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  • 1
    Keywords: Water Resources Research
    ISSN: 14391783
    Source: DataCite
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, October 2011, Vol.159(10), pp.2831-2839
    Description: Various dynamic soil chemistry models have been developed to gain insight into impacts of atmospheric deposition of sulphur, nitrogen and other elements on soil and soil solution chemistry. Sorption parameters for anions and cations are generally calibrated for each site, which hampers extrapolation in space and time. On the other hand, recently developed surface complexation models (SCMs) have been successful in predicting ion sorption for static systems using generic parameter sets. This study reports the inclusion of an assemblage of these SCMs in the dynamic soil chemistry model SMARTml and applies this model to a spruce forest site in Solling Germany. Parameters for SCMs were taken from generic datasets and not calibrated. Nevertheless, modelling results for major elements matched observations well. Further, trace metals were included in the model, also using the existing framework of SCMs. The model predicted sorption for most trace elements well. ► Surface complexation models can be well applied in field studies. ► Soil chemistry under a forest site is adequately modelled using generic parameters. ► The model is easily extended with extra elements within the existing framework. ► Surface complexation models can show the linkages between major soil chemistry and trace element behaviour. Surface complexation models with generic parameters make calibration of sorption superfluous in dynamic modelling of deposition impacts on soil chemistry under nature areas.
    Keywords: Dynamic Modelling ; Atmospheric Deposition ; Surface Complexation Models ; Trace Elements ; Solling ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Nature, June 2018, Vol.558(7709), pp.243-248
    Description: Explaining the large-scale diversity of soil organisms that drive biogeochemical processes-and their responses to environmental change-is critical. However, identifying consistent drivers of belowground diversity and abundance for some soil organisms at large spatial scales remains problematic. Here we investigate a major guild, the ectomycorrhizal fungi, across European forests at a spatial scale and resolution that is-to our knowledge-unprecedented, to explore key biotic and abiotic predictors of ectomycorrhizal diversity and to identify dominant responses and thresholds for change across complex environmental gradients. We show the effect of 38 host, environment, climate and geographical variables on ectomycorrhizal diversity, and define thresholds of community change for key variables. We quantify host specificity and reveal plasticity in functional traits involved in soil foraging across gradients. We conclude that environmental and host factors explain most of the variation in ectomycorrhizal diversity, that the environmental thresholds used as major ecosystem assessment tools need adjustment and that the importance of belowground specificity and plasticity has previously been underappreciated.
    Keywords: Biodiversity ; Forests ; Host Microbial Interactions ; Soil Microbiology ; Fungi -- Classification ; Mycorrhizae -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00280836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Nature, September 2018, Vol.561(7724), pp.E42
    Description: Change history: In the HTML version of this Article, author 'Filipa Cox' had no affiliation in the author list, although she was correctly associated with affiliation 3 in the PDF. In addition, the blue circles for 'oak' were missing from Extended Data Fig. 1. These errors have been corrected online.
    Keywords: Zhang, Daniel ; Schaub, Hans ; United Kingdom–UK ; University of Manchester;
    ISSN: 00280836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 5
    In: Global Change Biology, August 2018, Vol.24(8), pp.3603-3619
    Description: Acid deposition arising from sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) emissions from fossil fuel combustion and agriculture has contributed to the acidification of terrestrial ecosystems in many regions globally. However, in Europe and North America, S deposition has greatly decreased in recent decades due to emissions controls. In this study, we assessed the response of soil solution chemistry in mineral horizons of European forests to these changes. Trends in , acid neutralizing capacity (), major ions, total aluminium (Al) and dissolved organic carbon were determined for the period 1995–2012. Plots with at least 10 years of observations from the Forests monitoring network were used. Trends were assessed for the upper mineral soil (10–20 cm, 104 plots) and subsoil (40–80 cm, 162 plots). There was a large decrease in the concentration of sulphate () in soil solution; over a 10‐year period (2000–2010), decreased by 52% at 10–20 cm and 40% at 40–80 cm. Nitrate was unchanged at 10–20 cm but decreased at 40–80 cm. The decrease in acid anions was accompanied by a large and significant decrease in the concentration of the nutrient base cations: calcium, magnesium and potassium (Bc = Ca + Mg + K) and Al over the entire dataset. The response of soil solution acidity was nonuniform. At 10–20 cm, increased in acid‐sensitive soils (base saturation ≤10%) indicating a recovery, but decreased in soils with base saturation 〉10%. At 40–80 cm, remained unchanged in acid‐sensitive soils (base saturation ≤20%,  ≤ 4.5) and decreased in better‐buffered soils (base saturation 〉20%,  〉 4.5). In addition, the molar ratio of Bc to Al either did not change or decreased. The results suggest a long‐time lag between emission abatement and changes in soil solution acidity and underline the importance of long‐term monitoring in evaluating ecosystem response to decreases in deposition.
    Keywords: Acid Deposition ; Air Pollution ; Aluminium ; Critical Loads ; Dissolved Organic Carbon ; Nitrogen ; Soil Acidification ; Sulphur
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Annals of Forest Science, 2010, Vol.67(4), pp.411-411
    Description: • Dissolved organic matter (DOM) and its main constituents carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) represent an important part of the C and N cycles in forest ecosystems. Although many investigations have been addressing this issue, the knowledge on particulate organic matter (0.45 μm 〈 POM 〈 500 μm) dynamics, its origin and involvement in organic matter cycling in forest ecosystems is still imperfect. • In this paper, we report on dissolved and particulate organic carbon and nitrogen fractions in throughfall solutions collected from a broadleaved and coniferous forest stand in Central Germany. Over a period of 2.5 y (2005–2007) we followed the concentrations and fluxes of DOM and POM at a mature beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) and a Norway spruce ( Picea abies L.) forest site. Bulk and throughfall precipitation were sampled in weekly (2005) and fortnightly (2006–2007) intervals and analyzed for dissolved (〈 0.45 μm, filtered) and total (〈 500 μm, unfiltered) amounts of organic carbon (DOC, TOC, POC) and nitrogen (TN, DN, PON, NO 3 -N) species. Proportions of particulate organic C and N were determined by difference between total and dissolved fractions. • Under spruce, throughfall concentrations of most C and N fractions were twice as high as under beech. At both sites, concentrations and fluxes were significantly higher during the growing than the dormant season. At the broadleaved site, 80% of the annual fluxes of the DOC and TOC and 70% of the DN and TN were released during the growing season, compared to 60% for C and N at the coniferous site. POC under beech contributes with up to 30% to TOC compared to less than 20% at the spruce site. • We suggest that pollen deposition, insect excretions and accumulated organic matter mobilised by dry/wet precipitation patterns play a supreme role for the formation of DOM and POM in forest canopies. The study demonstrates that the canopy is an important source for POM. Dynamics of DOM and POM are mainly driven by tree species effects and seasonality as well as by biotic agents. • La matière organique dissoute (DOM) et ses principaux constituants carbonés (DOC) et l’azote (DON) représentent une part importante des cycles du carbone et de l’azote dans les écosystèmes forestiers. Bien que de nombreuses enquêtes se soient penché sur ce problème, les connaissances sur les dynamiques des particules de matière organique (0,45 μm 〈 POM 〈 500 μm), leur origine et leur rôle dans les cycles de la matière organique dans les écosystèmes forestiers sont encore imparfaites. • Dans ce papier, nous présentons un rapport sur les particules de carbone organique et les fractions d’azote dissoutes dans les solutions de pluie arrivant directement au sol sous le couvert, récoltées dans un peuplement forestier feuillu et dans un peuplement de conifères en Allemagne centrale. Sur une période de 2,5 ans (2005–2007) nous avons suivi les concentrations et les flux de DOM et de POM dans une hêtraie arrivée à maturité (Fagus sylvatica L.) et un peuplement d’épicéa commun (Picea abies L.). Le volume des pluies et les précipitations au sol ont été échantillonnés à des intervalles de temps d’une semaine (2005) et d’une quinzaine (2006–2007) et analysés pour les quantités de carbone organique dissoutes (〈 0,45 μm, filtrées) et totales (〈 500 μm, non filtrées) (DOC, TOC, POC) et d’azote (TN, DN, PON, NO3-N). Les proportions des particules organiques de carbone et d’azote ont été déterminées par différence entre les fractions totales et dissoutes. • Sous la pessière, les concentrations de la plupart des fractions de C et de N, dans la pluie au sol, étaient deux fois plus élevées que sous la hêtraie. Sur les deux sites, les concentrations et les flux ont été significativement plus élevés pendant la période de croissance que durant la période de dormance. Sur le site feuillu, 80 % des flux annuels de DOC et de TOC et 70 % de DN et TN ont été libérés au cours de la saison de croissance, contre 60 % pour C et N pour les conifères. Dans la hêtraie POC contribue à hauteur de 30 % de TOC, comparativement à moins de 20 % dans la pessière. • Nous suggérons que les dépôts de pollen, les déjections d’insectes et la matière organique accumulée, mobilisés par les séquences de périodes sèches et de précipitations jouent un rôle suprême pour la formation des DOM et POM dans les canopées forestières. L’étude démontre que la canopée est une source importante pour POM. Les dynamiques de DOM et POM sont principalement conduites par les effets des espèces d’arbres et par la saisonnalité ainsi que par des agents biotiques.
    Keywords: dissolved organic matter (DOM) ; particulate organic matter (POM) ; throughfall ; fluxes and concentrations ; temperate forests
    ISSN: 1286-4560
    E-ISSN: 1297-966X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, February 2017, Vol.180(1), pp.71-86
    Description: Long‐term estimates of the water balance of forests are essential for forest ecosystem analysis. Such estimates can be achieved by using numerical modelling approaches for water balance calculations. These modelling approaches require data, ., for the description of the hydraulic properties of forest soils using soil water retention or hydraulic conductivity functions. However, these functions are usually valid only for fine‐earth conditions. However, many forest soils, especially those located in mountainous regions, contain larger fractions of gravel and rock fragments in the soil profiles. In our study, the impact of stoniness correction of soil hydraulic functions on the performance of a numerical water balance modelling approach was evaluated by using continuously measured time series of daily throughfall, soil water contents and pressure heads provided from three different ICP Forests Level II plots with high stoniness in the soil profiles. These measured data were compared with the corresponding model outputs. The application of stoniness correction of the soil hydraulic functions improved the model performance in terms of the Nash‐Sutcliffe Index NS and the coefficient of determination . This indicated the need for such a correction.
    Keywords: Soil Hydraulic Parameters ; Stoniness ; Correction ; Modelling ; Model Performance
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Annals of Forest Science, December 2016, Vol.73(4), pp.945-957
    Description: AbstractKey messageAggregated, consolidated, and derived soil physicochemical data of 286 ICP Forests Level II plots were completed with soil hydraulic properties for integrated use with forest monitoring data. Database access should be requested aticp-forests.net. Metadata associated available...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Monitoring ; Base Saturation ; C:N Ratio ; Cation Exchange Capacity ; Available Water Capacity ; Soil Water Retention ; Soil Database ; Europe ; Soil Nutrient Stock ; Icp Forests ; Environmental Sciences ; Forestry
    ISSN: 1286-4560
    E-ISSN: 1297-966X
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  • 9
    Keywords: Water Resources Research
    ISSN: 14391783
    Source: DataCite
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Forests, 6/2017, Vol.8(6), p.219
    Description: The North German Lowland is a region with locally high nitrate (NO3−) concentrations in seepage water, inducing an increased susceptibility to the effects of climate change. The future risk of rising NO3− concentrations in seepage water from forests was quantified for four regions in the North German Lowland using climate projections and a modelling system comprising submodels for forest stand development (WaldPlaner), water budgets (WaSiM-ETH), and biogeochemical element cycles (VSD+). The simulations for the period from 1990 to 2070 included three different forest management scenarios (reference, biodiversity, and climate protection) and showed a general decrease in groundwater recharge which could hardly be influenced by any of the management options. The simulated soil organic matter stocks adequately represented their past increase as expected from the National Forest Soil Inventory (NFSI), but also showed a future decline under climate change conditions which leads to higher organic matter decomposition and a long-lasting increase of NO3− leaching from forest soils. While the climate protection oriented scenario shows the highest increase in NO3− concentrations during the projection period until 2070, the biodiversity scenario kept NO3− concentrations in seepage water below the legal thresholds in three of four selected model regions.
    Keywords: Europe ; Central Europe ; Germany ; Climate Change ; Deposition ; Nitrates ; Forest Management ; Forest Management ; Forest Management ; Groundwater Recharge ; Organic Matter ; Climate Change ; Environmental Risk ; Biomass ; Soil Organic Matter ; Forest Soils ; Climate Effects ; Ecosystems ; Groundwater ; Climate Change ; Computer Simulation ; Groundwater Recharge ; Nitrogen ; Groundwater Recharge ; Climate Change ; Soil Management ; Organic Matter ; Agriculture ; Forests ; Precipitation ; Groundwater ; Leaching ; Climate Models ; Seepage ; Leaching ; Water Resources ; Biodiversity ; Seepage ; Forest Soils ; Leaching ; Organic Matter ; Forest Biomass ; Organic Soils ; Organic Soils ; Biodiversity ; Biodiversity ; Nitrate ; Groundwater Recharge ; Climate Change ; Soil Organic Matter ; Standing Volume ; Wasim-Eth ; Vsd+ ; Roth-C ; Yasso07;
    ISSN: Forests
    E-ISSN: 1999-4907
    Source: CrossRef
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