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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 03 September 2013, Vol.110(36), pp.14735-40
    Description: Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a hallmark of acute inflammatory lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. This disruption may precede and facilitate the infiltration of encephalitogenic T cells. The signaling events that lead to this BBB disruption are incompletely understood but appear to involve dysregulation of tight-junction proteins such as claudins. Pharmacological interventions aiming at stabilizing the BBB in MS might have therapeutic potential. Here, we show that the orally available small molecule LY-317615, a synthetic bisindolylmaleimide and inhibitor of protein kinase Cβ, which is clinically under investigation for the treatment of cancer, suppresses the transmigration of activated T cells through an inflamed endothelial cell barrier, where it leads to the induction of the tight-junction molecules zona occludens-1, claudin 3, and claudin 5 and other pathways critically involved in transendothelial leukocyte migration. Treatment of mice with ongoing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with LY-317615 ameliorates inflammation, demyelination, axonal damage, and clinical symptoms. Although LY-317615 dose-dependently suppresses T-cell proliferation and cytokine production independent of antigen specificity, its therapeutic effect is abrogated in a mouse model requiring pertussis toxin. This abrogation indicates that the anti-inflammatory and clinical efficacy is mainly mediated by stabilization of the BBB, thus suppressing the transmigration of encephalitogenic T cells. Collectively, our data suggest the involvement of endothelial protein kinase Cβ in stabilizing the BBB in autoimmune neuroinflammation and imply a therapeutic potential of BBB-targeting agents such as LY-317615 as therapeutic approaches for MS.
    Keywords: CNS ; Eae ; Enzastaurin ; Blood-Brain Barrier -- Drug Effects ; Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental -- Prevention & Control ; Indoles -- Pharmacology ; Protein Kinase C Beta -- Antagonists & Inhibitors
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    In: Nature, 2011, Vol.478(7368), p.197
    Description: Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) by environmental xenobiotic toxic chemicals, for instance 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin), has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes such as embryogenesis, transformation, tumorigenesis and inflammation. But the identity of an endogenous ligand activating the AHR under physiological conditions in the absence of environmental toxic chemicals is still unknown. Here we identify the tryptophan (Trp) catabolite kynurenine (Kyn) as an endogenous ligand of the human AHR that is constitutively generated by human tumour cells via tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), a liver- and neuron-derived Trp-degrading enzyme not yet implicated in cancer biology. TDO-derived Kyn suppresses antitumour immune responses and promotes tumour-cell survival and motility through the AHR in an autocrine/paracrine fashion. The TDO-AHR pathway is active in human brain tumours and is associated with malignant progression and poor survival. Because Kyn is produced during cancer progression and inflammation in the local microenvironment in amounts sufficient for activating the human AHR, these results provide evidence for a previously unidentified pathophysiological function of the AHR with profound implications for cancer and immune biology.
    Keywords: Sciences (General) ; Physics;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, Sept 3, 2013, Vol.110(36), p.14735(6)
    Description: Disruption of the blood--brain barrier (BBB) is a hallmark of acute inflammatory lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. This disruption may precede and facilitate the infiltration of encephalitogenic T cells. The signaling events that lead to this BBB disruption are incompletely understood but appear to involve dysregulation of tight-junction proteins such as claudins. Pharmacological interventions aiming at stabilizing the BBB in MS might have therapeutic potential. Here, we show that the orally available small molecule LY-317615, a synthetic bisindolylmaleimide and inhibitor of protein kinase C[beta], which is clinically under investigation for the treatment of cancer, suppresses the transmigration of activated T cells through an inflamed endothelial cell barrier, where it leads to the induction of the tight-junction molecules zona occludens-1, claudin 3, and claudin 5 and other pathways critically involved in transendothelial leukocyte migration. Treatment of mice with ongoing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with LY-317615 ameliorates inflammation, demyelination, axonal damage, and clinical symptoms. Although LY-317615 dose-dependently suppresses T-cell proliferation and cytokine production independent of antigen specificity, its therapeutic effect is abrogated in a mouse model requiring pertussis toxin. This abrogation indicates that the anti-inflammatory and clinical efficacy is mainly mediated by stabilization of the BBB, thus suppressing the transmigration of encephalitogenic T cells. Collectively, our data suggest the involvement of endothelial protein kinase C[beta] in stabilizing the BBB in autoimmune neuroinflammation and imply a therapeutic potential of BBB-targeting agents such as LY-317615 as therapeutic approaches for MS. EAE | enzastaurin | CNS www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1302569110
    Keywords: Protein Kinases -- Physiological Aspects ; Protein Kinases -- Health Aspects ; Blood-brain Barrier -- Physiological Aspects ; Blood-brain Barrier -- Health Aspects ; Encephalomyelitis -- Physiological Aspects
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    In: Nature, 2014
    Description: Monoallelic point mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase type 1 (IDH1) are an early and defining event in the development of a subgroup of gliomas (1-3) and other types of tumour (4-6). They almost uniformly occur in the critical arginine residue (Arg 132) in the catalytic pocket, resulting in a neomorphic enzymatic function, production of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) (7,8), genomic hypermethylation (9-11), genetic instability and malignant transformation (12). More than 70% of diffuse grade II and grade III gliomas carry the most frequent mutation, IDH1(R132H) (ref. 3). From an immunological perspective, IDH1(R132H) represents a potential target for immunotherapy as it is a tumour-specific potential neoantigen with high uniformity and penetrance expressed in all tumour cells (13,14). Here we demonstrate that IDH1(R132H) contains an immunogenic epitope suitable for mutation-specific vaccination. Peptides encompassing the mutated region are presented on major histocompatibility complexes (MHC) class II and induce mutation-specific [CD4.sup.+] T-helper-1 ([T.sub.H]1) responses. [CD4.sup.+] [T.sub.H]1 cells and antibodies spontaneously occurring in patients with IDH1(R132H)-mutated gliomas specifically recognize IDH1(R132H). Peptide vaccination of mice devoid of mouse MHC and transgenic for human MHC class I and II with IDH1(R132H) p123-142 results in an effective MHC class II-restricted mutation-specific antitumour immune response and control of pre-established syngeneic IDH1(R132H)-expressing tumours in a [CD4.sup.+] T-cell-dependent manner. As IDH1(R132H) is presentin all tumour cells of these slow-growing gliomas (15), a mutation-specific anti-IDH1(R132H) vaccine may represent a viable novel therapeutic strategy for IDH1(R132H)-mutated tumours.
    Keywords: Gene Mutation -- Identification And Classification ; Drug Targeting -- Research ; Gliomas -- Care And Treatment ; Gliomas -- Development And Progression ; Oxidoreductases -- Health Aspects ; Immune Response -- Research ; Cancer Research;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: 2012, Vol.7(10), p.e47663
    Description: Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is the catalytic subunit of the Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2) that epigenetically silences gene transcription through histone H3 lysine trimethylation (H3K27me3). EZH2 has been implicated in stem cell maintenance and is overexpressed in hematological and solid malignancie`s including malignant glioma. EZH2 is thought to promote tumor progression by silencing tumor suppressor genes. Hence pharmacological disruption of the PRC2 is an attractive therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment. Here we show that EZH2 is expressed in human glioma and correlates with malignancy. Silencing of EZH2 reduced glioma cell proliferation and invasiveness. While we did not observe induction of cell cycle-associated tumor suppressor genes by silencing or pharmacological inhibition of EZH2, microarray analyses demonstrated a strong transcriptional reduction of the AXL receptor kinase. Neither histone nor DNA methylation appeared to be involved in the positive regulation of AXL by EZH2. Silencing AXL mimicked the antiinvasive effects of EZH2 knockdown. Finally, AXL expression is found in human gliomas with high EZH2 expression. Collectively these data suggest that EZH2 drives glioma invasiveness via transcriptional control of AXL independent of histone or DNA methylation.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Genetics And Genomics ; Molecular Biology ; Computational Biology ; Oncology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Methods, 2011, Vol.53(1), pp.91-96
    Description: Modification-specific antibodies are important tools to examine the dynamics and functions of posttranslational protein modifications in cells. Here, we describe in detail the generation of polyclonal antibodies specific for mono-, di-, and trimethylated lysine 51 within the HIV transactivator Tat. Lysine 51 is a highly conserved residue located in the RNA-binding region of Tat and the target of lysine methyltransferases KMT1E (SETDB1) and KMT7 (Set7/9). Using affinity-purified methyl-specific antibodies of Tat, we find that cellular Tat is predominantly monomethylated at lysine 51, a modification enhanced by coexpression of KMT7.
    Keywords: HIV Tat ; ARM Region ; Lysine Methylation ; Methyl-Lysine Specific Antibodies ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 1046-2023
    E-ISSN: 1095-9130
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  • 7
    In: Journal of Neurochemistry, March 2016, Vol.136(6), pp.1142-1154
    Description: We proposed that in malignant gliomas prostaglandin E (PGE) produced by cyclooxygenases (COX) up‐regulates tryptophan‐2,3‐dioxygenase (TDO) expression and enzyme activity through binding to its Gs‐coupled receptor EP4 and therefore may mediate tumor immune escape in part through aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) activation. Moreover, TDO activity itself seems to induce intratumoral PGE metabolism suggesting an immunosuppressive loop involving COX/EP4/TDO.
    Keywords: Tryptophan‐2 ; 3‐Dioxygenase ; Glioma ; Immunosuppression ; Prostaglandin
    ISSN: 0022-3042
    E-ISSN: 1471-4159
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2013, Vol.8(8), p.e70373
    Description: Piccolo is one of the largest cytomatrix proteins present at active zones of chemical synapses, where it is suggested to play a role in recruiting and integrating molecules relevant for both synaptic vesicle exo- and endocytosis. Here we examined the retina of a Piccolo-mutant mouse with a targeted deletion of exon 14 in the Pclo gene. Piccolo deficiency resulted in its profound loss at conventional chemical amacrine cell synapses but retinal ribbon synapses were structurally and functionally unaffected. This led to the identification of a shorter, ribbon-specific Piccolo variant, Piccolino, present in retinal photoreceptor cells, bipolar cells, as well as in inner hair cells of the inner ear. By RT-PCR analysis and the generation of a Piccolino-specific antibody we show that non-splicing of intron 5/6 leads to premature translation termination and generation of the C-terminally truncated protein specifically expressed at active zones of ribbon synapse containing cell types. With in situ proximity ligation assays we provide evidence that this truncation leads to the absence of interaction sites for Bassoon, Munc13, and presumably also ELKS/CAST, RIM2, and the L-type Ca(2) (+) channel which exist in the full-length Piccolo at active zones of conventional chemical synapses. The putative lack of interactions with proteins of the active zone suggests a function of Piccolino at ribbon synapses of sensory neurons different from Piccolo's function at conventional chemical synapses.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of neuroinflammation, 23 January 2014, Vol.11, pp.14
    Description: Prophylaxis with unmethylated cytosine phosphate guanidine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) protects against several systemic experimental infections. Escherichia coli is a major cause of Gram-negative neonatal bacterial meningitis and also causes meningitis and meningoencephalitis in older and immunocompromised patients. Wild-type (wt) and Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-deficient mice were rendered neutropenic by intraperitoneal administration of the anti-Ly-6G monoclonal antibody. Immunocompetent and neutropenic mice received intraperitoneal CpG ODN or vehicle 72 h prior to induction of E. coli K1 meningoencephalitis. Pre-treatment with CpG ODN significantly increased survival of neutropenic wt mice from 33% to 75% (P = 0.0003) but did not protect neutropenic TLR9-/- mice. The protective effect of CpG ODN was associated with an enhanced production of interleukin (IL)-12/IL-23p40 with sustained increased levels in serum and spleen at least for 17 days after conditioning compared to buffer-treated animals. CpG-treated neutropenic wt mice showed reduced bacterial concentrations and increased recruitment of Ly6ChighCCR2+ monocytes in brain and spleen 42 h after infection. The levels of macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in spleen were higher 42 h after infection in CpG-treated compared to buffer-treated neutropenic animals. In immunocompetent mice, prophylaxis with CpG ODN did not significantly increase survival compared to the buffer group (60% vs. 45%, P = 0.2). These findings suggest that systemic administration of CpG ODN may help to prevent bacterial CNS infections in immunocompromised individuals.
    Keywords: Escherichia Coli Infections -- Prevention & Control ; Guanidine -- Chemistry ; Oligodeoxyribonucleotides -- Therapeutic Use
    E-ISSN: 1742-2094
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Acta neuropathologica, April 2017, Vol.133(4), pp.629-644
    Description: Mutations in codon 132 of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 are frequent in diffuse glioma, acute myeloid leukemia, chondrosarcoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. These mutations result in a neomorphic enzyme specificity which leads to a dramatic increase of intracellular D-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) in tumor cells. Therefore, mutant IDH1 protein is a highly attractive target for inhibitory drugs. Here, we describe the development and properties of BAY 1436032, a pan-inhibitor of IDH1 protein with different codon 132 mutations. BAY 1436032 strongly reduces 2-HG levels in cells carrying IDH1-R132H, -R132C, -R132G, -R132S and -R132L mutations. Cells not carrying IDH mutations were unaffected. BAY 1436032 did not exhibit toxicity in vitro or in vivo. The pharmacokinetic properties of BAY 1436032 allow for oral administration. In two independent experiments, BAY 1436032 has been shown to significantly prolong survival of mice intracerebrally transplanted with human astrocytoma carrying the IDH1R132H mutation. In conclusion, we developed a pan-inhibitor targeting tumors with different IDH1R132 mutations.
    Keywords: Drug Development ; Idh-Mutated Glioma ; Idh1r132 Inhibitor ; Mouse Xenograft ; Pharmacology ; Therapy ; Aniline Compounds -- Pharmacology ; Antineoplastic Agents -- Pharmacology ; Astrocytoma -- Drug Therapy ; Benzimidazoles -- Pharmacology ; Brain Neoplasms -- Drug Therapy ; Isocitrate Dehydrogenase -- Antagonists & Inhibitors
    ISSN: 00016322
    E-ISSN: 1432-0533
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