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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Annals of internal medicine, 05 May 2009, Vol.150(9), pp.640-3
    Description: Approximately 1000 years ago, a physician by the name of Ibn Sina, known in the West as "Avicenna," wrote 7 conditions for "The recognition of the strengths of the characteristics of medicines through experimentation." Ibn Sina proposed applying logic to the testing of drugs, and in doing so, he wrote the earliest known treatise related to clinical trials. This article presents an overview and the historical context of Ibn Sina's life and work. In addition, the authors provide a translation of his treatise on drug testing and discuss its similarity to modern concepts of pharmacology and clinical trials.
    Keywords: Clinical Trials As Topic -- History
    ISSN: 00034819
    E-ISSN: 1539-3704
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Science, Sept 28, 2012, Vol.337(6102), p.1684(5)
    Description: ISG15 is an interferon (IFN)-[alpha]/beta]-inducible, ubiquitin-like intracellular protein. Its conjugation to various proteins (ISGylation) contributes to antiviral immunity in mice. Here, we describe human patients with inherited ISG15 deficiency and mycobacterial, but not viral, diseases. The lack of intraceilular ISG15 production and protein ISGylation was not associated with cellular susceptibility to any viruses that we tested, consistent with the lack of viral diseases in these patients. By contrast, the lack of mycobacterium-induced ISG15 secretion by leukocytes--granulocyte, in particular--reduced the production of IFN-[gamma] by lymphocytes, including natural killer cells, probably accounting for the enhanced susceptibility to mycobacterial disease. This experiment of nature shows that human ISGylation is largely redundant for antiviral immunity, but that ISG15 plays an essential role as an IFN-[gamma]--inducing secreted molecule for optimal antimycobacterial immunity. 10.1126/science.1224026
    Keywords: Protein Deficiency -- Observations ; Disease Susceptibility -- Research ; Interferon -- Properties
    ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Clinical Infectious Diseases, 15 May 2011, Vol.52(10), pp.1276-1277
    Keywords: Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Diseases -- Mycobacterium tuberculosis ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Anatomy -- Mycobacterium tuberculosis ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Microbiology -- Mycobacterium tuberculosis ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Diseases -- Mycobacterium tuberculosis ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Diseases -- Mycobacterium tuberculosis ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Physical trauma -- Mycobacterium tuberculosis ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Anatomy -- Mycobacterium tuberculosis ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Physical trauma -- Mycobacterium tuberculosis ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology -- Mycobacterium tuberculosis ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Infections -- Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    ISSN: 10584838
    E-ISSN: 15376591
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 15 July 2010, Vol.51(2), pp.195-6; anwer 248-9
    Keywords: Common Variable Immunodeficiency -- Complications ; Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis -- Complications
    ISSN: 10584838
    E-ISSN: 1537-6591
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Tanaffos, 2012, Vol.11(1), pp.71-2
    Description: A 54-year-old male, farmer with a history of dyspnoea from 10 years ago, developed increased sputum production, coughing and blood-streaked sputum and hospitalized for further investigations (Iran). He was a current smoker (17 pack/year) and oral opium addict. Spirometry revealed severe airflow obstruction. Considering chest X-ray findings, the patient underwent chest HRCT. Bronchoscopy was performed; bronchoalveolar lavage fluid smear and culture were negative for pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and mycobacterium. Histopathological examination of the bronchial biopsy specimen showed chronic non-specific inflammation. A diagnosis of alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency was made.
    Keywords: Case Reports ; Clinical Aspects ; Cough ; Drug Users ; Dyspnoea ; Histopathology ; Human Diseases ; Inflammation ; Lungs ; Opium ; Radiography ; Respiratory Diseases ; Sputum ; Tobacco Smoking ; Alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency ; Clinical Picture ; Drug Abusers ; Dyspnea ; Lung Diseases ; Man ; Homo ; Hominidae ; Primates ; Mammals ; Vertebrates ; Chordata ; Animals ; Eukaryotes ; Developing Countries ; Middle East ; Threshold Countries ; West Asia ; Asia;
    ISSN: 1735-0344
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Chest, October 2010, Vol.138(4), pp.678A-678A
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0012-3692
    E-ISSN: 1931-3543
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology, 01 March 2011, Vol.7(2), pp.129-131
    Keywords: Bcg Vaccination ; Consanguinity ; Immunodeficiency ; Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Disease ; Tuberculosis
    ISSN: 1744-666X
    E-ISSN: 1744-8409
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  • 8
    In: Nature, 2014
    Description: Intracellular ISG15 is an interferon (IFN)-[alpha]/[beta]-inducible ubiquitin-like modifier which can covalently bind other proteins in a process called ISGylation; it is an effector of IFN-[alpha]/[beta]-dependent antiviral immunity in mice (1-4). We previously published a study describing humans with inherited ISG15 deficiency but without unusually severe viral diseases (5). We showed that these patients were prone to mycobacterial disease and that human ISG15 was non-redundant as an extracellular IFN-[gamma]-inducing molecule. We show here that ISG15-deficient patients also display unanticipated cellular, immunological and clinical signs of enhanced IFN-[alpha]/[beta] immunity, reminiscent of the Mendelian autoinflammatory interferonopathies Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome and spondyloenchondrodysplasia (6-9). We further show that an absence of intracellular ISG15 in the patients' cells prevents the accumulation of USP18 (10,11), a potent negative regulator of IFN-[alpha]/[beta] signalling, resulting in the enhancement and amplification of IFN-[alpha]/[beta] responses. Human ISG15, therefore, is not only redundant for antiviral immunity, but is a key negative regulator of IFN-[alpha]/[beta] immunity. In humans, intracellular ISG15 is IFN-[alpha]/[beta]-inducible not to serve as a substrate for ISGylation-dependent antiviral immunity, but to ensure USP18-dependent regulation of IFN-[alpha]/[beta] and prevention of IFN-[alpha]/[beta]-dependent autoinflammation.
    Keywords: Interferon Alpha – Physiological Aspects ; Interferon Alpha – Abnormalities ; Immunocompromised Host – Physiological Aspects ; Autoimmunity – Risk Factors;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 28 September 2012, Vol.337(6102), pp.1684-8
    Description: ISG15 is an interferon (IFN)-α/β-inducible, ubiquitin-like intracellular protein. Its conjugation to various proteins (ISGylation) contributes to antiviral immunity in mice. Here, we describe human patients with inherited ISG15 deficiency and mycobacterial, but not viral, diseases. The lack of intracellular ISG15 production and protein ISGylation was not associated with cellular susceptibility to any viruses that we tested, consistent with the lack of viral diseases in these patients. By contrast, the lack of mycobacterium-induced ISG15 secretion by leukocytes-granulocyte, in particular-reduced the production of IFN-γ by lymphocytes, including natural killer cells, probably accounting for the enhanced susceptibility to mycobacterial disease. This experiment of nature shows that human ISGylation is largely redundant for antiviral immunity, but that ISG15 plays an essential role as an IFN-γ-inducing secreted molecule for optimal antimycobacterial immunity.
    Keywords: Cytokines -- Immunology ; Interferon-Gamma -- Immunology ; Mycobacterium Infections -- Immunology ; Ubiquitins -- Immunology ; Virus Diseases -- Immunology
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 10
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