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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2012, Vol.58(3), pp.579-587
    Description: Genetic methods are increasingly being used as noninvasive tools to survey populations of wild animals. One challenge of these methods is the sampling of genetic material from the target species. Genetic material of various predators, such as bears, canids, and felids, has been successfully obtained from both hair trapped in snares and scat. However, there is currently no standard procedure for sampling genetic material from the Eurasian Lynx ( Lynx lynx ). We tested established and newly developed hair snares in two near-natural lynx enclosures in the Bavarian Forest National Park. All snares consisted of a wooden post; they differed in the type of material attached to the post for snaring hair: carpet (velour with 40 nails), wildcat (spruce wood with 2–3 mm deep, horizontal and diagonal ridges), wire brush, doormat, or rubber bands (250 g of rubber bands wrapped around the post). We determined the acceptance of the hair snares by the animals by observing their behavior with the aid of video cameras. The number of rubbing events on the different trap types did not significantly differ, but the rubbing duration was longer for the doormat hair snare. The wire brush hair snare collected the highest total amount of hair and — beside the carpet — the highest amount of hair per unit of time. Almost all hair trapped on the wire brush snare were retained during a 2-week exposure to the elements outside of the enclosures. The results of our study may hold for other felid species with hair characteristics similar to those of lynx.
    Keywords: Hair trapping ; European Lynx ; Lynx lynx ; Noninvasive sampling ; Monitoring ; Genetic monitoring
    ISSN: 1612-4642
    E-ISSN: 1439-0574
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, 2011, Vol.222(11), pp.1833-1846
    Description: ► We present a spatially explicit simulation model (SAMBIA) for outbreaks of bark beetles. ► This agent-based model includes antagonists and different management strategies. ► The model reveals a threshold behaviour of the system for quite different scenarios. ► A general rule of thumb for the successful control of an outbreak is derived. Outbreaks of bark beetles in forests can result in substantial economic losses. Understanding the factors that influence the development and spread of bark beetle outbreaks is crucial for forest management and for predicting outbreak risks, especially with the expected global warming. Although much research has been done on the ecology and phenology of bark beetles, the complex interplay between beetles, host trees, beetle antagonists and forest management makes predicting beetle population development especially difficult. Using the recent infestations of the European Spruce Bark Beetle ( L. Col. Scol.) in the Bavarian Forest National Park (Germany) as a case study, we developed a spatially explicit agent-based simulation model (SAMBIA) that takes into account individual trees and beetles. This model primarily provides a tool for analysing and understanding the spatial and temporal aspects of bark beetles outbreaks at the stand scale. Furthermore, the model should allow an estimation of the effectiveness of concurrent impacts of both antagonists and management to confine outbreak dynamics in practice. We also used the model to predict outbreak probabilities in various settings. The simulation results indicated a distinct threshold behaviour of the system in response to pressure by antagonists or management of the bark beetle population. Despite the different scenarios considered, we were able to extract from the simulations a simple rule of thumb for the successful control of an outbreak: if roughly 80% of individual beetles are killed by antagonists or foresters, outbreaks will rarely take place. Our model allows the core dynamics of this complex system to be reduced to this inherent common denominator.
    Keywords: Bark Beetle ; Ips Typographus ; Outbreaks ; Management ; Antagonists ; Spatial Simulation Model ; Threshold Behaviour ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    E-ISSN: 1872-7026
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Science of the Total Environment, Jan 15, 2014, Vol.468-469, p.140(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.08.022 Byline: Robert Hagen, Marco Heurich, Max Kroschel, Micha Herdtfelder Abstract: Human induced land use changes negatively impact the viability of many wildlife species through habitat modifications and mortality, while some species seem to benefit from it. Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), a wide spread ungulate increased both its abundance and range throughout Europe. This pattern is also reflected in the increasing hunting bags over the last 40years. Such a development raises questions about the relationship between human hunting and population dynamics and, in particular, about the potential of human hunting to control related populations. We analysed and reconstructed annual hunting bags of roe deer for three federal states of northern Germany, Brandenburg, Lower Saxony and Mecklenburg West Pomerania for the years 1972 to 2011. Since 1992 the hunting bags from these three states are significantly higher than those reported for the years 1972-1991. Our reconstruction takes into consideration effects of climate variability, expressed by inter-annual changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation and impacts from rapeseed and wheat cultivation. We found that severe winters, which are indicated by negative values of the North Atlantic Oscillation during the months December-March, directly, or with a time lag of two years affect the number of deer shot. In contrast, an increase in the area used for rapeseed cultivation coincides with higher numbers of roe deer shot, with respect to the overall mean value. Consequently, we recommend that wildlife management addresses changes in large scale processes including land use pattern and climate variability. Article History: Received 10 June 2013; Revised 7 August 2013; Accepted 8 August 2013 Article Note: (miscellaneous) Editor: Damia Barcelo
    Keywords: Hunting ; North Atlantic Oscillation ; Climate Cycles
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2015, Vol.10(3), p.e0120960
    Description: The Bohemian Forest Ecosystem encompasses various wildlife management systems. Two large, contiguous national parks (one in Germany and one in the Czech Republic) form the centre of the area, are surrounded by private hunting grounds, and hunting regulations in each country differ. Here we...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 15 September 2014, Vol.328, pp.179-192
    Description: Climate change may directly induce shifts in stand-level dynamics by altering the regeneration, growth and mortality of tree species, and indirectly by modifying interspecific competition. While some experimental and simulation studies have shown that these effects can be compensated by lower browsing pressure, it is not clear how species composition and stand basal area may respond in the short and long term, and to which extent. We investigated the response of forests to isolated and combined changes of climatic conditions and ungulate browsing intensity in the Bavarian Forest National Park (BFNP), a strictly protected forest reserve. To this aim, we firstly characterized the browsing variability within the BFNP and among each tree species. Based on this, we implemented new equations in the forest gap model ForClim v3.0 and simulated the short- and long-term development of different forest types according to pertinent scenarios of browsing intensity. The model predicted a large dieback of the dominant and due to the increase in summer drought and winter temperatures; these species were progressively replaced by . While climate change may have a positive impact on tree diversity in the short term (∼100 years), long-term simulations (〉1000 years) revealed reduced tree diversity and stand basal area compared to those predicted under current climate. While species composition was strongly dependent on browsing intensity under current climate through the changes in seedling selectivity by ungulates and in light regimes, the trajectory of vegetation development under climate change was not significantly altered by browsing. Even for highly palatable species such as , an eradication of ungulates could not compensate the decline of drought-intolerant species. We conclude that forest management tools to reduce ungulates population may be helpful to promote species diversity in dominated forest. However they may not be sufficient to compensate for the reduction in basal area and diversity that is induced by climate change.
    Keywords: Browsing ; Climate Change ; Tree Diversity ; Productivity ; Model ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 2011, Vol.261(2), pp.233-245
    Description: ▶ infestation over an 18-year study period goes through different phases. ▶ The spread of the is affected by a complex interplay between active population factors and habitat factors with varying degrees of importance at individual phases. ▶ The importance of individual habitat variables and the combinations of these variables vary to different extents. ▶ There are no monocausal correlations between individual habitat factors and the spread of the over the entire eighteen years model period. The relationship between abiotic and biotic factors and the spread of the European spruce bark beetle, (L.), was investigated at a landscape level over a model period of 18 years in the Bavarian Forest National Park in Germany. Deadwood areas – where – caused tree mortality of 100% – were photographed annually using Color-infrared aerial photography and digitally recorded in vector form. Thirty-two static and dynamic habitat variables were quantitatively determined using spatial pattern analysis and geostatistics from 1990 to 2007 at the landscape scale. The importance of the presence of deadwood areas for thirty-two habitat variables for the occurrence of the bark beetle was quantitatively recorded using an Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA). It was shown over a long model period that the intensity of the bark beetle infestation went through different phases over the 18-year study period. No mono-causal correlations could be found between individual habitat factors and the spread of the bark beetle over the entire model period. On the one hand, these findings underline the complexity of the system, on the other hand, this could be interpreted as a possible explanation for conclusions drawn by previous studies that differ from each other. The importance of individual habitat variables and the combinations of variables varied to different extents within these phases. An examination of the cumulative importance of the habitat demonstrated that the biological structural variables such as the distance from the site of the previous year's infestation, the area and the perimeter of the infested areas from the previous year are of great importance for the incidence of the bark beetle, but not across all years. Of equal significance for assessing the size of the area and the distance of the deadwood areas from the sites of the previous year's infestation are the size of the areas, the perimeter of the deadwood areas and the proximity index. An evaluation of the stages of forest succession showed that cumulatively, a short distance between the infested areas and the forest areas with conifers in the early stages of growth was an equally important habitat factor from 1990 to 2007. By quantitatively recording habitat factors that are significant for the spread of the bark beetle it may help predict areas that are at risk and thus to develop suitable management strategies to minimise or stop the spread and the effect of the bark beetle.
    Keywords: Bark Beetle ; Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (Enfa) ; Environmental Factors ; Infestations ; Ips Typographus (L.) ; Landscape Level ; Outbreak Risk ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, Feb 15, Vol.338, p.46(11)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2014.11.015 Byline: Lisa Most, Torsten Hothorn, Jorg Muller, Marco Heurich Abstract: * The objective of national parks is to secure natural assemblages and processes. * We recorded browsing pressure on 5841 plots in the Bavarian Forest National Park. * Covariates for park management explained the most variation in browsing intensity. * Topography, regeneration, forest stand and ground vegetation are of minor importance. * Park management creates a management landscape that contradicts conservation goals. Article History: Received 8 September 2014; Revised 3 November 2014; Accepted 15 November 2014
    Keywords: National Parks
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, Sept 15, 2014, Vol.328, p.179(14)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2014.05.030 Byline: Maxime Cailleret, Marco Heurich, Harald Bugmann Abstract: acents We simulated forest response to changes in climatic conditions and browsing intensity. acents Species composition was dependent on browsing intensity under current climate. acents Vegetation development was not altered by browsing under climate change. acents Lower ungulates density may not compensate for the reduction in basal area due to climate change. Article History: Received 24 February 2014; Revised 16 May 2014; Accepted 19 May 2014
    Keywords: National Parks -- Environmental Aspects ; Global Temperature Changes -- Environmental Aspects
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Biodiversity and Conservation, 2015, Vol.24(12), pp.2935-2952
    Description: A tool commonly used in wildlife biology is density estimation via camera-trap monitoring coupled with capture–recapture analysis. Reliable regional density estimations of animal populations are required as a basis for management decisions. However, these estimations are affected by the session design, such as the length of the monitoring session, season, and number of trap sites. This method is regularly used to monitor Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx ) which mostly occupy the forested mountain ranges in Central Europe. Here we used intensive field sampling data of a major Central European lynx population to investigate (1) the optimal monitoring session length considering the trade-off between population closure and number of recaptures for density estimates, (2) the optimal time window within the year considering the stability of density estimates, detection probability, recapture number, and reproduction, and (3) the number of trap sites and trap spacing required to achieve robust density estimates. Using two closure tests, we found that 80 days are the minimum to ensure adequate data quality. A spatially explicit capture–recapture model revealed the best monitoring period to be late summer to early winter. Based on our results, we recommend for similar management units of comparable size (~300 km 2 ) and similar recapture numbers to sample for at least 80 days in autumn with traps spaced about every 2.5–3 km. Our results also indicated that stable density estimates could still be maintained when the sampling area is enlarged to 760 km 2 with trap spacing every 5–6 km if session lengths are increased.
    Keywords: Lynx lynx ; Spatially explicit capture–recapture model (SECR) ; Camera traps ; Forested areas ; Mountainous areas ; Density estimates
    ISSN: 0960-3115
    E-ISSN: 1572-9710
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  • 10
    In: Ecology, December 2016, Vol.97(12), pp.3547-3553
    Description: The forage maturation hypothesis () states that herbivores should follow the onset of growth in spring to obtain access to forage of higher quality and quantity, the so‐called “green wave surfing.” Several studies have found correlative evidence in support of this by associating animal movement with plant phenology. However, experimental manipulation of vast natural systems determining causes of large herbivore movement is usually beyond reach. The unique management system involving winter enclosures for wild red deer () in Germany facilitated an opportunity for an experimental approach. We manipulated release dates of red deer into free‐ranging conditions in spring, predicting increased overall access to high quality forage if released early (1 April), and more rapid initial movement speed towards higher elevation if released late (15 May). The latter had lower access to high quality forage than individuals released early, as they missed parts of the green wave. In strong support of the , individuals released late moved at faster initial speed than early released individuals which tracked the green wave more closely, both settling when reaching similar elevations. This shows that red deer were flexible in their movements, and they can adapt to new patterns of phenology by phenotypic plasticity.
    Keywords: Animal Movement ; Global Positioning System Tracking ; Migration ; Normalized Difference Vegetation Index ; Wildlife Experiment
    ISSN: 0012-9658
    E-ISSN: 1939-9170
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