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  • 1
    In: International Journal of Handheld Computing Research (IJHCR), 2014, Vol.5(1), pp.30-40
    Description: It is a strange paradox that the public is talking about health technology but cares more about disease technology: people address chronic diseases, people want to change unhealthy behaviors, people aim to help carers and nurses - but people hardly ever look at those who are and want to remain healthy. This is even stranger, as times of health outnumber periods of disease in most persons` lifetimes. Somewhat surprisingly, technology available today is not yet optimally suited to help staying healthy. The authors discuss challenges with respect to the adaption of health behavior models, long-term interaction, quality of data, design of devices, primary use of data, and life-long data. And the authors suggest understanding technical systems for wellbeing as navigational systems, guiding a person through life on a healthy path.
    Keywords: Data Analysis; Design; Human-Computer Interaction; Lifelong Health; Pervasive Health; Wellbeing
    ISSN: 1947-9158
    E-ISSN: 19479166
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(4), p.e18963
    Description: We describe a versatile optical projection tomography system for rapid three-dimensional imaging of microscopic specimens in vivo . Our tomographic setup eliminates the in xy and z strongly asymmetric resolution, resulting from optical sectioning in conventional confocal microscopy. It allows for robust, high resolution fluorescence as well as absorption imaging of live transparent invertebrate animals such as C. elegans . This system offers considerable advantages over currently available methods when imaging dynamic developmental processes and animal ageing; it permits monitoring of spatio-temporal gene expression and anatomical alterations with single-cell resolution, it utilizes both fluorescence and absorption as a source of contrast, and is easily adaptable for a range of small model organisms.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Computer Science ; Physics ; Physiology ; Computer Science ; Physics
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 04 January 2017, Vol.37(1), pp.164-183
    Description: Rodent visual cortex has a hierarchical architecture similar to that of higher mammals (Coogan and Burkhalter, 1993; Marshel et al., 2011; Wang et al., 2012). Although notable differences exist between the species in terms or receptive field sizes and orientation map organization (Dräger, 1975; Gattass et al., 1987; Van den Bergh et al., 2010), mouse V1 is thought to respond to local orientation and visual motion elements rather than to global patterns of motion, similar to V1 in higher mammals (Niell and Stryker, 2008; Bonin et al., 2011). However, recent results are inconclusive: some argue mouse V1 is analogous to monkey V1 (Juavinett and Callaway, 2015); others argue that it displays complex motion responses (Muir et al., 2015). We used type I plaids formed by the additive superposition of moving gratings (Adelson and Movshon, 1982; Movshon et al., 1985; Albright and Stoner, 1995) to investigate this question. We show that mouse V1 contains a considerably smaller fraction of component-motion-selective neurons (∼17% vs ∼84%), and a larger fraction of pattern-motion-selective neurons (∼10% vs 〈1.3%) compared with primate/cat V1. The direction of optokinetic nystagmus correlates with visual perception in higher mammals (Fox et al., 1975; Logothetis and Schall, 1990; Wei and Sun, 1998; Watanabe, 1999; Naber et al., 2011). Measurement of optokinetic responses to plaid stimuli revealed that mice demonstrate bistable perception, sometimes tracking individual stimulus components and others the global pattern of motion. Moreover, bistable optokinetic responses cannot be entirely attributed to subcortical circuitry as V1 lesions alter the fraction of responses occurring along pattern versus component motion. These observations suggest that area V1 input contributes to complex motion perception in the mouse. Area V1 in the mouse is hierarchically similar but not necessarily identical to area V1 in cats and primates. Here we demonstrate that area V1 neurons process complex motion plaid stimuli differently in mice versus in cats or primates. Specifically, a smaller proportion of mouse V1 cells are sensitive to component motion, and a larger proportion to pattern motion than are found in area V1 of cats/primates. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that mice exhibit bistable visual perception of plaid stimuli, and that this depends, at least in part, on area V1 input. Finally, we suggest that the relative proportion of component-motion-selective responses to pattern-motion-selective responses in mouse V1 may bias visual perception, as evidenced by changes in the direction of elicited optokinetic responses.
    Keywords: Area V1 ; Bistable Stimuli ; Mouse ; Plaids ; Motion Perception -- Physiology ; Visual Cortex -- Physiology ; Visual Perception -- Physiology
    ISSN: 02706474
    E-ISSN: 1529-2401
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(3), p.e33449
    Description: Hypermethylation in the promoter region of the MGMT gene encoding the DNA repair protein O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase is among the most important prognostic factors for patients with glioblastoma and predicts response to treatment with alkylating agents like temozolomide. Hence, the MGMT status is widely determined in most clinical trials and frequently requested in routine diagnostics of glioblastoma. Since various different techniques are available for MGMT promoter methylation analysis, a generally accepted consensus as to the most suitable diagnostic method remains an unmet need. Here, we assessed methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) as a qualitative and semi-quantitative method, pyrosequencing (PSQ) as a quantitative method, and methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) as a semi-quantitative method in a series of 35 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded glioblastoma tissues derived from patients treated in a prospective clinical phase II trial that tested up-front chemoradiotherapy with dose-intensified temozolomide (UKT-05). Our goal was to determine which of these three diagnostic methods provides the most accurate prediction of progression-free survival (PFS). The MGMT promoter methylation status was assessable by each method in almost all cases ( n  = 33/35 for MSP; n  = 35/35 for PSQ; n  = 34/35 for MS-MLPA). We were able to calculate significant cut-points for the continuous methylation signals at each CpG site analysed by PSQ (range, 11.5 to 44.9%) and at one CpG site assessed by MS-MLPA (3.6%) indicating that a dichotomisation of continuous methylation data as a prerequisite for comparative survival analyses is feasible. Our results show that, unlike MS-MLPA, MSP and PSQ provide a significant improvement of predicting PFS compared with established clinical prognostic factors alone (likelihood ratio tests: p 〈0.001). Conclusively, taking into consideration prognostic value, cost effectiveness and ease of use, we recommend pyrosequencing for analyses of MGMT promoter methylation in high-throughput settings and MSP for clinical routine diagnostics with low sample numbers.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Medicine ; Oncology ; Pathology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: BMC public health, 01 February 2016, Vol.16, pp.99
    Description: Healthy ageing is an important concern for many societies facing the challenge of an ageing population. Physical activity (PA) is a major contributor to healthy ageing; however insufficient PA levels are prevalent in old age in Germany. Community capacity building and community involvement are often recommended as key strategies to improve equitable access to prevention and health promotion. However, evidence for the effectiveness of these strategies is scarce. This study aims to assess the community readiness for PA promotion in local environments and to analyse the utility of strategies to increase community readiness for reaching vulnerable groups. We designed a mixed method intervention trial comprising three study modules. The first module includes an assessment of community readiness for PA interventions in older adults. The assessment is carried out in a sample of 24 municipalities in the Northwest of Germany using structured key informant interviews. In the second module, eight municipalities with the low community readiness are selected from the sample and randomly assigned to one of two study groups: active enhancement of community readiness (intervention) versus no enhancement (control). After enhancing community readiness in the active enhancement group, older adults in both study groups will be recruited for participation in a PA intervention. Participation rates are compared between the study groups to evaluate the effects of the intervention. In addition, a cost-effectiveness analysis is carried out calculating recruitment costs per person reached in the two study groups. In the third module, qualitative interviews are conducted with participants and non-participants of the PA intervention exploring reasons for participation or non-participation. This study offers the potential to contribute to the evidence base of reaching vulnerable older adults for PA interventions and provide ideas on how to reduce participation barriers. Its findings will inform governmental authorities, professionals, academics, and NGOs with an estimate of resources necessary to achieve equitable access to physical activity programs for vulnerable older adults. German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00009564 (Date of registration 03-11-2015).
    Keywords: Health Behavior ; Self Efficacy ; Exercise -- Psychology ; Health Promotion -- Methods ; Vulnerable Populations -- Statistics & Numerical Data
    E-ISSN: 1471-2458
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: IEEE Pervasive Computing, April 2014, Vol.13(2), pp.10-13
    Description: Smart health devices monitor certain health parameters, are connected to an Internet service, and target primarily a lay consumer seeking a healthy lifestyle rather than the medical expert or the chronically ill person. These devices offer tremendous opportunities for wellbeing and self-management of health. This department reviews smart health devices from a pervasive computing perspective, discussing various devices and their functionality, limitations, and potential.
    Keywords: Smart Phones ; Medical Devices ; Biomedical Monitoring ; Internet ; Healthcare ; Wellbeing ; Pervasive Computing ; Smartphones ; Smart Health Devices ; Fitness Devices ; Activity Trackers ; Sleep Monitors ; Engineering
    ISSN: 1536-1268
    E-ISSN: 1558-2590
    Source: IEEE Conference Publications
    Source: IEEE Journals & Magazines 
    Source: IEEE Xplore
    Source: IEEE Journals & Magazines
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Medicine 2.0, 2013, Vol.2(2), pp.e7
    Description: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are one of the major causes of death worldwide. Personal behavior such as physical activity considerably influences the risk of incurring a CVD. In the last years numerous products such as pedometers have become available on the mass market that allow monitoring relevant behaviors and vital parameters. These devices are sufficiently precise, affordable, and easy to use. While today they are mostly lifestyle oriented they also have considerable potential for health and prevention. Our goal is to investigate how recent low-cost devices can be used in real-life settings for the prevention of CVD, and whether using these devices has an advantage over subjective self-assessment. We also examine whether it is feasible to use multiple of such devices in parallel. We observe whether and how persons are willing and able to use multiple devices in their daily lives. We compare the devices' measurements with subjective self-assessment. We make use of existing low-cost consumer devices to monitor a user's behavior. By mapping the devices' features with pre-defined prevention goals we ensure that the system collects meaningful data that can be used to monitor the individual's behavior. We conducted a user study with 10 healthy adults to measure usability and to identify problems with sensor use in real life. The participants used the devices' original portals to monitor their behavior. The subjects (age range 35-75) used an off-the-shelf pedometer and a sports watch for 4 weeks. The participants responded in principle positively to the use of the devices. Analyzing the sensor data, we found that the users had some difficulties in operating the devices. We also found that the participants' self-assessment of their health behavior was too optimistic compared to the monitored data. They rated the usability of the overall system with 71 of up to 100 points in the "System Usability Scale". Our study indicates that today's devices are suitable for a long term monitoring of health for the prevention of CVD. Using the devices provides more precise data than a subjective self-assessment. However usability and acceptance of the systems are still major topics.
    Keywords: Cardiovascular Diseases ; Primary Prevention ; User-Computer Interface
    ISSN: 1923-2195
    E-ISSN: 14388871
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Acta neuropathologica, August 2010, Vol.120(2), pp.261-7
    Description: The current WHO classification of brain tumors defines gliomatosis cerebri (GC) as an extensively infiltrating astrocytic glioma involving at least three cerebral lobes. The relation of GC to diffuse astrocytomas and glioblastoma is uncertain. Due to malignant biological behavior, GC is allotted to WHO grade III. Recent reports showed IDH1 mutations in astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors WHO grades II and III and in secondary glioblastomas with a frequency of up to 90%, whereas IDH1 mutations occurred in only 5% of primary glioblastomas. Here, we examined the frequency of IDH1 mutations in 35 GC samples by direct sequencing, derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence analysis and immunohistochemistry. We identified IDH1 mutations in 10/24 (42%) cases, which also included a solid tumor portion (type 2 GC), but not in 11 "classical" cases without solid tumor mass (type 1 GC). TP53 mutations were revealed in two type 2 GC, but not in any type 1 GC, while combined chromosomal losses of 1p and 19q were not found at all. Our data suggest that GC consists of two histological/molecular subtypes, type 1 being clearly distinct from diffuse astrocytoma, and type 2 sharing features with diffuse astrocytoma.
    Keywords: Brain Neoplasms -- Genetics ; Isocitrate Dehydrogenase -- Genetics ; Mutation -- Genetics ; Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00016322
    E-ISSN: 1432-0533
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  • 9
    Conference Proceeding
    Conference Proceeding
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on multimedia for personal health and health care, 15 October 2018
    ISBN: 9781450359825
    ISBN: 1450359825
    Source: ACM Digital Library (Association for Computing Machinery)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: BMC Public Health, 01 May 2017, Vol.17(1), pp.1-8
    Description: Abstract Background Regular physical activity (PA) is a key contributor to healthy ageing. However, despite known health benefits, only one third of older adults in Germany reach the PA levels recommended for persons aged 65 years and above by the World Health Organization. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effectiveness of two web-based interventions for the initiation and maintenance of regular PA (i.e., intervention groups 1 and 2) compared to a delayed intervention control group of older adults aged 65 to 75 years. Methods/Design Study participants will be randomly assigned to one of three study arms in five communities in the Bremen-Oldenburg metropolitan region: a) Participants in the first arm will receive access to a web-based intervention for 10 weeks allowing them to track their weekly PA (subjective self-monitoring, intervention group 1); b) participants in the second arm will receive access to the web-based intervention for 10 weeks and, in addition, track PA using Fitbit Zips (objective self-monitoring, intervention group 2); c) participants in the delayed intervention control group will receive access to the intervention implemented in the first study arm after completion of the 12-week follow-up in the other two groups within each community. In addition, weekly group meetings in the communities will be offered to study participants in the intervention groups providing the opportunity to address questions related to the use of the website and to practice PA in groups (e.g., neighborhood walks, strength and balance exercises). To evaluate short-term effects of the intervention on physical and psychological health, PA, physical fitness, and cognitive and psychological variables will be assessed at baseline and 12-week follow-up. Discussion This study will provide answers regarding acceptance and effectiveness of web-based interventions promoting uptake and maintenance of regular PA in persons aged 65–75 years. Study findings will contribute to a growing body of evidence in Germany concerning the role of community-based interventions for the promotion of PA and healthy ageing in older adults. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00010052 (Date of registration 07–11-2016).
    Keywords: Physical Activity ; Older Adults ; Ehealth ; Intervention ; Physical Activity Promotion ; Primary Prevention ; Public Health
    E-ISSN: 1471-2458
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