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  • 1
    In: International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications, 2010, pp.276-281
    Description: The quantity of heavy and polymeric compounds produced in the industrial reactor is the most important problem of 1-butene plants that leads to the fouling formation and shutting down of the pertinent reactor. Accordingly, a systematic study has been made of the Ti catalyzed dimerization...
    Keywords: Titanium ; Reactors ; Tea ; Dimerization ; Byproducts ; Ethylene ; Selectivity ; Optimization ; Miscellaneous Sciences (So) ; Chemical and Electrochemical Properties (Ep) ; Chemical and Electrochemical Properties (Ed) ; Chemical and Electrochemical Properties (EC) ; Ethylene Dimerization ; Vicinal Halide ; Promoter ; Heavy and Polymeric Compounds;
    ISSN: 20100221
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 2
    In: Nature, 2014
    Description: Intracellular ISG15 is an interferon (IFN)-[alpha]/[beta]-inducible ubiquitin-like modifier which can covalently bind other proteins in a process called ISGylation; it is an effector of IFN-[alpha]/[beta]-dependent antiviral immunity in mice (1-4). We previously published a study describing humans with inherited ISG15 deficiency but without unusually severe viral diseases (5). We showed that these patients were prone to mycobacterial disease and that human ISG15 was non-redundant as an extracellular IFN-[gamma]-inducing molecule. We show here that ISG15-deficient patients also display unanticipated cellular, immunological and clinical signs of enhanced IFN-[alpha]/[beta] immunity, reminiscent of the Mendelian autoinflammatory interferonopathies Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome and spondyloenchondrodysplasia (6-9). We further show that an absence of intracellular ISG15 in the patients' cells prevents the accumulation of USP18 (10,11), a potent negative regulator of IFN-[alpha]/[beta] signalling, resulting in the enhancement and amplification of IFN-[alpha]/[beta] responses. Human ISG15, therefore, is not only redundant for antiviral immunity, but is a key negative regulator of IFN-[alpha]/[beta] immunity. In humans, intracellular ISG15 is IFN-[alpha]/[beta]-inducible not to serve as a substrate for ISGylation-dependent antiviral immunity, but to ensure USP18-dependent regulation of IFN-[alpha]/[beta] and prevention of IFN-[alpha]/[beta]-dependent autoinflammation.
    Keywords: Interferon Alpha – Physiological Aspects ; Interferon Alpha – Abnormalities ; Immunocompromised Host – Physiological Aspects ; Autoimmunity – Risk Factors;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Cleaner Production, 01 April 2018, Vol.179, pp.417-428
    Description: Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways, and approximately three million people around the world are suffering from this disease. It can become a serious problem for the public health if it is not controlled. Specialists consider vital upgrading self-managing plans to control this disease. The main component of these programs is to control asthma attacks. The attacks are affected by different variables including the environmental factors such as air pollutants and meteorological factors. In this article, we attempted to develop a tool to make the patients aware potentially dangerous areas and places in terms of asthma attacks and help them in better control of the disease by providing daily monitoring maps of asthma attacks based on environmental factors. On the other hand, development of the information technology tools and penetration of mobile health tools have changed fundamentally the design of asthma self-management interventions by removing the spatial and temporal restrictions. The tool that is available for the patient in any time and place can make the patient be aware of potential risks. The purpose of this article is to develop a Mobile GIS -based tool containing maps of monitoring asthma attacks based on environmental and local factors that will be generated using predictive algorithms. In fact, by developing this tool with an innovative and interdisciplinary approach, continuous self-management of asthma can be implemented more efficiently.
    Keywords: Asthma ; Gis ; Mobile Health ; Monitoring ; Decision Tree ; Self-Management ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0959-6526
    E-ISSN: 1879-1786
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2016, Vol.11(1), p.e0147976
    Description: Normal human breathing exhibits complex variability in both respiratory rhythm and volume. Analyzing such nonlinear fluctuations may provide clinically relevant information in patients with complex illnesses such as asthma. We compared the cycle-by-cycle fluctuations of inter-breath interval (IBI) and lung volume (LV) among healthy volunteers and patients with various types of asthma. Continuous respiratory datasets were collected from forty age-matched men including 10 healthy volunteers, 10 patients with controlled atopic asthma, 10 patients with uncontrolled atopic asthma, and 10 patients with uncontrolled non-atopic asthma during 60 min spontaneous breathing. Complexity of breathing pattern was quantified by calculating detrended fluctuation analysis, largest Lyapunov exponents, sample entropy, and cross-sample entropy. The IBI as well as LV fluctuations showed decreased long-range correlation, increased regularity and reduced sensitivity to initial conditions in patients with asthma, particularly in uncontrolled state. Our results also showed a strong synchronization between the IBI and LV in patients with uncontrolled asthma. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that nonlinear analysis of breathing pattern has a diagnostic value in asthma and can be used in differentiating uncontrolled from controlled and non-atopic from atopic asthma. We suggest that complexity analysis of breathing dynamics may represent a novel physiologic marker to facilitate diagnosis and management of patients with asthma. However, future studies are needed to increase the validity of the study and to improve these novel methods for better patient management.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, June 2015, Vol.135(6), pp.1558-1568.e2
    Description: Invasive infections of the central nervous system (CNS) or digestive tract caused by commensal fungi of the genus are rare and life-threatening. The known risk factors include acquired and inherited immunodeficiencies, with patients often displaying a history of multiple infections. Cases of meningoencephalitis, colitis, or both caused by species remain unexplained. We studied 5 previously healthy children and adults with unexplained invasive disease of the CNS, digestive tract, or both caused by species. The patients were aged 39, 7, 17, 37, and 26 years at the time of infection and were unrelated, but each was born to consanguineous parents of Turkish (2 patients), Iranian, Moroccan, or Pakistani origin. Meningoencephalitis was reported in 3 patients, meningoencephalitis associated with colitis was reported in a fourth patient, and the fifth patient had colitis only. Inherited caspase recruitment domain family, member 9 (CARD9) deficiency was recently reported in otherwise healthy patients with other forms of severe disease caused by , , , and species, including meningoencephalitis but not colitis caused by and species. Therefore we sequenced in the 5 patients. All patients were found to be homozygous for rare and deleterious mutant alleles: R70W and Q289* for the 3 patients with –induced meningoencephalitis, R35Q for the patient with meningoencephalitis and colitis caused by , and Q295* for the patient with –induced colitis. Regardless of their levels of mutant CARD9 protein, the patients' monocyte-derived dendritic cells responded poorly to CARD9-dependent fungal agonists (curdlan, heat-killed , , and ). Invasive infections of the CNS or digestive tract caused by species in previously healthy children and even adults might be caused by inherited CARD9 deficiency.
    Keywords: Inborn Error of Immunity ; Primary Immunodeficiency ; Invasive Fungal Diseases ; Inherited Card9 Deficiency ; Central Nervous System ; Colitis ; Candida Species ; Human ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0091-6749
    E-ISSN: 1097-6825
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2016, Vol.33(2), pp.423-437
    Description: A hybrid approach between the Taguchi method and grey relational analysis (GRA) with entropy measurement was applied to determine a single optimum setting for reaction factors of the proposed ethylene dimerization catalyst having overall selectivity to 1-butene (S 1- btn (%)) and turnover frequency (TOF (h -1 )) as multiple quality characteristics. Titanium tetrabutoxide (Ti(OC 4 H 9 ) 4 ) catalyst precursor in combination with triethyl aluminum (TEA) activator, 1,4-dioxane as a suitable modifier, and ethylene dichloride (EDC) as a novel promoter were used in the catalysis. Control factors of temperature, pressure, Al/Ti, 1,4-dioxane/Ti, and EDC/Ti mol ratios were investigated on three levels and their main effects were discussed. The effect of the binary interaction between temperature, pressure, and Al/Ti mol ratio was also examined. Weight of the responses was determined using entropy. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for data obtained from GRA indicated that EDC/Ti mol ratio with 27.64% contribution had the most profound effect on the multiple quality characteristics. Development of the weighted Grey-Taguchi method used the Taguchi method as its basic structure, adopted GRA to deal with multiple responses, and entropy to enhance the reasonability of the comprehensive index produced by GRA to make the results more objective and accurate. Overall, these combined mathematical techniques improved catalytic performance for 1-butene production.
    Keywords: Multi-objective Optimization ; Grey Relational Analysis ; Entropy Measurement ; Ethylene Dimerization ; EDC
    ISSN: 0256-1115
    E-ISSN: 1975-7220
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Chemical Engineering Communications, 02 December 2015, Vol.202(12), pp.1564-1576
    Description: A five-factor four-level Taguchi L 16 orthogonal design was used to determine optimized factors of the [titanium tetrabutoxide (Ti(OC 4 H 9 ) 4 )-triethyl...
    Keywords: Analysis of Variance ; Ethylene Dimerization ; Overall Yield of Reaction ; Promoter ; Taguchi Method ; Weight of Polymer ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0098-6445
    E-ISSN: 1563-5201
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Tanaffos, 2014, Vol.13(1), pp.35-42
    Description: Asthma is the most common, chronic, childhood disease. Its chronic nature and long-term treatment decrease the quality of life of children and significantly affect the family function. This study was conducted to assess the impact of family empowerment on the quality of life of school-aged children with asthma. This was a quasi-experimental study. Forty-five asthmatic children (7-11 years) and their parents referred to the Pediatric Asthma Clinic in Masih Daneshvari Hospital were selected using convenience sampling and were randomly divided into case (n = 14) and control (n = 16) groups. Data collection tools included a demographic information questionnaire and Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire with standardized activities (PAQLQ). The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were tested. The family empowerment program for the intervention group included lectures, group discussions and demonstration of educational films. The questionnaires were filled out pre- and post-test. There were no significant differences before the intervention between the test and control groups in terms of demographic characteristics and PAQLQ scores. While, independent t-test showed significant differences between the two groups in PAQLQ total score and the subscale scores before and after the intervention (P 〈 0.05). Paired t-test showed significant differences before and after the intervention in the case group in terms of PAQLQ total score and the subscale scores (P 〈 0.001). Considering the positive impact of of family empowerment program on the quality of life of school-aged children with asthma, this program is recommended for proper control and management of disease and decreasing the complications in asthmatic patients of all age groups.
    Keywords: Asthma ; Family Empowerment ; Quality of Life ; School-Aged Children
    ISSN: 1735-0344
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Tanaffos, January 2018, Vol.17(1), pp.47-52
    Description: Recent surveys have showed that asthma control still remains suboptimal. Family members have an extensive impact on the level of asthma control in school-age children. Family empowerment has a positive impact on the quality of life of school-age children with asthma. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of family empowerment on asthma control in school-age children. Forty-five children with asthma (6-12 years) and their parents were enrolled in a pediatric asthma clinic during their follow-up visits. The family empowerment program consisted of self-directed educational material, lectures (a nurse-focused format), group interaction (a learner-focused format), group discussions, and demonstration of educational films. The primary outcome was change in asthma control measured by the C-ACT questionnaire. In this study, 45 patients were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups: intervention (n=23) and control (n=22). Demographic variables including age and sex were not significantly different between the two groups. There were no significant differences in pre-test asthma control scores between the intervention and control groups at pre-test (p=0.82). However, there was a significant difference in asthma control scores between the intervention and control groups at post-test (p〈0.001). In the intervention group, in which children experienced family empowerment, asthma control scores were significantly higher at post-test compared to pre-test (p〈0.001). Family empowerment significantly improved asthma control in school-age pediatric patients. This program could be proposed for proper asthma control and complication-reducing management of the disease. This program is recommended more broadly for other age groups.
    Keywords: School-Age Children ; Asthma ; Control ; Family Empowerment
    ISSN: 1735-0344
    E-ISSN: 23453729
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology, 01 February 2013, Vol.9(2), pp.153-160
    Description: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder, characterized by defects in superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase of phagocytes. The genetic defects in CGD induce failure to activate the respiratory burst in the phagocytes, leading to severe recurrent infections and unexplained prolonged inflammatory reactions that may produce granulomatous lesions. A noble advance in curative therapy for CGD is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Since the most common site of involvement in CGD is the lung, the pulmonologists (pediatrics or adult) may be among the first to recognize the pattern of infection, inflammation and granuloma formation, leading to diagnosis of CGD. Pulmonologists need to be aware of different lung manifestations of CGD.
    Keywords: Chronic Granulomatous Disease ; Manifestation ; Pulmonary ; Radiology ; Treatment
    ISSN: 1744-666X
    E-ISSN: 1744-8409
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