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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Primate Biology, 2017, Vol.4(2), pp.143-151
    Description: Daily travel distance (DTD), the distance an animal moves over the course of the day, is an important metric in movement ecology. It provides data with which to test hypotheses related to energetics and behaviour, e.g. impact of group size or food distribution on DTDs. The automated tracking of movements by applying GPS technology has become widely available and easy to implement. However, due to battery duration constraints, it is necessary to select a tracking-time resolution, which inevitably introduces an underestimation of the true underlying path distance. Here we give a quantification of this inherent systematic underestimation of DTDs for a terrestrial primate, the Guinea baboon. We show that sampling protocols with interval lengths from 1 to 120 min underestimate DTDs on average by 7 to 35 %. For longer time intervals (i.e. 60, 90, 120 min), the relative increase of deviation from the 〈q〉true〈/q〉 trajectory is less pronounced than for shorter intervals. Our study provides first hints on the magnitude of error, which can be applied as a corrective when estimating absolute DTDs in calculations on travelling costs in terrestrial primates.
    Keywords: Zoology;
    ISSN: Primate Biology
    ISSN: 23634707
    E-ISSN: 2363-4715
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2017, Vol.162(1), p.15(17)
    Description: Primate social systems are remarkably diverse, and thus play a central role in understanding social evolution, including the biological origin of human societies. Although baboons have been prominently featured in this context, historically little was known about the westernmost member of the genus, the Guinea baboon (〈em〉Papio papio〈/em〉). Material and Methods Here, we summarize the findings from the first years of observations at the field site CRP Simenti in the Niokolo Koba National Park in Senegal. Results Guinea baboons reveal a nested multi-level social organization, with reproductive units comprising one oprimaryo male, one to several females, young, and occasionally osecondaryo males at the base of the society. Three to five units form oparties,o which team up with other parties to form a ogang.o Different gangs have largely overlapping home ranges and agonistic interactions between different parties or gangs are rare. Some but not all strongly socially bonded males are highly related, and population genetic and behavioral evidence indicate female-biased dispersal. Females play an important role in intersexual bond formation and maintenance, and female tenure length varies between a few weeks to several years. Discussion While the social organization resembles that of hamadryas baboons (〈em〉P. hamadryas〈/em〉), the social structure differs considerably, specifically in terms of low male aggressiveness and female freedom. Despite substantial differences in social organization and social structure, the acoustic structure of Guinea baboon vocalizations does not differ substantially from that of other baboon taxa. With its multi-level organization, stable bonds between males and females, as well as a high-degree of male-male cooperation and tolerance, Guinea baboons constitute an intriguing model for reconstructing human social evolution.
    Keywords: Guinea Baboon – Research ; Guinea Baboon – Genetic Aspects ; Primates – Research ; Evolution (Biology) – Research
    ISSN: 0002-9483
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    In: American Journal of Physical Anthropology, January 2017, Vol.162, pp.15-31
    Description: Abstract Objectives Primate social systems are remarkably diverse, and thus play a central role in understanding social evolution, including the biological origin of human societies. Although baboons have been prominently featured in this context, historically little was known about the westernmost member of the genus, the Guinea baboon ( Papio papio ). Material and Methods Here, we summarize the findings from the first years of observations at the field site CRP Simenti in the Niokolo Koba National Park in Senegal. Results Guinea baboons reveal a nested multi‐level social organization, with reproductive units comprising one “primary” male, one to several females, young, and occasionally “secondary” males at the base of the society. Three to five units form “parties,” which team up with other parties to form a “gang.” Different gangs have largely overlapping home ranges and agonistic interactions between different parties or gangs are rare. Some but not all strongly socially bonded males are highly related, and population genetic and behavioral evidence indicate female‐biased dispersal. Females play an important role in intersexual bond formation and maintenance, and female tenure length varies between a few weeks to several years. Discussion While the social organization resembles that of hamadryas baboons ( P. hamadryas ), the social structure differs considerably, specifically in terms of low male aggressiveness and female freedom. Despite substantial differences in social organization and social structure, the acoustic structure of Guinea baboon vocalizations does not differ substantially from that of other baboon taxa. With its multi‐level organization, stable bonds between males and females, as well as a high‐degree of male‐male cooperation and tolerance, Guinea baboons constitute an intriguing model for reconstructing human social evolution.
    Keywords: Female Dispersal ; Guinea Baboons ; Human Evolution ; Nested Multi‐Level Society ; Papio Papio ; Primate Evolution ; Social System
    ISSN: 0002-9483
    E-ISSN: 1096-8644
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2015, Vol.10(11), p.e0143100
    Description: The bacterium Treponema pallidum is known to cause syphilis (ssp. pallidum), yaws (ssp. pertenue), and endemic syphilis (ssp. endemicum) in humans. Nonhuman primates have also been reported to be infected with the bacterium with equally versatile...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    In: Ecology and Evolution, March 2017, Vol.7(5), pp.1435-1441
    Description: Seed dispersal is a key ecological process in tropical forests, with effects on various levels ranging from plant reproductive success to the carbon storage potential of tropical rainforests. On a local and landscape scale, spatial patterns of seed dispersal create the template for the recruitment process and thus influence the population dynamics of plant species. The strength of this influence will depend on the long‐term consistency of spatial patterns of seed dispersal. We examined the long‐term consistency of spatial patterns of seed dispersal with spatially explicit data on seed dispersal by two neotropical primate species, and (Callitrichidae), collected during four independent studies between 1994 and 2013. Using distributions of dispersal probability over distances independent of plant species, cumulative dispersal distances, and kernel density estimates, we show that spatial patterns of seed dispersal are highly consistent over time. For a specific plant species, the legume , the convergence of cumulative distributions at a distance of 300 m, and the high probability of dispersal within 100 m from source trees coincide with the dimension of the spatial–genetic structure on the embryo/juvenile (300 m) and adult stage (100 m), respectively, of this plant species. Our results are the first demonstration of long‐term consistency of spatial patterns of seed dispersal created by tropical frugivores. Such consistency may translate into idiosyncratic patterns of regeneration. We analysed the long‐term consistency of spatial patterns of seed dispersal with spatially explicit data on seed dispersal by two Neotropical primate species, and (Callitrichidae). Examining distributions of dispersal probability over distances, cumulative dispersal distances and kernel density estimates, we demonstrate for the first time long‐term consistency of spatial patterns of seed dispersal created by tropical frugivores.
    Keywords: Dispersal ; Dispersal Distances ; Frugivores ; Kernel Density Estimates ; Plant–Animal Interactions ; Tropical Forest
    ISSN: 2045-7758
    E-ISSN: 2045-7758
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Social Psychology of Education: An International Journal, December 2013, Vol.16(4), p.555
    Description: Research on school tracking has provided evidence that students with immigrant backgrounds are overrepresented in the lower school tracks. As teachers are the main decision makers when it comes to tracking, we investigated whether teachers'...
    Keywords: Social Bias ; Track System (Education) ; Teacher Attitudes ; Immigrants ; Student Characteristics ; Profiles ; Value Judgment ; Academic Achievement ; Negative Attitudes ; Protocol Analysis ; Education ; Psychology
    ISSN: 1381-2890
    E-ISSN: 1573-1928
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  • 7
    Language: German
    In: Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 2013, Vol.16(2), pp.355-379
    Description: Mit dieser Studie wurde anhand einer Stichprobe von 2925 Schülern aus luxemburgischen Grundschulen geprüft, inwieweit die Leistungen von Schülern luxemburgischer Grundschulen und Merkmale ihres sozialen Hintergrundes Eingang finden in die Sekundarschulempfehlungen, die am Ende ihrer Grundschulzeit ausgesprochen wurden. Zur Analyse des Gewichts unterschiedlicher Prädiktoren für die Sekundarschulempfehlung wurde ein Zweiebenenmodell der logistischen Regression verwendet. Im Wesentlichen ergaben sich folgende Befunde: Schulnoten und Ergebnisse aus standardisierten Schulleistungstests stellten die stärksten Prädiktoren für die Sekundarschulempfehlung dar. Nach den individuellen Schülerleistungen war der Elternwunsch der stärkste Prädiktor für die Sekundarschulempfehlung. Darüber hinaus hingen sowohl die Nationalität als auch der sozioökonomische Status der Schüler mit der Sekundarschulempfehlung zusammen. Selbst bei Kontrolle ihrer schulischen Leistungen erhielten Schüler mit Migrationshintergrund seltener eine Empfehlung für den höchsten Schulzweig als Schüler ohne Migrationshintergrund. Ein hohes Klassenleistungsniveau führte bei Kontrolle der individuellen Leistungen seltener zu Empfehlungen für den höchsten Schulzweig als ein niedriges Klassenleistungsniveau. This study used a sample of 2925 primary school students in Luxembourg to test the extent to which students’ performance and their social background influence the recommendations for secondary school type that are made at the end of primary schooling. A two-level model of logistic regression was used in order to analyse the importance of various predictors. The main findings were as follows: School marks and the results from standardized testing were the strongest predictors for a secondary school recommendation. After individual student performance, the strongest predictors were parental wishes. Further factors related to the school recommendation were nationality and socio-economic status. Even after controlling for student performance, students with migration background received a recommendation for academic-track secondary schooling less often than students without. A high performance class leads, after controlling for individual performance, less often to a recommendation for academic track secondary schooling than a low performance class.
    Keywords: Educational tracks ; Luxembourg ; Migration background ; Predictors ; Student performance ; Secondary school recommendations ; Socio-economic status
    ISSN: 1434-663X
    E-ISSN: 1862-5215
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  • 8
    In: Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal, 03/01/2012, Vol.Special 1(1), pp.856-862
    ISSN: Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal
    E-ISSN: 20402589
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 9
    In: International Journal of Technology and Inclusive Education, 12/01/2012, Vol.1(2), pp.86-95
    ISSN: International Journal of Technology and Inclusive Education
    E-ISSN: 20470533
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Blood, 10 December 2015, Vol.126(24), pp.2592-600
    Description: Hematopoietic cells depend on integrin-mediated adhesion and signaling, which is induced by kindlin-3 and talin-1. To determine whether platelet and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) functions require specific thresholds of kindlin-3, we generated mouse strains expressing 50%, 10%, or 5% of normal kindlin-3 levels. We report that in contrast to kindlin-3-null mice, which die perinatally of severe bleeding and leukocyte adhesion deficiency, mice expressing as little as 5% of kindlin-3 were viable and protected from spontaneous bleeding and infections. However, platelet adhesion and aggregation were reduced in vitro and bleeding times extended. Similarly, leukocyte adhesion, extravasation, and bacterial clearance were diminished. Quantification of protein copy numbers revealed stoichiometric quantities of kindlin-3 and talin-1 in platelets and neutrophils, indicating that reduction of kindlin-3 in our mouse strains progressively impairs the cooperation with talin-1. Our findings show that very low levels of kindlin-3 enable basal platelet and neutrophil functions, whereas in stress situations such as injury and infection, platelets and neutrophils require a maximum of functional integrins that is achieved with high and stoichiometric quantities of kindlin-3 and talin-1.
    Keywords: Blood Platelets -- Physiology ; Cytoskeletal Proteins -- Physiology ; Leukocytes -- Immunology
    ISSN: 00064971
    E-ISSN: 1528-0020
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