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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, 15 February 2012, Vol.134(6), pp.2988-92
    Description: Large single crystals of LiFePO(4) have been chemically delithiated. The relevance of chemical oxidation in comparison with electrochemical delithiation is discussed. Analyses of the Li content and profiles were done by electron energy loss spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The propagation of the FePO(4) phase growing on the surface of the large single crystal was followed by in situ optical microscopy as a function of time. The kinetics were evaluated in terms of linear irreversible thermodynamics and found to be characterized by an induction period followed by parabolic growth behavior of the FePO(4) phase indicating transport control. The growth rate was shown to depend on the crystallographic orientation. Scanning electron microscopy images showed cracks and a high porosity of the FePO(4) layer due to the significant changes in the molar volumes. The transport was found to be greatly enhanced by the porosity and crack formation and hence greatly enhanced over pure bulk transport, a result which is supposed to be very relevant for battery research if coarse-grained powder is used.
    Keywords: Single-Crystal ; Chemical-Oxidation ; Magnetic-Induction ; Crack-Formation ; Electron-Energy-Loss-Spectrometry ; Optical-Microscopy ; Kinetics ; Thermodynamics ; Growth-Speed ; Electron-Microscopy ; Phase-Limit ; Lithium-Iron-Phosphate ; Iron-Phosphate ; Induction-Period ; Porosity ; Energy-Storage-Devices ; Monokristall ; Chemische Oxidation ; Induktion ; Rissausbildung ; Elektronenenergieverlustspektrometrie ; Optische Mikroskopie ; Kinetik ; Thermodynamik ; Wachstumsrate ; Elektronenmikroskopie ; Phasengrenze ; Lifepo4 ; Eisenphosphat ; Induktionsperiode ; Porosität ; Energiespeicher ; Chemistry;
    ISSN: 00027863
    E-ISSN: 1520-5126
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Comprehensive Psychiatry, May 2014, Vol.55(4), pp.818-825
    Description: This study aimed to describe, compare, and predict mental health outcomes of different migrant groups and native residents in Switzerland. Asylum seekers (n = 65); refugees holding permanent protection visas (n = 34); illegal migrants (n = 21); labor migrants (n = 26); and residents (n = 56) completed an assessment by questionnaire. Main outcome variables were symptoms of posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depression. It was tested whether resident status predicted psychopathology over and above the influence of control variables including social desirability, traumatic event types and post-migration resources. Asylum seekers (54.0%) and refugees (41.4%) fulfilled criteria of PTSD most frequently. Clinically relevant symptoms of anxiety and depression were most frequently reported by asylum seekers (84.6% and 63.1%, resp.) and illegal migrants (both 47.6%). Resident status contributed to psychopathology over and above the influence of control variables. Overall, asylum seekers, refugees, and illegal migrants showed high psychiatric morbidity. Differences in resident status appear to be specifically associated with mental health outcomes. This association persists even when controlling for social desirability, post-migration resources and traumatic events. This emphasizes the importance of current socio-political living conditions for mental health, even with respect to the psychopathological sequelae of past traumatic experiences.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0010-440X
    E-ISSN: 1532-8384
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  • 3
    In: Journal of Traumatic Stress, April 2013, Vol.26(2), pp.209-216
    Description: There are a limited number of epidemiological studies that have focused on trauma exposure and prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in representative general population samples of adolescents, especially outside of the United States. We therefore aimed to assess the lifetime prevalence of traumatic events (TEs) and current prevalence of PTSD, and to examine demographic risk factors for TEs and PTSD in a representative sample of adolescents. Data were collected by a school survey among a sample of 6,787 9th‐grade students in Switzerland. Roughly 56% of the adolescents (females 56.6%; males 55.7%) reported having experienced at least 1 TE. Non‐Swiss nationality ( = 1.80), not living with both biological parents ( = 1.64), and lower parental education ( = 1.18) were associated with a higher risk of trauma exposure. The current prevalence of PTSD according to the (4th ed., text rev.; ; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria was 4.2% (females 6.2%; males 2.4%). Female gender ( = 2.70), not living with both biological parents ( = 1.47), lower parental education ( = 1.51), and exposure to multiple TEs ( = 9.56) were significant risk factors for PTSD. Results suggest considerably high rates of TEs and PTSD among adolescents. Intervention efforts must be intensified to reduce trauma exposure and treat PTSD. 標題:孩童面對家長離世的HPA軸功能與心理及環境因素的關鍵:初步研究結果 撮要:本文檢視孩童喪親後HPA軸功能(包括皮質醇睡醒反應;CAR) 與心理困擾、應對、和另一尚存家長的悲傷反應之間的關係。樣本包括38名孩童(20名女童曾在過去6個月有家長離世)和28名尚存的孩童家長(23名女性),他們會接受自我答問工具和半結構面談,而面談包括討論孩童對喪親的想法及感受,面談後連續三日,受訪者會提供3個在家唾液樣本(睡醒時,30分鐘後和黃昏時)。結果顯示孩童第1天CAR減退與更多焦慮症狀(= ‐.45) 、 抑鬱症狀(= ‐.40) 、 創傷後壓力症狀(= ‐.45) 、不適應哀悼症狀(= ‐.43) 和迴避性應對水平(= ‐.53)有顯著關連。家長的更高不適應哀悼水平(= ‐.47) 亦與孩童第1天CAR減退有關連。這些數據突出了減弱的CAR可能是累積穩態負荷和(又或)情緒上刺激的事件(與死者相關的討論),及在家庭中相關的後續處理(或缺少處理)而導致的。這些可能對喪親兒童(已經歷高度心理困擾、迴避應對和家長的不適應哀悼)來說已是特別壓力。 标题:孩童面对家长离世的HPA轴功能与心理及环境因素的关键:初步研究结果 撮要:本文检视孩童丧亲后HPA轴功能(包括皮质醇睡醒反应;CAR) 与心理困扰、应对、和另一尚存家长的悲伤反应之间的关系。样本包括38名孩童(20名女童曾在过去6个月有家长离世)和28名尚存的孩童家长(23名女性),他们会接受自我答问工具和半结构面谈,而面谈包括讨论孩童对丧亲的想法及感受,面谈后连续三日,受访者会提供3个在家唾液样本(睡醒时,30分钟后和黄昏时)。结果显示孩童第1天CAR减退与更多焦虑症状(= ‐.45) 、 抑郁症状(= ‐.40) 、 创伤后压力症状(= ‐.45) 、不适应哀悼症状(= ‐.43) 和回避性应对水平(= ‐.53)有显著关连。家长的更高不适应哀悼水平(= ‐.47) 亦与孩童第1天CAR减退有关连。这些数据突出了减弱的CAR可能是累积稳态负荷和(又或)情绪上刺激的事件(与死者相关的讨论),及在家庭中相关的后续处理(或缺少处理)而导致的。这些可能对丧亲儿童(已经历高度心理困扰、回避应对和家长的不适应哀悼)来说已是特别压力。
    Keywords: Youth -- Surveys ; Youth -- Public Opinion ; Prevalence Studies (Epidemiology) -- Public Opinion ; Post-traumatic Stress Disorder -- Public Opinion;
    ISSN: 0894-9867
    E-ISSN: 1573-6598
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  • 4
    In: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2011, Vol.13(37), pp.16530-16533
    Description: The oxygen incorporation/extraction kinetics of the potential solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode material Bi 1 x Sr x FeO 3 with x = 0.5 and 0.8 was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on geometrically well-defined pore-free thin film electrodes. The oxygen exchange rate was found to be higher than that of La 1 x Sr x FeO 3 andamong cobalt-free perovskitesonly surpassed by Ba 1 x Sr x FeO 3 which is however known to be unstable in a SOFC environment.
    Keywords: Cathodes ; Deltas ; Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy ; Electrodes ; Extraction ; Physical Chemistry ; Solid Oxide Fuel Cells ; Thin Films ; Miscellaneous Sciences (So);
    ISSN: 1463-9076
    E-ISSN: 1463-9084
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: European Urology, 1990, Vol.17(3), pp.223-225
    Description: Because of the good results achieved with tamoxifen in the treatment of oligozoospermia and with kallikrein in the treatment of asthenozoospermia, a randomized study of the combined treatment of oligoasthenozoospermia suggested itself. 67 patients with idiopathic normogonadotropic oligoasthenozoospermia were treated with 30 mg tamoxifen/day (n = 33) or with 30 mg tamoxifen/day and additionally 600 IU kallikrein/day (n = 34). It was shown that, apart from a significant increase in sperm density in both groups, the combination therapy also resulted in an overall significant increase (p 〈 0.02) in sperm motility. Sperm morphology and the swell test remained unaffected. After 3 months of therapy, 4 pregnancies occurred in each group. In ejaculates with a sperm density of less than 10 million/ml not even one sperm parameter was significantly affected in any of the groups, while with an initial value of more than 10 million/ml the increase in motility was more significant (p 〈 0.008) in the group with additional kallikrein therapy (n = 18). In the monotherapy group, no significant therapeutic effect on sperm motility was seen even in patients with a sperm density of more than 10 million. The combination of tamoxifen and kallikrein therefore seems to constitute an improvement of the systemic therapy of male subfertility in patients with moderately severe oligoasthenozoospermia.
    Keywords: Clinical Papers ; Oligoasthenozoospermia ; Tamoxifen ; Kallikrein ; Combination Therapy ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0302-2838
    E-ISSN: 1873-7560
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Urology, 1997, Vol.158(3), pp.814-817
    Description: A retrospective study was done to analyze late urological complications following curative radiotherapy of primary gynecological carcinomas. All patients were treated at a single center and with the same radiotherapeutic regimen. The incidence of other carcinomas in these patients was also evaluated. A total of 10,709 patients was treated using combined telebrachytherapy (dosage 67.5 Gy.) during an observation period of 22 years. Severe late complications were seen in 1.24% (133 of 10,709) of the patients, including irradiated bladder (65 cases, mean interval since treatment 6.7 years), ureteral stenosis (33, mean 5.7 years) and urinary fistula (35, mean 2.7 years). Complications required surgery in 118 of 133 patients with a perioperative mortality of 4.2% (5 of 118). Overall in 4.27% (457 of 10,709) of the patients another malignancy developed after (29.1%), during (26.3%) and before (44.6%) radiotherapy. Subsequent malignancies after treatment were predominantly seen in the genital region (88.4%) but they were also in the irradiated nongenital area (0.13%, 14 of 10,709). Of the latter patients 6 had urothelial bladder cancer, which represents a relative risk of 4.66 (based on the Austrian female population) to develop bladder cancer after radiotherapy for gynecological cancer. Late urological complications after radiotherapy of the pelvis are rare but severe. Surgical therapy of irradiated tissues has a higher complication rate compared to surgery on nonirradiated tissue.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-5347
    E-ISSN: 1527-3792
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  • 7
    In: International Journal of Knowledge Management (IJKM), 2011, Vol.7(3), pp.11-26
    Description: The paper introduces a web-based eHealth platform currently being developed that will assist patients with certain chronic diseases. The ultimate aim is behavioral change. This is supported by online assessment and feedback which visualizes actual behavior in relation to target behavior. Disease-specific information is provided through an information portal that utilizes lightweight ontologies (associative networks) in combination with text mining. The paper argues that classical word-based information retrieval is often not sufficient for providing patients with relevant information, but that their information needs are better addressed by concept-based retrieval. The focus of the paper is on the semantic retrieval component and the learning of a lightweight ontology from text documents, which is achieved by using a biologically inspired neural network. The paper concludes with preliminary results of the evaluation of the proposed approach in comparison with traditional approaches.
    Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks -- Research ; Behavior Modification -- Research ; Information Storage And Retrieval -- Research ; Data Mining -- Research ; Ontology -- Research ; Information Systems -- Research;
    ISSN: 1548-0666
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: European Urology, 1996, Vol.30(4), pp.446-450
    Description: Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the clinical usefulness of a recently developed one-step dipstick test for rapid (10 min) and semiquantitative analysis of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The cutoff value of this semiquantitative dipstick test is 4.0 ng/ml. Methods: PSA levels of 238 serum samples were simultaneously determined by this dipstick test and by a ‘classic’ monoclonal antibody based PSA enzyme immunoassay. Interassay variations of the dipstick test were determined by repetitive analyses (n = 10) of three serum pools containing 1, 6, and 15 ng PSA/ml. Recovery studies with graded amounts of PSA were performed in normal sera (n = 5) as well as in those with elevated creatinine (n = 5) and bilirubin (n = 5) levels. Results: A total of 139 serum samples had PSA levels, determined by the enzyme immunoassay, 〈4.0 ng/ml; 132 (94.9%) of which were negative with the dipstick test, and 7 (5.1%) were false-positive. Samples with a PSA value 〈2.0 ng/ml (n = 102) were correctly recognized in 98.1% of the cases by the dipstick test. Serum samples with a PSA value of 4-10 ng/ml were false-negative in 10 of 41 cases (24.4%), the remaining (75.6%) were true positives. Samples containing PSA levels 〉 10 ng/ml (n = 58) were consistently positive. Hence, the overall concordance rate was 92.9%. Analyses of interassay variation of three pools of sera containing 1,6, and 15 ng PSA/ml revealed a high reproducibility of this test. Elevated levels of bilirubin and creatinine did not interfere with the dipstick test result. Conclusions: This semiquantitative one-step PSA test is capable of distinguishing serum PSA levels with a cutoff value of 4.0 ng/ml with an overall concordance rate of 92.9%. Advantages of this test are the cheap, simple, and fast test procedure, the avoidance of any instrumentation, and the fact that the results are available within 10 min.
    Keywords: Clinical Paper ; Dipstick Test ; Prostate Cancer ; Prostate-Specific Antigen ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0302-2838
    E-ISSN: 1873-7560
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: European Urology, 1994, Vol.26(3), pp.267-269
    Description: The case of a 23-year-old male with a solitary prostatic metastasis of a small cell lung cancer is reported. After diagnosis was established by ultrasound-guided transrectal biopsies and bronchial lavage, the patient received 7 cycles of polychemotherapy according to the AEO protocol. While the pulmonary tumour responded with a dramatic remission, the size of the prostatic metastasis remained unchanged. Subsequent radiotherapy to the prostate and pelvis (59 Gy) did not result in tumour reduction. Shortly thereafter, the patient developed polytopic métastasés and died 16 months after diagnosis. Even in a young male, the presence of a prostatic metastasis should be considered as a potential diagnosis if prostate biopsies are positive for a small cell carcinoma.
    Keywords: Case Report ; Small Cell Lung Cancer ; Prostatic Metastasis ; Chemotherapy ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0302-2838
    E-ISSN: 1873-7560
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Urology, 2002, Vol.168(6), pp.2531-2532
    Description: Byline: ANTON PONHOLZER, WERNER J. REITER, ULRICH MAIER Keywords: adenoma, oxyphilic; kidney neoplasms; kidney Author Affiliation: From the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Urological Oncology and Department of Urology, Danube Hospital, Vienna, Austria Article History: Accepted 21 June 2002
    Keywords: Adenoma, Oxyphilic ; Kidney Neoplasms ; Kidney ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-5347
    E-ISSN: 1527-3792
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