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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    Keywords: 633.85394
    Source: The British Library
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  • 2
    In: Nature, 2011, Vol.471(7340), p.602
    Description: CRISPR/Cas systems constitute a widespread class of immunity systems that protect bacteria and archaea against phages and plasmids, and commonly use repeat/spacer-derived short crRNAs to silence foreign nucleic acids in a sequence-specific manner. Although the maturation of crRNAs represents a key event in CRISPR activation, the responsible endoribonucleases (CasE, Cas6, Csy4) are missing in many CRISPR/Cas subtypes. Here, differential RNA sequencing of the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes uncovered tracrRNA, a trans-encoded small RNA with 24-nucleotide complementarity to the repeat regions of crRNA precursor transcripts. We show that tracrRNA directs the maturation of crRNAs by the activities of the widely conserved endogenous RNase III and the CRISPR-associated Csn1 protein; all these components are essential to protect S. pyogenes against prophage-derived DNA. Our study reveals a novel pathway of small guide RNA maturation and the first example of a host factor (RNase III) required for bacterial RNA-mediated immunity against invaders. [PUBLICATION ]
    Keywords: Bacterial Proteins–Chemistry ; Bacterial Proteins–Genetics ; Bacterial Proteins–Immunology ; Bacterial Proteins–Metabolism ; Conserved Sequence–Genetics ; DNA, Viral–Metabolism ; DNA, Viral–Genetics ; Escherichia Coli–Genetics ; Models, Biological–Metabolism ; Prophages–Biosynthesis ; RNA Precursors–Genetics ; RNA Precursors–Immunology ; RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional–Metabolism ; RNA, Bacterial–Genetics ; RNA, Bacterial–Metabolism ; RNA, Bacterial–Genetics ; RNA, Bacterial–Immunology ; RNA, Guide–Metabolism ; Ribonuclease III–Virology ; Streptococcus Pyogenes–Virology ; Streptococcus Pyogenes–Virology ; Streptococcus Pyogenes–Virology ; Streptococcus Pyogenes–Virology ; E Coli ; Bacteria ; Bacteriology ; Plasmids ; Proteins ; Bacterial Proteins ; DNA, Viral ; RNA Precursors ; RNA, Bacterial ; RNA, Guide ; Ribonuclease III;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Pest Management Science, April 2010, Vol.66(4), pp.396-405
    Description: Phoma stem canker, caused by the coexisting related fungal pathogens (Des.) Ces. & de Not and Shoemaker & H Brun, is a major disease of winter oilseed rape in the UK. Annually, over 90% of UK crops receive at least one foliar application of fungicide, but little is known about the sensitivity of the more damaging and the less damaging to these fungicides. The effects of flusilazole, tebuconazole and Methyl Benzimidazole Carbamate (MBC) fungicides (benomyl and carbendazim) on the germination of ascospores, conidia and germ tube growth of both species were examined. Isolates collected from different oilseed rape crops in England and Wales were assessed for their mycelial growth on fungicide‐amended medium, and ED values were calculated. and differed in their sensitivity to fungicides. Conidial germination of was more sensitive to these fungicides than that of . Isolates of had smaller ED values for mycelial growth for all fungicides tested than isolates of . These results suggest that fungicide applications might affect the structure of populations in UK winter oilseed rape crops. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry
    Keywords: Brassica Napus ; Crop Disease Control ; Food Security ; Fungicide Efficacy ; Phoma Lingam ; Triazole Fungicides
    ISSN: 1526-498X
    E-ISSN: 1526-4998
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 2010, Vol.38(3), pp.335-341
    Description: Thirty-four species of the genus (including species of the former genera and , fam. Lamiaceae) were surveyed for exudate flavonoids to see whether the distribution of these compounds would support a recent classification of the genus based on molecular and morphological characters. In this classification two major groups had been identified, the and clades. Only about 40% of the species, predominantly from the clade, were found to produce exudate flavonoids, which were mainly flavones. Flavanones were restricted to five species of the clade, whereas flavonols were only found in two species of the clade, Benth. (synonyms Hochst. ex Benth. and Hochst. ex Benth.) and R.H.Willemse. Four of these flavonols were isolated from and identified by NMR spectroscopy as the 3,7-dimethyl ether and 3,7,4′-trimethyl ether of quercetin and the 3,6,7-trimethyl ether and 3,6,7,4′-tetramethyl ether of quercetagetin. The remaining flavonols and flavones were identified by HPLC–UV and LC–MS of crude extracts on the basis of their UV and mass spectra, retention times and comparison with standards. Most flavonols were 3-methyl ethers and many of the flavones and flavonols were oxygenated at the 6-position. The most common flavones, occurring in both clades, were cirsimaritin and salvigenin, which are methoxylated at the 6- and 7-positions. 6-Hydroxylated flavones such as scutellarein and ladanein were restricted to species of the clade.
    Keywords: Plectranthus ; Coleus ; Solenostemon ; Lamiaceae ; Exudate Flavonoids ; Chemotaxonomy ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0305-1978
    E-ISSN: 1873-2925
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Phytochemistry, 2003, Vol.64(2), pp.519-528
    Description: A survey of leaf surface constituents in the family Lamiaceae using HPLC with diode array detection revealed the presence of two characteristic phenolic compounds in many species. The distribution of these phenolics in the Lamiaceae was found to be of taxonomic significance, as they were present in the great majority of species investigated for the subfamily Nepetoideae, including representatives of the well-known genera of culinary herbs, mint, rosemary, sage, thyme and basil. In contrast, they were absent from species of the other subfamilies of Lamiaceae studied and from the related families Verbenaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Acanthaceae and Buddlejaceae. The compounds were isolated from Plectranthus crassus and identified by NMR spectroscopy as the known caffeic acid esters ( Z,E )-[2-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)ethenyl] 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoate and ( Z,E )-[2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethenyl] 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoate, for which the trivial names nepetoidins A and B are proposed. The presence of this pair of caffeic acid esters adds another character to the chemical, palynological and embryological features distinguishing the Nepetoideae from the other subfamilies of Lamiaceae and related families, and supports the view that the Nepetoideae are a specialised and monophyletic group within the family. Nepetoidin B was shown to have a greater antioxidant activity than gallic, rosmarinic and caffeic acids, and showed activity as an insect phagostimulant. Both compounds were antifungal. ( Z,E )-[2-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)ethenyl]3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoate ( 1 ) and ( Z,E )-[2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethenyl]3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoate ( 2 ) were detected in leaf surface extracts of the great majority of species investigated for subfamily Nepetoideae of the Lamiaceae, whereas they were absent from species of the other subfamilies examined. Hence they are of chemotaxonomic significance. Compound 2 showed a high antioxidant activity.
    Keywords: Lamiaceae ; Nepetoideae ; ( Z,E)-[2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)Ethenyl] 3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-2-Propenoate ; ( Z,E)-[2-(3,5-Dihydroxyphenyl)Ethenyl] 3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-2-Propenoate ; Caffeic Acid Esters ; Chemosystematics ; Free Radical Scavenging Activity ; Antifungal ; Insect Phagostimulant ; Botany
    ISSN: 0031-9422
    E-ISSN: 1873-3700
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Gerontologist, 2000, Vol.40(4), p.492
    Description: Describes a two-year collaborative project that improved the reporting and management of potential and suspected elder abuse situations involving persons with dementia. The educational curriculum and cross training program as well as the handbook for caregivers are discussed. Project organization, implementation, and evaluation are also discussed along with strategies for replication in other communities. (Author/MKA)
    Keywords: Cooperation ; Curriculum ; Dementia ; Elder Abuse ; Guides ; Intervention ; Models ; Older Adults ; Program Evaluation ; Training ; Medicine ; Social Welfare & Social Work
    ISSN: 0016-9013
    E-ISSN: 1758-5341
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  • 7
    Keywords: 633.85394
    Source: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 2002, Vol.30(4), pp.327-342
    Description: Thirty-one accessions of nine species belonging to three subgenera of Ocimum (basil, family Lamiaceae) were surveyed for flavonoid glycosides. Substantial infraspecific differences in flavonoid profiles of the leaves were found only in O. americanum, where var. pilosum accumulated the flavone C-glycoside, vicenin-2, which only occurred in trace amounts in var. americanum and was not detected in cv. Sacred. The major flavonoids in var. americanum and cv. Sacred, and also in all other species investigated for subgenus Ocimum, were flavonol 3-O-glucosides and 3-O-rutinosides. Many species in subgenus Ocimum also produced the more unusual compound, quercetin 3-O-(6"-O-malonyl)glucoside, and small amounts of flavone O-glycosides. The level of flavonol glycosides produced was reduced significantly in glass-house-grown plants, but levels of flavone glycosides were unaffected. A single species investigated from subgenus Nautochilus, O. lamiifolium, had a different flavonoid glycoside profile, although the major compound was also a flavonol O-glycoside. This was identified as quercetin 3-O-xylosyl(1''' to 2")galactoside, using NMR spectroscopy. The species investigated from subgenus Gymnocimum, O. tenuiflorum (=O. sanctum), was characterised by the accumulation of flavone O-glycosides. These were isolated, and identified as the 7-O-glucuronides of luteolin and apigenin. Luteolin 5-O-glucoside was found in all nine species of Ocimum studied, and is considered to be a key character for the genus. ; p. 327-342.
    Keywords: Ocimum ; Basil ; Lamiaceae ; Flavonoid Glycosides ; Luteolin 5- O-Glucoside ; Quercetin 3- O-(6″- O-Malonyl)Glucoside ; Quercetin 3- O-Xylosyl(1″′→2″)Galactoside ; Chemosystematics ; Infraspecific Chemical Variation ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0305-1978
    E-ISSN: 1873-2925
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Arthritis & Rheumatism, September 2003, Vol.48(9), pp.2541-2554
    Description: OBJECTIVETreatment with anti-CD154 antibody is known to ameliorate murine lupus nephritis when given early in the disease. The aims of this study were to identify the mechanism of this early effect, to determine whether late anti-CD154 treatment could halt established nephritis, and, if so, to examine potential mechanisms of late efficacy. METHODSWe studied the effects of anti-CD154 treatment on autoantibody production and immune complex deposition, renal pathology, survival, and renal cytokine and chemokine messenger RNA (mRNA) expression both in (NZB x NZW)F(1) mice (BW mice) and in NZM.2410 mice. RESULTSEarly treatment with anti-CD154 produced long-term survival in BW mice, with abrogation of renal immune complex deposition for months after treatment was stopped. Late anti-CD154 treatment, started after development of nephritis, could halt disease in approximately 40% of mice. In some mice, proteinuria could be reversed repeatedly with sequential courses of anti-CD154 antibody. The remissions induced by late treatment with anti-CD154 occurred despite ongoing renal immune complex deposition. In preliminary studies, responding mice had rapid reductions in renal mRNA for transforming growth factor beta, interleukin-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. CONCLUSIONAmelioration of murine lupus by anti-CD154 therapy is mediated by distinct mechanisms in early versus late intervention. We postulate that anti-CD154 therapy prevents autoantibody production and renal immune complex deposition in the early, induction phase and limits secondary tissue damage in situ in the late, effector phase. These data demonstrate that CD40-CD154 interactions are critical for the maintenance of autoimmunity and suggest a potential role for anti-CD154 as a therapeutic agent in established human lupus.
    Keywords: Animals–Pharmacology ; Antibodies–Analysis ; Antigen-Antibody Complex–Immunology ; Cd40 Ligand–Genetics ; Chemokines–Genetics ; Cytokines–Immunology ; Female–Methods ; Gene Expression–Chemistry ; Immunotherapy–Immunology ; Kidney–Pathology ; Lupus Nephritis–Immunology ; Mice–Pathology ; Mice, Inbred Balb C–Therapy ; Mice, Inbred Nzb–Analysis ; RNA, Messenger–Analysis ; Time Factors–Analysis ; Abridged ; Antibodies ; Antigen-Antibody Complex ; Chemokines ; Cytokines ; RNA, Messenger ; Cd40 Ligand;
    ISSN: 0004-3591
    E-ISSN: 1529-0131
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Gut, 16 August 2012, Vol.61(8), p.1132
    Description: To differentiate dys-synergic defaecation (DD) from normal function and slow transit constipation (STC).
    Keywords: Pathophysiology ; Pelvic Floor ; Rectal Evacuation Disorder ; Manometry ; Anal Sphincter Pressure ; Ascending Colon Half-Emptying Time ; Descending Colon ; Rectosigmoid ; Anorectal Disorders ; Motility Disorders ; Pelvic Floor Disorders ; Inflammatory Bowel Disorders ; Pharmacogenetics ; Inflammatory Bowel Syndrome ; Dyspepsia ; Pharmacotherapy
    ISSN: 0017-5749
    ISSN: 00175749
    E-ISSN: 1468-3288
    E-ISSN: 14683288
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