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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Phytochemistry, June 2014, Vol.102, pp.7-39
    Description: Recent advances in current knowledge on are reported, as well as a list of chemical constituents isolated over the last decades, their structural features, biological activities, and structure–activity relationships. The genus is comprised of about 300 species spread throughout the world, hence representing one of the largest genera of the Lamiaceae. Several species have been exploited in traditional medicine as astringent, wound-healing, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-nephritic and anti-inflammatory agents. Moreover, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of some species are documented. Iridoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids and diterpenoids are reported as secondary metabolites of different species of this genus. The aim of the present review is to summarize and to highlight the recent advances in current knowledge on species and to compile reports of chemical constituents isolated from the genus over the past decades, together with their structural features, biological activities, and structure–activity relationships. Diversity of chemical constituents is discussed in relationship with current infrageneric taxonomy, classification and relationships with systematically close genera.
    Keywords: Stachys ; Betonica ; Sideritis ; Phytochemicals ; Taxonomy ; Bioactivity ; Botany
    ISSN: 0031-9422
    E-ISSN: 1873-3700
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  • 2
    In: Journal of Food Science, January 2012, Vol.77(1), pp.H40-H46
    Description: The interest in medicinal plant research and in the aroma‐therapeutic effects of essential oils in humans has increased in recent years, especially for the treatment of pathologies of relevant social impact such as Alzheimer's disease. The present study was taken up to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity of the peel essential oils from three species, Swingle, L., and Risso & Poit. Essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC‐MS and they contain mainly limonene, ‐pinene, ‐pinene, ‐terpinene, and linalyl acetate. oil showed the highest radical scavenging activity on ABTS assay (IC value of 19.6 g/mL), while exhibited a good antioxidant activity evaluated by the ‐carotene bleaching test (IC= 42.6 g/mL after 60 min of incubation). inhibited more selectively AChE. Obtained data suggest a potential use of oils as a valuable new flavor with functional properties for food or nutraceutical products with particular relevance to supplements for the elderly. The demonstrated antioxidant activity and procholinesterase properties of essential oils suggested their use as a new potential source of natural antioxidant to added as extra‐nutrient for using in food industries as a valuable new flavor with functional properties for food or nutraceutical products with particular relevance to supplements for the elderly.
    Keywords: Anti‐Cholinesterase Activity ; Antioxidant Activity ; C. Aurantium L ; C. Bergamia Risso ; Citrus Aurantifolia Swingle ; Essential Oil
    ISSN: 0022-1147
    E-ISSN: 1750-3841
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  • 3
    In: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, August 2014, Vol.94(11), pp.2217-2224
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jsfa.6544/abstract Byline: Mariangela Marrelli, Monica Rosa Loizzo, Marcello Nicoletti, Francesco Menichini, Filomena Conforti Keywords: wild edible plants; pancreatic lipase; [alpha]-amylase; inhibitors; chemical composition Abstract BACKGROUND Inhibition of digestive enzymes is one of the most widely studied mechanisms used to determine the potential efficacy of natural products as anti-obesity agents. In vitro studies reported here were performed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of formulations of edible plants from Italy on amylase and lipase by monitoring the hydrolysis of nitrophenyl caprilate and the hydrolysis of glycoside bonds in digestible carbohydrate foods. RESULTS The formulation obtained from Capparis sicula exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase (IC.sub.50 = 0.53 mg mL.sub.-1) while the Borago officinalis formulation exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on [alpha]-amylase (IC.sub.50 = 31.61 A[micro]g mL.sub.-1). In order to characterise the extracts, high-performance thin-layer chromatography analysis of the formulations was performed, revealing the predominance of ([+ or -])-catechin in Mentha aquatica formulation, rutin in C. sicula, and caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid in Echium vulgare. CONCLUSION The results obtained indicated that the extracts of C. sicula and B. officinalis could be good candidates for further studies to isolate pancreatic lipase and [alpha]-amylase inhibitors, respectively. [c] 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
    Keywords: Wild Edible Plants ; Pancreatic Lipase ; ‐Amylase ; Inhibitors ; Chemical Composition
    ISSN: 0022-5142
    E-ISSN: 1097-0010
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  • 4
    In: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, August 2014, Vol.94(11), pp.2179-2186
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jsfa.6533/abstract Byline: Monica R Loizzo, Marco Bonesi, Alessandro Pugliese, Francesco Menichini, Rosa Tundis Keywords: Ficus carica; dried fruits; honey; SPME/GC-MS; antioxidant properties; cholinesterase inhibition Abstract BACKGROUND The aim of this study is to evaluate, for the first time, the chemical profile, antioxidant properties and cholinesterase inhibitory activity of dried fruits and honey of Ficus carica (fig) cultivars Dottato, Citrullara, and San Francesco. RESULTS Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of fig extracts identified terpenes, sterols and fatty acids as major constituents. The aroma profile of honey obtained from a mixture of the three cultivars was investigated by solid-phase micro-extraction/GC-MS. 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one and 1,3-dihydroxy-2-propanone were the main compounds. Total phenol, flavonoid and anthocyanin content are also reported. The San Francesco cultivar is characterised by the highest phenol and flavonoid content, while Dottato showed the major anthocyanin content. The Dottato cultivar exhibited the best radical scavenging activity against both 2,2a[sup.2]-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (IC.sub.50 values of 5.4 and 22.6 A[micro]g mL.sub.-1, respectively). This cultivar also showed the highest inhibitory activity against both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, with IC.sub.50 values of 26.9 and 31.8 A[micro]g mL.sub.-1, respectively. CONCLUSION Dried figs are a convenient source of bioactive compounds that demonstrated potential neuroprotection and antioxidant effects. Therefore, the addition of figs to the human diet should be recommended by dieticians and nutritionists. [c] 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
    Keywords: Ficus Carica ; Dried Fruits ; Honey ; Spme/Gc‐Ms ; Antioxidant Properties ; Cholinesterase Inhibition
    ISSN: 0022-5142
    E-ISSN: 1097-0010
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 2010, Vol.20(6), pp.1990-1993
    Description: The synthesis and the ACE inhibitory activity of chalcones ( – ) and pyrazoles ( – ) are reported. A series of chalcones ( ) and pyrazoles ( ) was prepared to investigate their potential activity as Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Their structures were verified by elemental analysis, UV, IR, MS, H NMR, C NMR, and 2D NMR experiments. Among tested compounds, chalcone exerted the highest activity with an IC value of 0.219 mM, while the most potent pyrazole was (IC value of 0.213 mM).
    Keywords: Chalcones ; Pyrazole Derivatives ; Hypertension ; ACE ; Medicine ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0960-894X
    E-ISSN: 1464-3405
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 30 March 2016, Vol.64(12), pp.2467-74
    Description: Edible flowers are receiving renewed interest as rich sources of bioactive compounds. Ethanol extracts of eight edible flowers were phytochemically characterized and investigated for their bioactivity. Rutin, quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, and myricetin were selected as standards and quantified by HPLC. The fatty acid profile was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Antioxidant properties were evaluated by using different in vitro tests. The hypoglycemic effects were investigated via the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Sambucus nigra exhibited the highest radical-scavenging activity (IC50 of 1.4 μg/mL), followed by Hedysarum coronarium (IC50 of 1.6 μg/mL). Both species contained high quercetin and rutin contents. S. nigra extract exerted the highest activity in preventing lipid oxidation. Malva sylvestris extract inhibited both α-amylase and α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 7.8 and 11.3 μg/mL, respectively. These findings support the consumption of edible flowers as functional foods and their use as sources of natural antioxidants by the food industry.
    Keywords: Antioxidant Activity ; Carbohydrate-Hydrolyzing Enzymes ; Edible Flowers ; Fatty Acids ; Flavonoids ; Antioxidants -- Analysis ; Flowers -- Chemistry ; Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors -- Analysis ; Hypoglycemic Agents -- Analysis ; Phytochemicals -- Analysis
    ISSN: 00218561
    E-ISSN: 1520-5118
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Food Chemistry, 15 December 2011, Vol.129(4), pp.1413-1419
    Description: ► The consumption of non-cultivated botanicals play a central role in the diet. ► Twelve-one plant extracts were assayed for antioxidant/anti-inflammatory activity. ► Four extracts were selected for antiradical and anti-inflammatory properties. ► A relationship between radical scavenging activity and polyphenolic content was found. Hydroalcoholic extracts from 18 non-cultivated vegetables traditionally consumed in Southern Italy were tested for their free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) in the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil radical) screening assay and for their inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production. The strongest activity was shown for (leaves), subsp. (leaves) and subsp. (stems and leaves) with IC values of 5, 6, 8 μg/ml, respectively. Extracts from non-cultivated subsp. (seeds) (leaves) and subsp. (leaves) showed high inhibition of nitric oxide production, with an activity comparable to a reference drug, indomethacin. A significant cytotoxic effect was shown for the seeds of subsp. (leaves) presented the highest content in linoleic acid. and subsp. had relatively high polyphenols content, 482 and 334 mg/g of extract, respectively.
    Keywords: Antioxidant ; Food Plants ; Mediterranean ; Wild ; Nitric Oxide ; Chemistry ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition ; Economics
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    E-ISSN: 1873-7072
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Food Chemistry, 01 December 2011, Vol.129(3), pp.753-760
    Description: ► Essential oils from Rwandese hepatoprotective herbs present antioxidant properties. ► GC–MS analysis determined the composition of all four essential oils. ► Major components with antioxidant properties are unsaturated mono-and sesquiterpenes. ► The lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity is superior for the total methanolic extracts. Following an ethnobotanical survey in Southern Rwanda for hepatoprotective remedies, four food and medicinal plants, , , and , were selected for pharmacological and chemical investigations aiming to validate their reported properties. The chemical compositions of essential oils obtained from leaves were investigated by GC–MS; essential oils and methanolic extracts were evaluated for antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) and linoleic acid peroxidation assays. [limonene (34.8%), (E)-β-ocimene (21.8%), β-pinene (8.5%), α-pinene (6.6%), myrcene (6.3%)], [germacrene- (25.5%), limonene (9.7%), (E)-β-ocimene (6.6%)], [germacrene- (58.3%)] and [sabinene (12.2%), alpha phellandrene (11.6%)] volatile oils scavenge DPPH (10%, 39%, 27%, and 11% quercetin equivalents) and inhibit linoleic acid peroxidation (13%, 23%, 20%, and 13% Trolox® equivalents). The four methanolic extracts were quite active on the lipid peroxidation model (93%, 93%, 70%, and 67% Trolox equivalents) with modest activity on DPPH (5%, 10%, 8%, and 11% quercetin equivalents). These properties most probably participate in the four plants hepatoprotective activities reported in ethnopharmacological and/or pharmacological studies.
    Keywords: Essential Oils ; Chemical Composition ; Antioxidant ; Ocimum Lamiifolium ; Crassocephalum Vitellinum ; Guizotia Scabra ; Microglossa Pyrifolia ; Lamiaceae ; Asteraceae ; Chemistry ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition ; Economics
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    E-ISSN: 1873-7072
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Food Chemistry, 01 December 2013, Vol.141(3), pp.2606-2613
    Description: The content and bioaccessibility of carotenoids from different chili peppers were analysed and the effects of typical domestic processing were investigated. Peppers were analysed before and after cooking by conventional boiling (10 min in 100 °C water) and also following a freezing period of four months in a domestic freezer (−20 °C). The content and bioaccessibility of the eight carotenoids quantified varied, depending on cultivar, species, colour and processing. Provitamin A carotenoids (β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin) and capsanthin were present at highest concentrations in the samples before and after processing. In general, yellow and orange peppers were the best sources of lutein, zeaxanthin and neoxanthin. Xanthophyll carotenoids were more efficiently transferred to the micelles and, therefore, were also more bioavailable. Processing decreased the carotenoid content in certain samples; however, the micellar content was generally not lower for processed peppers; therefore the bioaccessibility of carotenoids from processed peppers is enhanced relative to unprocessed peppers.
    Keywords: Carotenoids ; Capsicum Species ; Bioaccessibility ; Domestic Processing ; Chemistry ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition ; Economics
    ISSN: 0308-8146
    E-ISSN: 1873-7072
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, December 2012, Vol.92(15), pp.2960-2967
    Description: The replacement of synthetic antioxidants by safe natural antioxidants fosters research on the screening of vegetables and food as sources of new antioxidants. Moreover, oxidative degeneration of cells is associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. On the basis of these considerations this work aimed to investigate the antioxidant properties [by using the diphenyl picryl hydrazyl, 2,2′‐azino‐bis(3‐ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid) and ferric reducing ability of plasma assays, and the β‐carotene bleaching test] and the anti‐cholinesterase activity of peel and leaves from different areas of growth. Methanol extracts of the peel and leaves demonstrated the strongest radical scavenging activity. A similar trend was observed with the reducing ability, with values from 112.1 to 146.0 µmol L Fe(II) g. The relationship between phenol and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity was statistically investigated. Based on analysis by high‐performance liquid chromatography, the most abundant flavonoids found in extracts were apigenin, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol and nobiletin. ‐Hexane fractions of both peel and leaves showed a good acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity with IC values in the range 91.4‐107.4 µg mL. Gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes as most common components. The findings of this study suggest a potential use of peel and leaves for supplements for human health. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry
    Keywords: Citrus Aurantifolia ; Total Phenol And Flavonoid Content ; Antioxidant Activity ; Gc/Ms Analysis ; Alzheimer'S Disease ; Nutraceuticals
    ISSN: 0022-5142
    E-ISSN: 1097-0010
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