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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of athletic training, March 2017, Vol.52(3), pp.309-317
    Description: Initially, interest in sport-related concussion arose from the premise that the study of athletes engaged in sports associated with high rates of concussion could provide insight into the mechanisms, phenomenology, and recovery from mild traumatic brain injury. Over the last decade, concerns have focused on the possibility that, for some athletes, repetitive concussions may raise the long-term risk for cognitive decline, neurobehavioral changes, and neurodegenerative disease. First conceptualized as a discrete event with variable recovery trajectories, concussion is now viewed by some as a trigger of neurobiological events that may influence neurobehavioral function over the course of the life span. Furthermore, advances in technology now permit us to gain a detailed understanding of the frequency and intensity of repetitive head impacts associated with contact sports (eg, football, ice hockey). Helmet-based sensors can be used to characterize the kinematic features of concussive impacts, as well as the profiles of typical head-impact exposures experienced by athletes in routine sport participation. Many large-magnitude impacts are not associated with diagnosed concussions, whereas many diagnosed concussions are associated with more modest impacts. Therefore, a full understanding of this topic requires attention to not only the effects of repetitive concussions but also overall exposure to repetitive head impacts. This article is a review of the current state of the science on the long-term neurocognitive and neurobehavioral effects of repetitive concussion and head-impact exposure in contact sports.
    Keywords: Neurodegeneration ; Recovery ; Symptom Reporting ; Traumatic Brain Injuries ; Athletic Injuries -- Psychology ; Brain Concussion -- Psychology ; Cognition Disorders -- Etiology ; Nervous System Diseases -- Etiology
    ISSN: 10626050
    E-ISSN: 1938-162X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Oct, 2010, Vol.1208, p.46(12)
    Description: To authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05720.x Byline: Thomas W. McAllister (1), Murray B. Stein (2) Keywords: traumatic brain injury (TBI); posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); psychological trauma; biomechanical trauma; behavior Abstract: The current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have resulted in a large cohort of military personnel exposed to combat-related psychological trauma as well as biomechanical trauma, including proximity to blast events. Historically, the long-term effects of both types of trauma have been viewed as having different neural substrates, with some controversy over the proper attribution of such symptoms evident after each of the major conflicts of the last century. Recently, great effort has been directed toward distinguishing which neuropsychiatric sequelae are due to which type of trauma. Of interest, however, is that the chronic effects of exposure to either process are associated with a significant overlap in clinical symptoms. Furthermore, similar brain regions are vulnerable to the effects of either psychological or biomechanical trauma, raising the possibility that shared mechanisms may underlie the clinically observed overlap in symptom profile. This paper reviews the literature on the neural substrate of biomechanical and psychological injury and discusses the implications for evaluation and treatment of the neuropsychiatric sequelae of these processes. Author Affiliation: (1)Department of Psychiatry, Section of Neuropsychiatry, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire. (2)Departments of Psychiatry, and Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, and VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California Article note: Address for correspondence: Thomas W. McAllister, M.D., Millennium Professor and Vice Chairman for Neuroscience Research, Director of Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Dartmouth Medical School, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756. thomas.w.mcallister@dartmouth.edu
    Keywords: Medical Schools -- Psychological Aspects ; Medical Schools -- Analysis ; Brain Injuries -- Psychological Aspects ; Brain Injuries -- Analysis ; Trauma (Psychology) -- Psychological Aspects ; Trauma (Psychology) -- Analysis ; Neurosciences -- Psychological Aspects ; Neurosciences -- Analysis ; Post-traumatic Stress Disorder -- Psychological Aspects ; Post-traumatic Stress Disorder -- Analysis ; Brain -- Psychological Aspects ; Brain -- Analysis ; Stress (Psychology) -- Psychological Aspects ; Stress (Psychology) -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0077-8923
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Oct, 2010, Vol.1208, p.46(12)
    Description: To authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05720.x Byline: Thomas W. McAllister (1), Murray B. Stein (2) Keywords: traumatic brain injury (TBI); posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); psychological trauma; biomechanical trauma; behavior Abstract: The current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have resulted in a large cohort of military personnel exposed to combat-related psychological trauma as well as biomechanical trauma, including proximity to blast events. Historically, the long-term effects of both types of trauma have been viewed as having different neural substrates, with some controversy over the proper attribution of such symptoms evident after each of the major conflicts of the last century. Recently, great effort has been directed toward distinguishing which neuropsychiatric sequelae are due to which type of trauma. Of interest, however, is that the chronic effects of exposure to either process are associated with a significant overlap in clinical symptoms. Furthermore, similar brain regions are vulnerable to the effects of either psychological or biomechanical trauma, raising the possibility that shared mechanisms may underlie the clinically observed overlap in symptom profile. This paper reviews the literature on the neural substrate of biomechanical and psychological injury and discusses the implications for evaluation and treatment of the neuropsychiatric sequelae of these processes. Author Affiliation: (1)Department of Psychiatry, Section of Neuropsychiatry, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire. (2)Departments of Psychiatry, and Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, and VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California Article note: Address for correspondence: Thomas W. McAllister, M.D., Millennium Professor and Vice Chairman for Neuroscience Research, Director of Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Dartmouth Medical School, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756. thomas.w.mcallister@dartmouth.edu
    Keywords: Medical Schools -- Psychological Aspects ; Medical Schools -- Analysis ; Brain Injuries -- Psychological Aspects ; Brain Injuries -- Analysis ; Trauma (Psychology) -- Psychological Aspects ; Trauma (Psychology) -- Analysis ; Neurosciences -- Psychological Aspects ; Neurosciences -- Analysis ; Post-traumatic Stress Disorder -- Psychological Aspects ; Post-traumatic Stress Disorder -- Analysis ; Brain -- Psychological Aspects ; Brain -- Analysis ; Stress (Psychology) -- Psychological Aspects ; Stress (Psychology) -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0077-8923
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Power Sources, May 15, 2013, Vol.230, p.15(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.12.014 Byline: Travis Woodland, Matthew Sorge, Song Zhang, Thomas Bean, Simon McAllister, John Canning, Yuqun Xie, Dean Edwards Abstract: Additives can be added to lead acid battery electrodes to increase porosity and improve battery power and energy performance. This paper investigates the influence on electrode performance of different sizes and volume percentages of nonconductive additives to provide a clearer understanding of how they affect battery performance. The nonconductive additives used in the electrodes were hollow glass microspheres (HGMs). The solid volume percentages of various sizes of HGMs were varied from 5 to 60%. The discharge capacity for different volume percentages of the HGMs was measured in plates that were hand pasted to similar thicknesses. The utilization of active materials, which is defined as the ratio of the practical discharge ampere-hours over the stoichiometric capacity of the active materials, was plotted with respect to different solid volume percentages of additives. Experimental results were compared with the theoretical values of conductivity models. The change of utilizations with different solid volume percentages of additives compared favorably with the model predictions. Author Affiliation: Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-0902, USA Article History: Received 28 September 2012; Revised 17 November 2012; Accepted 3 December 2012
    Keywords: Porosity -- Analysis ; Batteries -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0378-7753
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2012, Vol.44(2), pp.297-304
    Description: PURPOSE: This study aimed to quantify the frequency, magnitude, and location of head impacts sustained by male and female collegiate ice hockey players during two seasons of play. METHODS: During two seasons, 88 collegiate athletes (51 females, 37 males) on two female and male National Collegiate Athletic Association varsity ice hockey teams wore instrumented helmets. Each helmet was equipped with six single-axis accelerometers and a miniature data acquisition system to capture and record head impacts sustained during play. Data collected from the helmets were postprocessed to compute linear and rotational accelerations of the head as well as impact location. The head impact exposure data (frequency, location, and magnitude) were then compared between genders. RESULTS: Female hockey players experienced a significantly lower (P 〈 0.001) number of impacts per athlete exposure than males (females = 1.7 ± 0.7, males = 2.9 ± 1.2). The frequency of impacts by location was the same between genders (P 〉 0.278) for all locations except the right side of the head, where males received fewer impacts than females (P = 0.031). Female hockey players were 1.1 times more likely than males to sustain an impact less than 50g, whereas males were 1.3 times more likely to sustain an impact greater than 100g. Similarly, males were 1.9 times more likely to sustain an impact with peak rotational acceleration greater than 5000 rad·s and 3.5 times more likely to sustain an impact greater than 10,000 rad·s. CONCLUSIONS: Although the incidence of concussion has typically been higher for female hockey players than male hockey players, female players sustain fewer impacts and impacts resulting in lower head acceleration than males. Further study is required to better understand the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors that lead to higher rates of concussion for females that have been previously reported.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Physical Therapy;
    ISSN: 0195-9131
    E-ISSN: 15300315
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), July 2018, Vol.48(7), pp.1761
    Description: The article Test-Retest Reliability and Interpretation of Common Concussion Assessment Tools.
    Keywords: Medicine & Public Health ; Sports Medicine ; Medicine;
    ISSN: 01121642
    E-ISSN: 1179-2035
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Sports Medicine, 2018, Vol.48(5), pp.1255-1268
    Description: Background Concussion diagnosis is typically made through clinical examination and supported by performance on clinical assessment tools. Performance on commonly implemented and emerging assessment tools is known to vary between administrations, in the absence of concussion. Objective To evaluate the test-retest reliability of commonly implemented and emerging concussion assessment tools across a large nationally representative sample of student-athletes. Methods Participants ( n  = 4874) from the Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education Consortium completed annual baseline assessments on two or three occasions. Each assessment included measures of self-reported concussion symptoms, motor control, brief and extended neurocognitive function, reaction time, oculomotor/oculovestibular function, and quality of life. Consistency between years 1 and 2 and 1 and 3 were estimated using intraclass correlation coefficients or Kappa and effect sizes (Cohen’s d ). Clinical interpretation guidelines were also generated using confidence intervals to account for non-normally distributed data. Results Reliability for the self-reported concussion symptoms, motor control, and brief and extended neurocognitive assessments from year 1 to 2 ranged from 0.30 to 0.72 while effect sizes ranged from 0.01 to 0.28 (i.e., small). The reliability for these same measures ranged from 0.34 to 0.66 for the year 1–3 interval with effect sizes ranging from 0.05 to 0.42 (i.e., small to less than medium). The year 1–2 reliability for the reaction time, oculomotor/oculovestibular function, and quality-of-life measures ranged from 0.28 to 0.74 with effect sizes from 0.01 to 0.38 (i.e., small to less than medium effects). Conclusions This investigation noted less than optimal reliability for most common and emerging concussion assessment tools. Despite this finding, their use is still necessitated by the absence of a gold standard diagnostic measure, with the ultimate goal of developing more refined and sound tools for clinical use. Clinical interpretation guidelines are provided for the clinician to apply with a degree of certainty in application. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1007/s40279-017-0813-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Keywords: Original Research Article;
    ISSN: 0112-1642
    E-ISSN: 1179-2035
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  • 8
    In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, October 2010, Vol.12081(1), pp.46-57
    Description: The current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have resulted in a large cohort of military personnel exposed to combat‐related psychological trauma as well as biomechanical trauma, including proximity to blast events. Historically, the long‐term effects of both types of trauma have been viewed as having different neural substrates, with some controversy over the proper attribution of such symptoms evident after each of the major conflicts of the last century. Recently, great effort has been directed toward distinguishing which neuropsychiatric sequelae are due to which type of trauma. Of interest, however, is that the chronic effects of exposure to either process are associated with a significant overlap in clinical symptoms. Furthermore, similar brain regions are vulnerable to the effects of either psychological or biomechanical trauma, raising the possibility that shared mechanisms may underlie the clinically observed overlap in symptom profile. This paper reviews the literature on the neural substrate of biomechanical and psychological injury and discusses the implications for evaluation and treatment of the neuropsychiatric sequelae of these processes.
    Keywords: Traumatic Brain Injury Tbi ; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Ptsd ; Psychological Trauma ; Biomechanical Trauma ; Behavior
    ISSN: 0077-8923
    E-ISSN: 1749-6632
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Brain Injury, 01 October 2013, Vol.27(11), pp.1281-1286
    Description: Primary objective: To investigate whether COMT Val158Met allele status was associated with (i) attentional performance and (ii) response to methylphenidate (MP) following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: Forty healthy controls and 32 patients with moderate-severe TBI...
    Keywords: Attention ; Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (Comt) ; Methylphenidate ; Traumatic Brain Injury ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0269-9052
    E-ISSN: 1362-301X
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Sports Medicine, 2018, Vol.48(7), pp.1761-1761
    Description: The article Test-Retest Reliability and Interpretation of Common Concussion Assessment Tools.
    ISSN: 0112-1642
    E-ISSN: 1179-2035
    Source: Springer Science & Business Media B.V.
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