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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    In: Nature, Feb 20, 1997, Vol.385(6618), p.689(2)
    Description: Hydration in electrical double layers is observed. Calculations of surface interactions in an aqueous solvent reveals that repulsion is linked to ion hydration in the double layer. The computation is based on the oscillatory ion-ion potentials of mean force acquired in molecular model simulations. The double-layer interaction is calculated using the anisotropic hypernetted chain method.
    Keywords: Rehydration Solutions -- Research ; Surfaces (Physics) -- Research
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Ocean Science (OS), 01 February 2010, Vol.6(1), pp.179-184
    Description: With recently improved instrumental accuracy, the change in the heat content of the oceans and the corresponding contribution to the change of the sea level can be determined from in situ measurements of temperature variation with depth. Nevertheless, it would be favourable if the same changes could be evaluated from just the sea surface temperatures because the past record could then be reconstructed and future scenarios explored. Using a single column model we show that the average change in the heat content of the oceans and the corresponding contribution to a global change in the sea level can be evaluated from the past sea surface temperatures. The calculation is based on the time-dependent diffusion equation with the known fixed average upwelling velocity and eddy diffusivity, as determined from the steady-state limit. In this limit, the model reduces to the 1966 Munk profile of the potential temperature variation as a function of depth. 〈br〉〈br〉 There are no adjustable parameters in the calculation and the results are in good agreement with the estimates obtained from the in situ data. The method allows us to obtain relevant timescales and average temperature profiles. The evaluation of the thermosteric sea level change is extended back to the beginning of accurate sea surface temperature records. The changes in sea surface temperature from 1880 until the present time are estimated to have produced a thermosteric sea level rise of 35 mm. Application to future IPCC scenarios gives results similar to the average prediction of more complex climate models.
    Keywords: Oceanography
    ISSN: 1812-0784
    E-ISSN: 1812-0792
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Langmuir, 07/2000, Vol.16(15), pp.6081-6083
    ISSN: 0743-7463
    E-ISSN: 1520-5827
    Source: American Chemical Society (via CrossRef)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 1997, Vol.129, pp.321-326
    Description: We consider highly charged surfaces, typical of many minerals, in monovalent salt solutions. Counterion separation in the vicinity of a surface is then small and short-range structure in ion-ion interaction potentials can no longer be neglected. We used the oscillatory potentials of mean force obtained in recent simulations of interacting ion pairs in water in order to explore the effects of aqueous structure on the double layer repulsion. Near each surface counterions preferentially assume separations corresponding to the minima of their interaction potential, the screening of surface charge by the Stern layer becomes stronger and the effective surface charge is greatly reduced. When surface separation is decreased to about 15 Å, regions of increased counterion density come into contact and the repulsion returns to higher values expected on the basis of simpler models. The change to a stronger short-range repulsion gives an impression of a distinct new approximately exponential force, as reported earlier in many experimental investigations.
    Keywords: Electrical Double Layer ; Hydration ; Surface Interaction ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0927-7757
    E-ISSN: 1873-4359
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Nature, 16 February 1973, Vol.241(5390), pp.451-3
    Keywords: Lipids ; Membranes ; Models, Biological
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Langmuir, 11/1997, Vol.13(23), pp.6241-6248
    ISSN: 0743-7463
    E-ISSN: 1520-5827
    Source: American Chemical Society (via CrossRef)
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  • 7
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Biophysical Journal, 1992, Vol.61(5), pp.1117-1121
    Description: We consider electrical double layer interaction under the conditions typically encountered during membrane fusion. Within the physiological concentration range of monovalent electrolytes the interaction is repulsive and the Poisson-Boltzmann calculation may be used to evaluate the force. When divalent counterions are added, strong ion-ion correlations make the Poisson-Boltzmann approximation inapplicable. We use the anisotropic hypernetted chain method to show that in the presence of small amounts of divalent counterions in adsorption equilibrium with the surfaces, the double layer interaction turns into attraction. This attractive electrostatic force may be the balancing contribution controlling membrane adhesion.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 0006-3495
    E-ISSN: 1542-0086
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Biophysical Journal, 1999, Vol.76(2), pp.593-594
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 0006-3495
    E-ISSN: 1542-0086
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Electrochimica Acta, 1989, Vol.34(12), pp.1907-1908
    Keywords: Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0013-4686
    E-ISSN: 1873-3859
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Ocean Science Discussions, 2009, Vol.6(3), pp.2975-2992
    Description: With recently improved instrumental accuracy, the change in the heat content of the oceans and the corresponding contribution to the change of the sea level can be determined from in situ measurements of temperature variation with depth. Nevertheless, it would be favourable if the same changes could be evaluated from just the sea surface temperatures because the record could then be extended into the past and projected into the future. We show here that the average change in the heat content of the oceans and the corresponding contribution to a change in the sea level can be evaluated from the past sea surface temperatures. The calculation is based on the time-dependent diffusion equation with constant upwelling velocity and has no adjustable parameters. In the steady-state limit it recovers the well-known profile of the potential temperature variation as a function of depth. 〈br〉〈br〉 The results are in good agreement with the estimates obtained from the in situ data, even though most of the warming occurs in the upper 1000 m. The method allows us to obtain relevant timescales and average temperature profiles. The evaluation of the thermosteric sea level change is extended back to the beginning of accurate sea surface temperature records in 1880. The changes in sea surface temperature from 1880 until the present time led to a thermosteric sea level rise of 3 cm and to a commitment for a future rise of 5 cm.
    Keywords: Oceanography;
    ISSN: Ocean Science Discussions
    E-ISSN: 1812-0822
    Source: CrossRef
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