes Cultures, F-78850 Thiverval Grignon, France (c) INRA, US 1158 Agro-Impact, F-02000 Barenton Bugny, France (d) INRA, UMR1114 INRA-UAPV EMMAH, F-84914 Avignon, France Article History: Received 17 October 2012; Revised 19 May 2013; Accepted 20 May 2013
    Keywords: Loams -- Technology Application ; Cropping Systems -- Technology Application ; Municipal Solid Wastes -- Usage ; Municipal Solid Wastes -- Technology Application
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Renewable Energy, April 2017, Vol.103, pp.295-307
    Description: A simple model is proposed to describe transient heat and moisture transfer in the soil under moderate climates to predict near surface ground temperatures using a minimum set of variables and easily accessible weather data. The model is computationally efficient enough to allow for multi-year simulations of shallow ground heat exchangers. It uses a realistic representation of the interactions between the main processes occurring at the soil surface and the heat and moisture dynamics in the soil including the influence of water content on soil thermal properties. The model has been tested against soil temperature measurements taken at different depths (from 0.06 to 1.5 m) on a grass-covered site. Measurements, including meteorological data, were recorded with a time step of 10 min for one year. It is shown that the agreement between soil temperatures predicted by the proposed model and measurements is relatively good for either dry or rainy conditions. Average errors are between +0.47 and + 1.63 °C. Furthermore, this study shows that a proper account of the soil surface cover and site-specific soil properties is necessary to obtain accurate soil temperature predictions.
    Keywords: Heat Transfer ; Shallow Ground Heat Exchanger ; Energy Balance ; Soil Temperature ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0960-1481
    E-ISSN: 1879-0682
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, October 2013, Vol.65, pp.144-157
    Description: Regular application of composts on cropped soils has been shown to restore soil organic matter contents. The effect of repeated applications of three urban composts on the nitrogen (N) dynamics in a cropped loamy soil was compared to farmyard manure application and a control receiving no amendment. Each amendment application brought on average 250–400 kg ha of total N. After five applications, total organic N increased in amended soils from 9 to 27% compared to control and the increase of soil organic N corresponded to 32–79% of total N brought by the amendments. The PASTIS model was used to describe the N balance in the soil-plant system during the 2 years after a sixth amendment application and provided correct predictions of N dynamics in cropped plots. The N availability increased in all treatments receiving organic amendments. The N availability in the soils amended with urban composts or manure was predominantly driven by the biodegradability of the organic amendments, their mineral N content and by the cropping conditions. Composts with high biodegradability exhibited higher proportion of N recovery by plants (21% for the municipal solid waste compost) during the year following their application, while more stabilised composts (biowaste compost, co-compost of sludge and green wastes) increased the N availability mainly through the increase of soil organic N content and mineralisation after several compost applications (6–8% of the soil organic N increase). Mature composts behaved comparably to FYM, except that for FYM very little N from the last application was available. Regular compost applications equivalent to 200 kg N ha every other year could increase N availability for crops of 50–70 kg N ha over the 2 years of the crop rotation. However, the most stabilised composts led to a higher crop N recovery but also to potential higher amounts of leached N compared to less mature composts.
    Keywords: Nitrogen Mineralisation ; Compost ; Pastis Model ; Long-Term ; Organic Matter Stability ; Field Experiment ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Soil biology & biochemistry, 2013, Vol.65, pp.144-157
    Description: Regular application of composts on cropped soils has been shown to restore soil organic matter contents. The effect of repeated applications of three urban composts on the nitrogen (N) dynamics in a cropped loamy soil was compared to farmyard manure application and a control receiving no amendment. Each amendment application brought on average 250–400 kg ha⁻¹ of total N. After five applications, total organic N increased in amended soils from 9 to 27% compared to control and the increase of soil organic N corresponded to 32–79% of total N brought by the amendments. The PASTIS model was used to describe the N balance in the soil-plant system during the 2 years after a sixth amendment application and provided correct predictions of N dynamics in cropped plots. The N availability increased in all treatments receiving organic amendments. The N availability in the soils amended with urban composts or manure was predominantly driven by the biodegradability of the organic amendments, their mineral N content and by the cropping conditions. Composts with high biodegradability exhibited higher proportion of N recovery by plants (21% for the municipal solid waste compost) during the year following their application, while more stabilised composts (biowaste compost, co-compost of sludge and green wastes) increased the N availability mainly through the increase of soil organic N content and mineralisation after several compost applications (6–8% of the soil organic N increase). Mature composts behaved comparably to FYM, except that for FYM very little N from the last application was available. Regular compost applications equivalent to 200 kg N ha⁻¹ every other year could increase N availability for crops of 50–70 kg N ha⁻¹ over the 2 years of the crop rotation. However, the most stabilised composts led to a higher crop N recovery but also to potential higher amounts of leached N compared to less mature composts. ; p. 144-157.
    Keywords: Crop Rotation ; Long Term Effects ; Municipal Solid Waste ; Manure Spreading ; Organic Soils ; Loam Soils ; Sludge ; Prediction ; Biodegradability ; Soil Organic Matter ; Nitrogen ; Models ; Nitrogen Content ; Composted Manure ; Crops ; Mineralization ; Green Waste ; Animal Manures
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2013, Vol.13(7), pp.1284-1300
    Description: Byline: Maha Chalhoub (1), Laurence Amalric (1), Solene Touze (1), Pierre Galle (1), Pascal E. Reiller (2), NoA〈〈lle Doucet (3), Blandine Clozel (1), Philippe Bataillard (1) Keywords: Partition coefficient; PCB; Resuspension; Field-aged contaminated sediment; Suspended particulate matter Abstract: Purpose Remobilization of polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediments by anthropogenic activities (e.g. dredging) or natural flow conditions could lead to the release of PCBs into the water column and consequently increase the availability of PCBs to benthic organisms. The fate of the released PCBs following such events is not well understood and such knowledge is necessary for the management of contaminated sediments. The objective of this study was to understand the processes that control the fate of PCBs following remobilization of field-aged contaminated sediments. Materials and methods Sediments contaminated with PCBs collected from Lake Bourget (Savoie, France) were resuspended in a column experiment. The relationships between physical--chemical parameters--i.e. suspended particulate matter, pH, inorganic and organic carbon content, redox-sensitive species and the concentrations of dissolved PCBs both in the water column and in the interstitial water of the sediment--were investigated so as to determine the key processes controlling PCB fate. Results and discussion Following the simulated resuspension event (SRE), dissolved PCBs were found in much higher concentrations in the water column than under stationary conditions. Desorption of PCBs from the sediment depended on the degree of the hydrophobicity of the PCBs and the initial PCB content in the sediment. Principal component analysis showed that the variations in the concentrations of released PCBs over time and space closely followed those of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and not those of redox conditions. The partitioning behaviour of PCBs on SPM showed that equilibrium state was not attained within 40 days following the SRE. A particle size fractionation study, before and after remobilization of the sediment, showed the presence of PCBs in every fraction of the sediment, but with higher amounts in large particles with high organic matter content and in the finest fractions. Remobilization of contaminated sediment did not affect this distribution profoundly but a significant enrichment in PCBs of the clay-sized fraction was observed in the re-settled sediment. Conclusions Sediment resuspension induced non-equilibrium conditions in the water column for more than 5 weeks and led to the enrichment with PCBs of the newly formed surface bed sediment. This enrichment was due to the preferential re-sorption of PCBs on clay-sized particles during the SRE and to the physical segregation and accumulation of the less dense particles at the surface of the sediment column such particles thought to be the principal carriers of contaminants. These changes concerned 〈0.05 % of the total PCB content. Author Affiliation: (1) BRGM, 3 Avenue C. Guillemin, BP 36009, 45060, Orleans, France (2) Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, LANIE, Bat 391 PC 33, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX, France (3) ARTELIA, 6 Rue Lorraine, BP 218, 38130, Echirolles, France Article History: Registration Date: 12/03/2013 Received Date: 27/02/2012 Accepted Date: 12/03/2013 Online Date: 09/05/2013 Article note: Responsible editor: Trudy J. Estes Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s11368-013-0683-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Keywords: Partition coefficient ; PCB ; Resuspension ; Field-aged contaminated sediment ; Suspended particulate matter
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 1614-7480
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 2018, Vol.6 Article 226
    Description: For the last 20 years, the concept of ecosystem has constituted one of the key pillars on which the study of “ecosystem services,” i.e., the benefits that human populations derive from nature, has been based. Yet, at this stage, one could argue that, in general and especially in fields related...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Natural Capital ; Assessment ; Ecosystem Services ; Sustainability ; Sustainable Development ; Nature Valuation ; Ecology
    ISSN: 2296-701X
    E-ISSN: 2296-701X
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  • 7
    Language: French
    Description: This research aimed at evaluating the effect of repeated application of different types of urban composts on the dynamics of water and nitrogen (N) in a cultivated loamy soil. We conducted a field study to quantify the impact of compost on soil water dynamics, solute transport and nitrogen...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Agricultural Sciences ; Soil Study ; Urban Composts ; Loamy Soil ; Dynamics of Water ; Modeling Water and Nitrogen ; Nitrogen Availability for Plants ; Composts Urbains ; Sol Limoneux ; Dynamique Hydrique Du Sol ; Modélisation de La Dynamique de L'Eau et de L'Azote ; Minéralisation Des Composts ; Disponibilité de L'Azote Pour La Plante
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Vadose Zone Journal, 2013, Vol.12(1), pp.1-11
    Description: Urban waste compost additions to soil can increase soil organic matter content and improve soil physical conditions, leading to agronomic and environmental benefits. The need for information still exists to evaluate more precisely the effects of urban waste compost on soil physical properties....
    Keywords: Sciences of the Universe ; Continental Interfaces, Environment ; Environmental Sciences ; Global Changes ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1539-1663
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: World Geothermal Congress 2015, 19 April 2015
    Description: Prediction of soil thermal regime is still a difficult task for design of ground-coupled heat pump system units (GCHP). A Field experiment was carried out to study the near-surface and moisture transport effects on soil temperature distribution. Energy balance components at the soil surface...
    Keywords: Physics ; Mechanics ; Thermics ; Sciences of the Universe ; Earth Sciences ; Climatology ; Sciences of the Universe ; Earth Sciences ; Hydrology ; Life Sciences ; Agricultural Sciences ; Soil Study ; Energy Balance ; Heat Transfer ; Soil Moisture ; Shallow Ground Heat Exchanger ; Physics
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: European Geothermal Congress : EGC 2016, September 2016
    Description: A test facility for closed-loop shallow ground heat exchangers has been implemented in Orléans (France) in 2008. Different configurations have been tested and evaluated, beginning with the traditional horizontal and vertical ground heat exchangers. For five years, a special attention has been...
    Keywords: Engineering Sciences ; Mechanics ; Thermics ; Compact Coil Ground Heat Exchanger ; Experimental Setup ; Heat Transfer
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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