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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Narrative, Oct, 2013, Vol.21(3), p.284(12)
    Keywords: Postmodern Literature -- Criticism And Interpretation
    ISSN: 1063-3685
    E-ISSN: 1538974X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    In: Ecology, October 2011, Vol.92(10), pp.2006-2006
    Description: This data set presents a food web for Otago Harbour, an intertidal mudflat ecosystem in New Zealand. The harbor consists of a series of mudflats exposed at low tide, each separated from its closest neighbor by 200–400 m. This food web has three noteworthy attributes: (1) high resolution of free‐living organisms, (2) inclusion of metazoan parasites and other infectious agents, and (3) inclusion of ontogenetic stages of parasites with complex life cycles. The food web contains 180 nodes, 142 species/assemblages, and 1924 links. Of the 142 species/assemblages, 3 are basal, 123 are free‐living, and 19 are infectious. Data on the free‐living assemblages and parasitism were gathered during original field sampling and supplemented with information from additional published sources and local expert knowledge. Taxonomic resolution is high, although a few functional or taxonomic groups (e.g., phytoplankton, macroalgae) are lumped into single nodes. Each ontogenetic stage of parasites with complex life cycles is treated separately and coded accordingly. For each node, we have included additional information such as taxonomy, life history, residency, and mobility. Further, for each link, we define a specific interaction type. We present the data and metadata in the system‐neutral format standardized by R. F. Hechinger and colleagues, and thus we recognize variables that are not represented in our data set but may be added by further study.
    Keywords: Benthos ; Complex Life Cycles ; Consumer–Resource ; Food Webs ; Infectious Agents ; Intertidal Mudflat ; Otago Harbour ; Parasites ; Trematodes ; Trophic Interactions
    ISSN: 0012-9658
    E-ISSN: 1939-9170
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  • 3
    In: Ecology, October 2011, Vol.92(10), pp.2005-2005
    Description: This data set presents a food web for the Sylt tidal basin, an intertidal ecosystem in Germany and Denmark. The intertidal part of this bight consists of extensive tidal flats with the main habitats being lugworm sandflats, seagrass meadows, and mixed mussel and oyster beds. This food web has three noteworthy attributes: (1) high resolution of free‐living organisms, (2) inclusion of metazoan parasites and other infectious agents, and (3) inclusion of ontogenetic stages of parasites with complex life cycles. The food web contains 230 nodes, 161 species/assemblages, and 3338 links. Of the 161 species/assemblages, 6 are basal, 120 are free‐living, and 35 are infectious. Data on the free‐living assemblages and parasitism were gathered during original field sampling and supplemented with information from additional published sources and local expert knowledge. Taxonomic resolution is high, although a few functional or taxonomic groups (e.g., phytoplankton, macroalgae) are lumped into single nodes. Each ontogenetic stage of parasites with complex life cycles is treated separately and coded accordingly. For each node, we have included additional information such as taxonomy, life history, residency, and vagility. Further, for each link, we define a specific interaction type. We present the data and metadata in the system‐neutral format standardized by R. F. Hechinger and colleagues, and thus we recognize variables that are not represented in our data set but may be added by further study.
    Keywords: Benthos ; Complex Life-Cycles ; Consumer–Resource ; Food Webs ; Infectious Agents ; Intertidal Parasites ; Sylt Basin ; Trematodes ; Trophic Interactions
    ISSN: 0012-9658
    E-ISSN: 1939-9170
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Social Science & Medicine, May, 2010, Vol.70(9), p.1295(6)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.01.032 Byline: Robert H. McLaughlin (a), Christina A. Clarke (b), LaVera M. Crawley (c), Sally L. Glaser (b) Abstract: Population-based cancer registration, mandated throughout the United States, is central to quantifying the breadth and impact of cancer. It facilitates research to learn what causes cancer to develop and, in many cases, lead to death. However, as concerns about privacy increase, cancer registration has come under question. Recently, its constitutionality was challenged on the basis of 1) the vagueness of statutory aims to pursue public health versus the individual privacy interests of cancer patients, and 2) the alleged indignity of one's individual medical information being transmitted to government authorities. Examining cancer registry statutes in states covered by the US National Cancer Institute's SEER Program and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Program of Cancer Registries, we found that cancer registration laws do state specific public health benefits, and offer reasonable limits and safeguards on the government's possession of private medical information. Thus, we argue that cancer registration would survive constitutional review, is compatible with the civil liberties protected by privacy rights in the U.S., satisfies the conditions that justify public health expenditures, and serves human rights to enjoy the highest attainable standards of health, the advances of science, and the benefits of government efforts to prevent and control disease. Author Affiliation: (a) Northern California Cancer Center, Legal and Regulatory Affairs, 2201 Walnut Ave., Suite 300, Fremont, CA 94530, United States (b) Northern California Cancer Center, and Stanford Cancer Center, United States (c) Stanford University Department of Pediatrics, Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics, and Stanford Cancer Center, United States
    Keywords: Cancer -- Health Aspects ; Civil Rights -- Health Aspects ; Health Care Costs -- Health Aspects ; Public Health -- Health Aspects ; Privacy -- Health Aspects
    ISSN: 0277-9536
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  • 5
    In: Ecological Applications, December 2018, Vol.28(8), pp.2066-2081
    Description: Disruption of movement patterns due to alterations in habitat connectivity is a pervasive effect of humans on animal populations. In many terrestrial and aquatic systems, there is increasing tension between the need to simultaneously allow passage of some species while blocking the passage of other species. We explore the ecological basis for selective fragmentation of riverine systems where the need to restrict movements of invasive species conflicts with the need to allow passage of species of commercial, recreational, or conservation concern. We develop a trait‐based framework for selective fish passage based on understanding the types of movements displayed by fishes and the role of ecological filters in determining the spatial distributions of fishes. We then synthesize information on trait‐based mechanisms involved with these filters to create a multidimensional niche space based on attributes such as physical capabilities, body morphology, sensory capabilities, behavior, and movement phenology. Following this, we review how these mechanisms have been applied to achieve selective fish passage across anthropogenic barriers. To date, trap‐and‐sort or capture‐translocation efforts provide the best options for movement filters that are completely species selective, but these methods are hampered by the continual, high cost of manual sorting. Other less effective methods of selective passage risk collateral damage in the form of lower or higher than desired levels of passage. Fruitful areas for future work include using combinations of ecological and behavioral traits to passively segregate species; using taxon‐specific chemical or auditory cues to direct unwanted species away from passageways and into physical or ecological traps while attracting desirable species to passageways; and developing automated sorting mechanisms based on fish recognition systems. The trait‐based approach proposed for fish could serve as a template for selective fragmentation in other ecological systems.
    Keywords: Barriers ; Dispersal ; Fish Migration ; Fishway ; Habitat Fragmentation ; Invasive Species ; Selective Fish Passage
    ISSN: 1051-0761
    E-ISSN: 1939-5582
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Biological Conservation, 2011, Vol.144(3), pp.1068-1080
    Description: Tools restricting the movements of invasive species (e.g. barriers) and reducing habitat fragmentation for native species (e.g. corridors, fishways) provide examples where actions taken to address one environmental concern can hinder efforts to address another environmental concern. We used perturbation analysis of stage-structured projection matrices to evaluate the efficacy of seasonally operated barriers and fishways for controlling non-native sea lamprey ( ) in the Laurentian Great Lakes while minimizing effects on non-target fishes. For non-jumping fishes migrating in spring, seasonally operated barriers without a fishway will not balance the management objectives satisfactorily. Migration phenologies of the seven common non-target fishes considered in our analyses overlapped considerably with the migration phenology of sea lamprey, with peaks in migration typically being 7–43 days (median 12) from the peak in the sea lamprey migration. Consequently, across species, years, and tributaries, 44–100% of the migratory runs of non-target fishes would be blocked under the 75-day operation period required to block 99% of the sea lamprey spawning run, on average. Reductions in the production of non-target fishes due to blocking were also projected to be similar in magnitude to reductions projected in the production of sea lamprey, unless density-dependent compensation was strong or overlap in migration phenologies between a non-target species and sea lamprey was low. Even under density-dependent compensation, providing a fishway is advisable and passage of non-target fishes may have to be highly effective to avoid population declines in non-jumping species that migrate between a Great Lake and its tributaries.
    Keywords: Dams ; Fragmentation ; Fish Passage ; Invasive Species ; Matrix Models ; Sea Lamprey ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0006-3207
    E-ISSN: 18732917
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  • 7
    In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 2015, Vol.72(12), pp.1876-1885
    Description: Invasive sea lampreys ( Petromyzon marinus ) in the Laurentian Great Lakes are the target of binational control. Trapping of adults could be used for control if trap success was higher. At a hydro-generating station on the St. Marys River, we tested whether the probability of trap entry is low (0.2–0.3) because ( i ) lampreys spend insufficient time near traps to find and enter the trap, ( ii ) high discharge at trap sites makes attractant flow from traps difficult to detect or trap openings difficult to reach, and ( iii ) conspecifics impede trap entry. Discharge at the site was manipulated nightly, and the behaviour of lampreys at trap openings was video-recorded. Odds of a lamprey reaching a trap opening and entering the trap were 3.4 and 1.6 times higher, respectively, with every second spent at a trap. The probability of reaching a trap was not lower on nights when discharge was high or when conspecifics were present at the trap opening. Improved trap entry will require manipulation of stimuli other than discharge that affect the time spent at traps.
    Description: La lamproie marine ( Petromyzon marinus ), une espèce envahissante dans les Grands Lacs laurentiens, y est la cible d’une lutte binationale. Le piégeage d’adultes pourrait être utilisé dans le cadre de ces efforts, si son efficacité était plus grande. À une centrale hydroélectrique sur la rivière Sainte-Marie, nous avons vérifié si la probabilité d’entrée dans les pièges était faible (0,2–0,3) parce que ( i ) les lamproies ne passent pas assez de temps près des pièges pour les trouver et y entrer, ( ii ) des débits élevés aux emplacements de pièges rendent le débit attractif des pièges difficile à détecter ou l’ouverture des pièges difficile à rejoindre ou ( iii ) des conspécifiques entravent l’entrée dans le piège. Le débit au site était modifié chaque nuit et des enregistrements vidéo du comportement des lamproies aux ouvertures des pièges ont été obtenus. La probabilité qu’une lamproie atteigne l’ouverture d’un piège et y entre augmentait par un facteur de 3,4 et 1,6, respectivement, à chaque seconde passée au piège. La probabilité d’atteindre un piège n’était pas plus faible les nuits où le débit était élevé ou quand des conspécifiques étaient présents à l’ouverture du piège. L’amélioration de l’entrée dans les pièges nécessitera la modulation de stimuli autres que le débit qui ont une incidence sur le temps passé près des pièges. [Traduit par la Rédaction]
    ISSN: 0706-652X
    E-ISSN: 1205-7533
    Source: NRC Research Press
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Social Science & Medicine, 2010, Vol.70(9), pp.1295-1300
    Description: Population-based cancer registration, mandated throughout the United States, is central to quantifying the breadth and impact of cancer. It facilitates research to learn what causes cancer to develop and, in many cases, lead to death. However, as concerns about privacy increase, cancer registration has come under question. Recently, its constitutionality was challenged on the basis of 1) the vagueness of statutory aims to pursue public health versus the individual privacy interests of cancer patients, and 2) the alleged indignity of one's individual medical information being transmitted to government authorities. Examining cancer registry statutes in states covered by the US National Cancer Institute's SEER Program and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Program of Cancer Registries, we found that cancer registration laws do state specific public health benefits, and offer reasonable limits and safeguards on the government's possession of private medical information. Thus, we argue that cancer registration would survive constitutional review, is compatible with the civil liberties protected by privacy rights in the U.S., satisfies the conditions that justify public health expenditures, and serves human rights to enjoy the highest attainable standards of health, the advances of science, and the benefits of government efforts to prevent and control disease.
    Keywords: Cancer Registries ; Constitutionality ; Privacy ; Population-Based Epidemiology ; Health Surveillance ; USA ; Medicine ; Social Sciences (General) ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0277-9536
    E-ISSN: 1873-5347
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Cancer research, 15 June 2017, Vol.77(12), pp.3140-3143
    Description: On January 19, 2017, the United States federal government issued revisions to the Common Rule under which scientists who receive federal funding conduct research involving human subjects. The revised Common Rule expressly addresses public health surveillance in relation to scientific research and the protection of human subjects, and its impacts are anticipated to contribute to the efficiency of activities, including cancer registration and surveillance, and research that uses cancer registry data. .
    Keywords: Epidemiological Monitoring ; Neoplasms -- Epidemiology ; Research Subjects -- Legislation & Jurisprudence
    ISSN: 00085472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 2010, Vol.64(11), pp.1905-1914
    Description: Recently emerged brook charr ( Salvelinus fontinalis ) foraging in still-water pools along the sides of streams are either active, feeding on insects from the upper portion of the water column away from the stream bank, or sedentary, feeding on crustaceans emerging from the hyporheic zone near the stream bank. We tested whether the frequency of movement displayed by individual brook charr searching for prey in the field was related to the relative volume of the telencephalon, a brain region involved with movement and space use in fishes. Movement of individuals searching for prey was quantified in the field, individuals were captured and volumes of the telencephalon and of the olfactory bulbs, a brain region neighbouring the telencephalon but not implicated in space use, were measured. Individuals with larger telencephalon volumes moved more frequently on average while searching for prey in the field than did individuals with smaller telencephalon volumes. The frequency of movement was unrelated to differences in the volume of the olfactory bulbs, suggesting that the relationship between telencephalon volume and movement was not a consequence of differences in overall brain size. Demonstrating a correlation between foraging behaviour and brain morphology for brook charr exhibiting different foraging tactics suggests that diversification in brain structure and function could be important aspects of the foraging specialization believed to occur during early stages in the evolution and development of resource polymorphisms.
    Keywords: Brook trout ; Brain volume ; Activity ; Resource polymorphism ; Personality ; Telencephalon ; Space use
    ISSN: 0340-5443
    E-ISSN: 1432-0762
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