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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Oecologia, 2013, Vol.171(3), pp.719-720
    Description: Erratum to: Oecologia DOI 10.1007/s00442-012-2578-3 Unfortunately, Table 2 was incorrectly published in the original article. The corrected table is given in the following page:
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology;
    ISSN: 0029-8549
    E-ISSN: 1432-1939
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, June, 2012, Vol.49, p.174(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2012.01.033 Byline: Petra Marschner (a), Sven Marhan (b), Ellen Kandeler (b) Abstract: The rhizosphere and the detritusphere are hot spots of microbial activity, but little is known about the interface between rhizosphere and detritusphere. We used a three-compartment pot design to study microbial community structure and enzyme activity in this interface. All three compartments were filled with soil from a long-term field trial. The two outer compartments were planted with maize (root compartment) or amended with mature wheat shoot residues from a free air CO.sub.2 enrichment experiment (residue compartment) and were separated by a 50 [mu]m mesh from the inner compartment. Soil, residues and maize differed in.sup.13C signature ([delta].sup.13C soil -26.5a[degrees], maize roots -14.1a[degrees] and wheat residues -44.1a[degrees]) which allowed tracking of root- and residue-derived C into microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA). The abundance of bacterial and fungal PLFAs showed clear gradients with highest abundance in the first 1-2 mm of the root and residue compartment, and generally higher values in the vicinity of the residue compartment. The [delta].sup.13C of the PLFAs indicated that soil microorganisms incorporated more carbon from the residues than from the rhizodeposits and that the microbial use of wheat residue carbon was restricted to 1 mm from the residue compartment. Carbon incorporation into soil microorganisms in the interface was accompanied by strong microbial N immobilisation evident from the depletion of inorganic N in the rhizosphere and detritusphere. Extracellular enzyme activities involved in the degradation of organic C, N and P compounds ([beta]-glucosidase, xylosidase, acid phosphatase and leucin peptidase) did not show distinct gradients in rhizosphere or detritusphere. Our microscale study showed that rhizosphere and detritusphere differentially influenced microbial C cycling and that the zone of influence depended on the parameter assessed. These results are highly relevant for defining the size of different microbial hot spots and understanding microbial ecology in soils. Author Affiliation: (a) School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, Faculty of Sciences, The Waite Research Institute, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia (b) Soil Science and Land Evaluation, Soil Biology Section, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany Article History: Received 7 August 2011; Revised 20 January 2012; Accepted 22 January 2012
    Keywords: Soil Microbiology ; Soil Carbon ; Enzymes ; Microorganisms ; Fatty Acids ; Phosphatases ; Soil Biology ; Wheat
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, June, 2012, Vol.49, p.174(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2012.01.033 Byline: Petra Marschner (a), Sven Marhan (b), Ellen Kandeler (b) Abstract: The rhizosphere and the detritusphere are hot spots of microbial activity, but little is known about the interface between rhizosphere and detritusphere. We used a three-compartment pot design to study microbial community structure and enzyme activity in this interface. All three compartments were filled with soil from a long-term field trial. The two outer compartments were planted with maize (root compartment) or amended with mature wheat shoot residues from a free air CO.sub.2 enrichment experiment (residue compartment) and were separated by a 50 [mu]m mesh from the inner compartment. Soil, residues and maize differed in.sup.13C signature ([delta].sup.13C soil -26.5a[degrees], maize roots -14.1a[degrees] and wheat residues -44.1a[degrees]) which allowed tracking of root- and residue-derived C into microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA). The abundance of bacterial and fungal PLFAs showed clear gradients with highest abundance in the first 1-2 mm of the root and residue compartment, and generally higher values in the vicinity of the residue compartment. The [delta].sup.13C of the PLFAs indicated that soil microorganisms incorporated more carbon from the residues than from the rhizodeposits and that the microbial use of wheat residue carbon was restricted to 1 mm from the residue compartment. Carbon incorporation into soil microorganisms in the interface was accompanied by strong microbial N immobilisation evident from the depletion of inorganic N in the rhizosphere and detritusphere. Extracellular enzyme activities involved in the degradation of organic C, N and P compounds ([beta]-glucosidase, xylosidase, acid phosphatase and leucin peptidase) did not show distinct gradients in rhizosphere or detritusphere. Our microscale study showed that rhizosphere and detritusphere differentially influenced microbial C cycling and that the zone of influence depended on the parameter assessed. These results are highly relevant for defining the size of different microbial hot spots and understanding microbial ecology in soils. Author Affiliation: (a) School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, Faculty of Sciences, The Waite Research Institute, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia (b) Soil Science and Land Evaluation, Soil Biology Section, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany Article History: Received 7 August 2011; Revised 20 January 2012; Accepted 22 January 2012
    Keywords: Fatty Acids ; Enzymes ; Soil Microbiology ; Microorganisms ; Soil Carbon
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    In: Global Change Biology, January 2010, Vol.16(1), pp.469-483
    Description: Increased plant productivity under elevated atmospheric CO concentrations might increase soil carbon (C) inputs and storage, which would constitute an important negative feedback on the ongoing atmospheric CO rise. However, elevated CO often also leads to increased soil moisture, which could accelerate the decomposition of soil organic matter, thus counteracting the positive effects via C cycling. We investigated soil C sequestration responses to 5 years of elevated CO treatment in a temperate spring wheat agroecosystem. The application of C‐depleted CO to the elevated CO plots enabled us to partition soil C into recently fixed C (C) and pre‐experimental C (C) by C/C mass balance. Gross C inputs to soils associated with C accumulation and the decomposition of C were then simulated using the Rothamsted C model ‘RothC.’ We also ran simulations with a modified RothC version that was driven directly by measured soil moisture and temperature data instead of the original water balance equation that required potential evaporation and precipitation as input. The model accurately reproduced the measured C in bulk soil and microbial biomass C. Assuming equal soil moisture in both ambient and elevated CO, simulation results indicated that elevated CO soils accumulated an extra ∼40–50 g C m relative to ambient CO soils over the 5 year treatment period. However, when accounting for the increased soil moisture under elevated CO that we observed, a faster decomposition of C resulted; this extra C loss under elevated CO resulted in a negative net effect on total soil C of ∼30 g C m relative to ambient conditions. The present study therefore demonstrates that positive effects of elevated CO on soil C due to extra soil C inputs can be more than compensated by negative effects of elevated CO via the hydrological cycle.
    Keywords: C ; Agroecosystem ; Carbon Isotopes ; Carbon Sequestration ; Elevated Co ; Face ; Global Climate Change ; Microbial Biomass ; Rothc Model ; Soil C Cycle Modeling ; Soil Organic Matter ; L.
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Food Chemistry, 01 February 2013, Vol.136(3-4), pp.1470-1477
    Description: ► One of the first experiments combining temperature and precipitation is presented. ► Elevated temperature affects grain quality more severely than changes in rainfall. ► Notably, TGW, lipids, Al and NSCs (except for maltose) were decreased in barley. ► Several proteinogenic amino acids were increased due to elevated temperature. ► Future temperature increase will change nutritional value and processing of grains. Spring barley was grown in a field experiment under moderately elevated soil temperature and changed summer precipitation (amount and frequency). Elevated temperature affected the performance and grain quality characteristics more significant than changes in rainfall. Except for the decrease in thousand grain weight, warming had no impacts on aboveground biomass and grain yield traits. In grains, several proteinogenic amino acids concentrations were increased, whereas their composition was only slightly altered. Concentration and yield of total protein remained unaffected under warming. The concentrations of total non-structural carbohydrates, starch, fructose and raffinose were lower in plants grown at high temperatures, whereas maltose was higher. Crude fibre remained unaffected by warming, whereas concentrations of lipids and aluminium were reduced. Manipulation of precipitation only marginally affected barley grains: amount reduction increased the concentrations of several minerals (sodium, copper) and amino acids (leucine). The projected climate changes may most likely affect grain quality traits of interest for different markets and utilisation requirements.
    Keywords: Barley ; Temperature Increase ; Precipitation Pattern ; Grain Yield ; Grain Quality ; Climate Change ; Chemistry ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition ; Economics
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    E-ISSN: 1873-7072
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, June, 2013, Vol.61, p.76(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.02.006 Byline: Susanne Kramer (a), Sven Marhan (a), Heike Haslwimmer (a), Liliane Ruess (b), Ellen Kandeler (a) Abstract: Many studies of the microbial ecology of agricultural ecosystems focus on surface soils, whereas the impacts of management practice and season on soil microbial community composition and function below the plough zone are largely neglected. Deep soils have a high potential to store carbon; therefore any management driven stimulation or repression of microorganisms in subsoil could impact biogeochemical cycling in agricultural sites. The aim of this study was to understand whether soil management affects microbial communities in the topsoil (0-10 cm), rooted zone beneath the plough layer (40-50 cm), and the unrooted zone (60-70 cm). In a field experiment with different crops [wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.)] and agricultural management strategies (litter amendment) we analysed microbial biomass as phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and enzyme activities involved in the C-cycle ([beta]-glucosidase, N-acetyl-[beta]-d-glucosaminidase, [beta]-xylosidase, phenol- and peroxidase) across a depth transect over a period of two years. Wheat cultivation resulted in higher bacterial and fungal biomass as well as higher enzyme activities at most sampling dates in comparison to maize cultivated plots, and this effect was visible to 50 cm depth. Litter application increased bacterial and fungal biomass as well as hydrolytic enzyme activities but effects were apparent only in the topsoil. In winter high microbial biomass and enzyme activities were measured in all soil layers, possibly due to increased mobilization and translocation of organic matter into deeper soil. Hydrolytic enzyme activities decreased with depth, whereas oxidative enzyme activities showed no decrease or even an increase with depth. This could have been due to differing sorption mechanisms of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes. Specific enzyme activities (enzyme activity per microbial biomass) were higher in the deeper layers and possible reasons are discussed. Author Affiliation: (a) Institute of Soil Science and Land Evaluation, Soil Biology Section, University of Hohenheim, Emil-Wolff-Str. 27, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany (b) Institute of Biology, Ecology Group, Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, Philippstr. 13, 10115 Berlin, Germany Article History: Received 28 September 2012; Revised 20 December 2012; Accepted 12 February 2013
    Keywords: Agroecosystems -- Analysis ; Fatty Acids -- Analysis ; Soil Microbiology -- Analysis ; Soil Management (Agronomy) -- Analysis ; Nucleotidases -- Analysis ; Agricultural Ecology -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 7
    In: Global Change Biology, January 2018, Vol.24(1), pp.e318-e334
    Description: Global warming will likely enhance greenhouse gas () emissions from soils. Due to its slow decomposability, biochar is widely recognized as effective in long‐term soil carbon (C) sequestration and in mitigation of soil emissions. In a long‐term soil warming experiment (+2.5 °C, since July 2008) we studied the effect of applying high‐temperature biochar (0, 30 t/ha, since August 2013) on emissions and their global warming potential () during 2 years in a temperate agroecosystem. Crop growth, physical and chemical soil properties, temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (), and metabolic quotient () were investigated to yield further information about single effects of soil warming and biochar as well as on their interactions. Soil warming increased total emissions by 28% over 2 years. The effect of warming on soil respiration did not level off as has often been observed in less intensively managed ecosystems. However, the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration was not affected by warming. Overall, biochar had no effect on most of the measured parameters, suggesting its high degradation stability and its low influence on microbial C cycling even under elevated soil temperatures. In contrast, biochar × warming interactions led to higher total NO emissions, possibly due to accelerated N‐cycling at elevated soil temperature and to biochar‐induced changes in soil properties and environmental conditions. Methane uptake was not affected by soil warming or biochar. The incorporation of biochar‐C into soil was estimated to offset warming‐induced elevated emissions for 25 years. Our results highlight the suitability of biochar for C sequestration in cultivated temperate agricultural soil under a future elevated temperature. However, the increased NO emissions under warming limit the mitigation potential of biochar. In a long‐term soil warming experiment, we found elevated soil temperature to enhance the Global Warming Potential (GWP) of soil greenhouse gas emissions over 2 years, while biochar had no effect. Although biochar did not reduce GHG emissions from warmed soil, its sequestration was estimated to offset global warming‐induced elevated GHG emissions of more than two decades. However, the increased NO emissions from warmed biochar‐amended soil limits the GHG mitigation potential of biochar.
    Keywords: Agroecosystem ; Biochar ; Carbon Dioxide ; Carbon Sequestration ; Methane ; Nitrous Oxide ; Soil Warming ; Temperature Sensitivity
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, June 2012, Vol.49, pp.174-183
    Description: The rhizosphere and the detritusphere are hot spots of microbial activity, but little is known about the interface between rhizosphere and detritusphere. We used a three-compartment pot design to study microbial community structure and enzyme activity in this interface. All three compartments were filled with soil from a long-term field trial. The two outer compartments were planted with maize (root compartment) or amended with mature wheat shoot residues from a free air CO enrichment experiment (residue compartment) and were separated by a 50 μm mesh from the inner compartment. Soil, residues and maize differed in C signature (δ C soil −26.5‰, maize roots −14.1‰ and wheat residues −44.1‰) which allowed tracking of root- and residue-derived C into microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA). The abundance of bacterial and fungal PLFAs showed clear gradients with highest abundance in the first 1–2 mm of the root and residue compartment, and generally higher values in the vicinity of the residue compartment. The δ C of the PLFAs indicated that soil microorganisms incorporated more carbon from the residues than from the rhizodeposits and that the microbial use of wheat residue carbon was restricted to 1 mm from the residue compartment. Carbon incorporation into soil microorganisms in the interface was accompanied by strong microbial N immobilisation evident from the depletion of inorganic N in the rhizosphere and detritusphere. Extracellular enzyme activities involved in the degradation of organic C, N and P compounds (β-glucosidase, xylosidase, acid phosphatase and leucin peptidase) did not show distinct gradients in rhizosphere or detritusphere. Our microscale study showed that rhizosphere and detritusphere differentially influenced microbial C cycling and that the zone of influence depended on the parameter assessed. These results are highly relevant for defining the size of different microbial hot spots and understanding microbial ecology in soils. ► A novel experimental design to study the interface between rhizosphere and detritusphere. ► Soil, plant and residues differed in δ C signatures and δ C of PLFA was measured. ► Microbial community composition showed distinct gradients from roots and residues. ► Microbes in the interface incorporated more residue C than root C.
    Keywords: 13c ; C Flow ; Enzymes ; Maize ; Microbial Community Composition ; Roots ; Wheat ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Soil biology & biochemistry, 2012, Vol.49, pp.174-183
    Description: The rhizosphere and the detritusphere are hot spots of microbial activity, but little is known about the interface between rhizosphere and detritusphere. We used a three-compartment pot design to study microbial community structure and enzyme activity in this interface. All three compartments were filled with soil from a long-term field trial. The two outer compartments were planted with maize (root compartment) or amended with mature wheat shoot residues from a free air CO₂ enrichment experiment (residue compartment) and were separated by a 50 μm mesh from the inner compartment. Soil, residues and maize differed in ¹³C signature (δ¹³C soil −26.5‰, maize roots −14.1‰ and wheat residues −44.1‰) which allowed tracking of root- and residue-derived C into microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA). The abundance of bacterial and fungal PLFAs showed clear gradients with highest abundance in the first 1–2 mm of the root and residue compartment, and generally higher values in the vicinity of the residue compartment. The δ¹³C of the PLFAs indicated that soil microorganisms incorporated more carbon from the residues than from the rhizodeposits and that the microbial use of wheat residue carbon was restricted to 1 mm from the residue compartment. Carbon incorporation into soil microorganisms in the interface was accompanied by strong microbial N immobilisation evident from the depletion of inorganic N in the rhizosphere and detritusphere. Extracellular enzyme activities involved in the degradation of organic C, N and P compounds (β-glucosidase, xylosidase, acid phosphatase and leucin peptidase) did not show distinct gradients in rhizosphere or detritusphere. Our microscale study showed that rhizosphere and detritusphere differentially influenced microbial C cycling and that the zone of influence depended on the parameter assessed. These results are highly relevant for defining the size of different microbial hot spots and understanding microbial ecology in soils. ; p. 174-183.
    Keywords: Wheat ; Experimental Design ; Fatty Acids ; Roots ; Rhizosphere ; Field Experimentation ; Corn ; Carbon Dioxide ; Soil Microorganisms ; Acid Phosphatase ; Microbial Communities ; Carbon ; Enzyme Activity ; Shoots ; Air ; Community Structure ; Microbial Activity ; Soil
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 2015, Vol.88, p.430(11)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2015.05.026 Byline: Runa S. Boeddinghaus, Naoise Nunan, Doreen Berner, Sven Marhan, Ellen Kandeler Abstract: In heterogeneous environments such as soil it is imperative to understand the spatial relationships between microbial communities, microbial functioning and microbial habitats in order to predict microbial services in managed grasslands. Grassland land-use intensity has been shown to affect the spatial distribution of soil microorganisms, but so far it is unknown whether this is transferable from one geographic region to another. This study evaluated the spatial distribution of soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities involved in C-, N- and P-cycling, together with physico-chemical soil properties in 18 grassland sites differing in their land-use intensity in two geographic regions: the Hainich National Park in the middle of Germany and the Swabian Alb in south-west Germany. Enzyme activities associated with the C- and N-cycles, namely [beta]-glucosidase, xylosidase and chitinase, organic carbon (C.sub.org), total nitrogen (N.sub.t), extractable organic carbon, and mineral nitrogen (N.sub.min) were higher in the Swabian Alb (Leptosols) than in the Hainich National Park (primarily Stagnosols). There was a negative relationship between bulk density and soil properties such as microbial biomass (C.sub.mic, N.sub.mic), urease, C.sub.org, and N.sub.t. The drivers (local abiotic soil properties, spatial separation) of the enzyme profiles ([beta]-glucosidase, chitinase, xylosidase, phosphatase, and urease) were determined through a spatial analysis of the within site variation of enzyme profiles and abiotic properties, using the Procrustes rotation test. The test revealed that physical and chemical properties showed more spatial pattern than the enzyme profiles. [beta]-glucosidase, chitinase, xylosidase, phosphatase, and urease activities were related to local abiotic soil properties, but showed little spatial correlation. Semivariogram modeling revealed that the ranges of spatial autocorrelation of all measured variables were site specific and not related to region or to land-use intensity. Nevertheless, land-use intensity changed the occurrence of spatial patterns measurable at the plot scale: increasing land-use intensity led to an increase in detectable spatial patterns for abiotic soil properties on Leptosols. The conclusion of this study is that microbial biomass and functions in grassland soils do not follow general spatial distribution patterns, but that the spatial distribution is site-specific and mainly related to the abiotic properties of the soils. Author Affiliation: (a) Institute of Soil Science and Land Evaluation, Soil Biology, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany (b) CNRS, Institute of Ecology and Environmental Science, Campus AgroParisTech, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon, France Article History: Received 22 July 2014; Revised 27 May 2015; Accepted 28 May 2015
    Keywords: Soil Microbiology – Chemical Properties ; Soil Microbiology – Analysis ; Soils – Chemical Properties ; Soils – Analysis ; Hydrolases – Chemical Properties ; Hydrolases – Analysis ; Grasslands – Chemical Properties ; Grasslands – Analysis
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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