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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of bacteriology, November 2012, Vol.194(21), pp.6005
    Description: This report highlights the whole-genome shotgun draft sequence for a Streptococcus agalactiae strain representing multilocus sequence type (ST) 17, isolated from a colonized woman at 8 weeks postpartum. This sequence represents an important addition to the published genomes and will promote comparative genomic studies of S. agalactiae recovered from diverse sources.
    Keywords: Genome, Bacterial ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; DNA, Bacterial -- Chemistry ; Streptococcus Agalactiae -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 1098-5530
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Annals of Epidemiology, May 2016, Vol.26(5), pp.380-385
    Description: The intestinal microbiome is critical for human health and preventing colonization by enteric pathogens. There are notable differences in the microbiota composition among individuals with and without enteric infections, though the impact that age and gender has on the composition and abundance of intestinal microbes is not known. A comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing study was performed on stool DNA from 200 patients with enteric infections and 75 healthy family members representing both sexes and multiple age groups. Microbial community profiles were affected by age and sex in patients with enteric infections and their healthy family members. Overall, we observed an increase in abundance and decrease in abundance with age, though these differences were most apparent for patients with enteric infections. Genus was also higher in female communities while predominated in males. Because abundance was previously linked to symptom severity, children with enteric infections may be most susceptible to severe disease outcomes due to high and low abundance of and , respectively. Future studies should focus on classifying specific differences in the microbiome using metagenomics and identifying novel methods aimed at shifting the intestinal microbiome to a healthy state.
    Keywords: Diarrhea ; Microbiota ; 16s Rrna ; Medicine ; Public Health
    ISSN: 1047-2797
    E-ISSN: 1873-2585
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, November 2014, Vol.14(11), pp.1028-1030
    Description: Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis prevents the maternal transmission of group B streptococcus to babies;11 however, the findings by Bekker and colleagues3 provide additional support for the hypothesis that intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis variably affects group B streptococcus strains with distinct genetic backgrounds. [...]intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis is probably not sufficient to eradicate colonisation with clonal complex 17 strains from the female genitourinary tract, a key risk factor for both early-onset and late-onset infections.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Public Health
    ISSN: 1473-3099
    E-ISSN: 1474-4457
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Bacteriology, 2012, Vol. 194(11), p.3026
    Description: We report the draft genome sequences of the collection referred to as the Escherichia coli DECA collection, which was assembled to contain representative isolates of the 15 most common diarrheagenic clones in humans (http://shigatox.net/new/). These genomes represent a valuable resource to the community of researchers who examine these enteric pathogens. ; p. 3026-3027.
    Keywords: Clones ; Enteropathogens ; Nucleotide Sequences ; Humans ; Genome ; Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli;
    ISSN: 1098-5530
    ISSN: 10985530
    ISSN: 00219193
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(7), p.e41628
    Description: The emergence of novel pathogens poses a major public health threat causing widespread epidemics in susceptible populations. The Escherichia coli O104:H4 strain implicated in a 2011 outbreak in northern Germany caused the highest frequency of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and death ever recorded in a single E. coli outbreak. Therefore, it has been suggested that this strain is more virulent than other pathogenic E. coli (e.g., E. coli O157:H7). The E. coli O104:H4 outbreak strain possesses multiple virulence factors from both Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing E. coli (STEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), though the mechanism of pathogenesis is not known. Here, we demonstrate that E. coli O104:H4 produces a stable biofilm in vitro and that in vivo virulence gene expression is highest when E. coli O104:H4 overexpresses genes required for aggregation and exopolysaccharide production, a characteristic of bacterial cells residing within an established biofilm. Interrupting exopolysaccharide production and biofilm formation may therefore represent effective strategies for combating future E. coli O104:H4 infections.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Genetics And Genomics ; Infectious Diseases ; Microbiology ; Molecular Biology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Applied and environmental microbiology, October 2014, Vol.80(20), pp.6395-402
    Description: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections are a critical public health concern because they can cause severe clinical outcomes, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome, in humans. Determining the presence or absence of virulence genes is essential in assessing the potential pathogenicity of STEC strains. Currently, there is limited information about the virulence genes carried by swine STEC strains; therefore, this study was conducted to examine the presence and absence of 69 virulence genes in STEC strains recovered previously from finishing swine in a longitudinal study. A subset of STEC strains was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to examine their genetic relatedness. Swine STEC strains (n = 150) were analyzed by the use of a high-throughput real-time PCR array system, which included 69 virulence gene targets. Three major pathotypes consisted of 16 different combinations of virulence gene profiles, and serotypes were determined in the swine STEC strains. The majority of the swine STEC strains (n = 120) belonged to serotype O59:H21 and carried the same virulence gene profile, which consisted of 9 virulence genes: stx2e, iha, ecs1763, lpfAO113, estIa (STa), ehaA, paa, terE, and ureD. The eae, nleF, and nleH1-2 genes were detected in one swine STEC strain (O49:H21). Other genes encoding adhesins, including iha, were identified (n = 149). The PFGE results demonstrated that swine STEC strains from pigs raised in the same finishing barn were closely related. Our results revealed diverse virulence gene contents among the members of the swine STEC population and enhance understanding of the dynamics of transmission of STEC strains among pigs housed in the same barn.
    Keywords: Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia Coli -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00992240
    E-ISSN: 1098-5336
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2010, Vol.5(1), p.e8795
    Description: While Group B Streptococcus (GBS) human colonization and infection has long been suspected as originating from cows, several investigators have suggested that ongoing interspecies GBS transmission is unlikely due to genotyping data demonstrating that human and bovine-derived GBS strains represent mostly distinct populations. The possibility of ongoing transmission between humans and their livestock has not been systematically examined. ; To examine ongoing interspecies transmission, we conducted a prospective cross-sectional cohort study of 68 families and their livestock. Stool specimens were collected from 154 people and 115 livestock; GBS was detected in 19 (12.3%) humans and 2 (1.7%) animals (bovine and sheep). Application of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) identified 8 sequence types (STs or clones), with STs 1 and 23 predominating. There were 11 families in which two members submitted stools and at least one had GBS colonization. In 3 of these families, both members (consisting of couples) were colonized, yielding a co-colonization rate of 27% (95% CI: 7%–61%). Two of these couples had strains with identical MLST, capsule () genotype, susceptibility, and RAPD profiles. One couple co-colonized with ST-1 (5) strains also had a bovine colonized with the identical strain type. On multivariate analysis of questionnaire data, cattle exposure was a predictor of GBS colonization, with each unit increase in days of cattle exposure increasing the odds of colonization by 20% ( = 0.02). These results support interspecies transmission with additional evidence for transmission provided by the epidemiological association with cattle exposure. ; Although GBS uncommonly colonizes livestock stools, increased frequency of cattle exposure was significantly associated with human colonization and one couple shared the same GBS strains as their bovine suggesting intraspecies transmission. These results set the framework for GBS as a possible zoonotic infection, which has significant public health implications.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Genetics And Genomics -- Comparative Genomics ; Microbiology -- Medical Microbiology ; Infectious Diseases -- Epidemiology And Control Of Infectious Diseases ; Public Health And Epidemiology -- Epidemiology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2010, Vol.5(4), p.e10167
    Description: Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7, a food and waterborne pathogen, can be classified into nine phylogenetically distinct lineages, as determined by single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping. One lineage (clade 8) was found to be associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which can lead to kidney failure and death in some cases, particularly young children. Another lineage (clade 2) differs considerably in gene content and is phylogenetically distinct from clade 8, but caused significantly fewer cases of HUS in a prior study. Little is known, however, about how these two lineages vary with regard to phenotypic traits important for disease pathogenesis and in the expression of shared virulence genes. ; Here, we quantified the level of adherence to and invasion of MAC-T bovine epithelial cells, and examined the transcriptomes of 24 EHEC O157:H7 strains with varying Shiga toxin profiles from two common lineages. Adherence to epithelial cells was 〉2-fold higher for EHEC O157:H7 strains belonging to clade 8 versus clade 2, while no difference in invasiveness was observed between the two lineages. Whole-genome 70-mer oligo microarrays, which probe for 6088 genes from O157:H7 Sakai, O157:H7 EDL 933, pO157, and K12 MG1655, detected significant differential expression between clades in 604 genes following co-incubation with epithelial cells for 30 min; 186 of the 604 genes had a 〉1.5 fold change difference. Relative to clade 2, clade 8 strains showed upregulation of major virulence genes, including 29 of the 41 locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island genes, which are critical for adherence, as well as Shiga toxin genes and pO157 plasmid-encoded virulence genes. Differences in expression of 16 genes that encode colonization factors, toxins, and regulators were confirmed by qRT-PCR, which revealed a greater magnitude of change than microarrays. ; These findings demonstrate that the EHEC O157:H7 lineage associated with HUS expresses higher levels of virulence genes and has an enhanced ability to attach to epithelial cells relative to another common lineage.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Microbiology -- Cellular Microbiology And Pathogenesis ; Microbiology -- Environmental Microbiology ; Microbiology -- Microbial Evolution And Genomics
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 9
    In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2010, Vol. 76(1), p.60
    Description: Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains can be classified into different genotypes based on the presence of specific Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophage insertion sites. Certain O157:H7 genotypes predominate among human clinical cases (clinical genotypes), while others are more frequently found in bovines (bovine-biased genotypes). To determine whether inherent differences in gene expression explain the variation in infectivity of these genotypes, we compared the expression patterns of clinical genotype 1 strains with those of bovine-biased genotype 5 strains using microarrays. Important O157:H7 virulence factors, including locus of enterocyte effacement genes, the enterohemolysin, and several pO157 genes, showed increased expression in the clinical versus bovine-biased genotypes. In contrast, genes essential for acid resistance (e.g., gadA, gadB, and gadC) and stress fitness were upregulated in bovine-biased genotype 5 strains. Increased expression of acid resistance genes was confirmed functionally using a model stomach assay, in which strains of bovine-biased genotype 5 had a 2-fold-higher survival rate than strains of clinical genotype 1. Overall, these results suggest that the increased prevalence of O157:H7 illness caused by clinical genotype 1 strains is due in part to the overexpression of key virulence genes. The bovine-biased genotype 5 strains, however, are more resistant to adverse environmental conditions, a characteristic that likely facilitates O157:H7 colonization of bovines.
    Keywords: Engineering ; Biology ; Economics;
    ISSN: 0099-2240
    ISSN: 00992240
    E-ISSN: 10985336
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity, November 2014, Vol.82(11), pp.4587-95
    Description: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) causes severe disease in neonates, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. GBS species are highly diverse and can be classified by serotype and multilocus sequence typing. Sequence type 17 (ST-17) strains cause invasive neonatal disease more frequently than strains of other STs. Attachment and invasion of host cells are key steps in GBS pathogenesis. We investigated whether four serotype III strains representing ST-17 (two strains), ST-19, and ST-23 differ in their abilities to attach to and invade both decidual cells and lung epithelial cells. Virulence gene expression following host cell association and exposure to amnion cells was also tested. The ST-17 strains differed in their abilities to attach to and invade decidual cells, whereas there were no differences with lung epithelial cells. The ST-19 and ST-23 strains, however, attached to and invaded decidual cells less than both ST-17 strains. Although the ST-23 strain attached to lung epithelial cells better than ST-17 and -19 strains, none of the strains effectively invaded the lung epithelial cells. Notably, the association with host cells resulted in the differential expression of several virulence genes relative to basal expression levels. Similar expression patterns of some genes were observed regardless of cell type used. Collectively, these results show that GBS strains differ in their abilities to attach to distinct host cell types and express key virulence genes that are relevant to the disease process. Enhancing our understanding of pathogenic mechanisms could aid in the identification of novel therapeutic targets or vaccine candidates that could potentially decrease morbidity and mortality associated with neonatal infections.
    Keywords: Decidua -- Cytology ; Epithelial Cells -- Physiology ; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial -- Physiology ; Lung -- Cytology ; Streptococcus Agalactiae -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 1098-5522
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