Kooperativer Bibliotheksverbund

Berlin Brandenburg


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  • 1
    In: Nursing Education Perspectives, 2015, Vol.36(5), pp.304-310
    Description: AIM: The aim of this research was to replicate findings of enhanced clinical reasoning scores using a structured debriefing: Debriefing for Meaningful Learning© (DML). BACKGROUND: The direct effect of debriefing on clinical reasoning is not well studied. The nursing education literature supports debriefing as a reflective dialogue necessary to enhance clinical reasoning. METHOD: A quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest, repeated measure research design was used to evaluate nursing students’ clinical reasoning using the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT). RESULTS: The change in HSRT mean scores was determined to be significant for the intervention group at the .05 level and insignificant for the control group. The change in HSRT mean scores between the intervention and control groups was determined to be significant at the .10 level. CONCLUSION: Nursing students who had the DML debriefing scored significantly higher in their clinical reasoning than nursing students who had usual and customary debriefing.
    Keywords: Student Nurses ; Decision Making Process ; Education : Assessment ; Reflective Practice ; Decision Making ; Educational Evaluation ; Nursing Education ; Students ; Nursing Education;
    ISSN: 1536-5026
    E-ISSN: 19434685
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Management Decision, 25 May 2012, Vol.50(5), pp.778-796
    Description: Purpose - In this paper the authors aim to introduce a concept that they call the "entrepreneurial growth ceiling" (EGC). They develop arguments that new venture IPOs hit the EGC prior to their IPO, and the ceiling is part of the impetus for going public. The paper argues that proceeds from the IPO will aid firms in breaking through the ceiling if the proceeds are strategically allocated.Design methodology approach - The study examines a cohort of firms that went public in the same year. The authors code data from the prospectuses of 366 organizations, including how proceeds were to be spent, and then add performance data post-IPO.Findings - The results from a longitudinal study of IPOs indicate that firms that allocate proceeds to human resources and innovation (research and development) are more likely to break through the EGC quickly and enhance long-term stock performance.Practical implications - Entrepreneurial firms will have higher success when investing money into their human resources (people) and in research and development (innovation). Given the current high rate of change in business, the authors expect these findings are even more relevant for not just IPOs but for all organizations going through change.Social implications - Organizations that support and fund entrepreneurship and new venture growth should consider expanding their training to include human resource management, in particular as it ties to innovation.Originality value - The entrepreneurial growth ceiling is a new concept introduced in this paper. This research has important implications for IPOs and other high-growth organizations.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurial Growth Ceiling ; Initial Public Offering ; Resource Based Theory ; Entrepreneurial Growth ; Human Resource Management in Entrepreneurial Firms ; Human Resource Strategy ; Innovation in New Ventures ; Business Formation ; Business Development ; Business
    ISSN: 0025-1747
    E-ISSN: 1758-6070
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  • 3
    In: Pediatric Anesthesia, October 2017, Vol.27(10), pp.1021-1027
    Description: Byline: Heidi M. Meyer, Jenny Thomas, Graeme S. Wilson, Marianna de Kock, Francis Veyckemans Keywords: child; complications; general anesthesia; infant; neonate; outcomes Summary Aim This study aimed to quantify the incidence of anesthesia-related and perioperative mortality at a large tertiary pediatric hospital in South Africa. Methods This study included all children aged 〈18 years who died prior to discharge from hospital and within 30 days of their last anesthetic at the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital between January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015. A panel of three senior anesthetists reviewed each death to reach a consensus as to whether: (i) anesthesia caused the death; (ii) anesthesia may have contributed to or influenced the timing of death; or (iii) anesthesia was entirely unrelated to the death. Results There were 47 deaths within 30 days of anesthesia prior to discharge from hospital during this 12-month period. The in-hospital mortality within 24 h of administration of anesthesia was 16.5 per 10 000 cases (95% confidence intervals [CI]=7.8-25.1) and within 30 days of administration of anesthesia was 55.3 per 10 000 cases (95% CI=39.5-71.2). Age under 1 year (OR 4.5; 95% CI=2.5-8.0, P=.012) and cardiac surgery and interventional cardiology procedures (OR 2.5; 95% CI=1.2-5.2, P〈.01) were both independent predictors of increased risk of perioperative mortality. Conclusion The overall 24-h and 30-day anesthesia-related and in-hospital perioperative mortality rates in our study are comparable with other similar studies from tertiary pediatric centers. Article Note: Published studies from South Africa include predominantly adult patients, only reflect the immediate 24-h postanesthesia, and the data are now over 20 years old. The studies, therefore, do not reflect current pediatric anesthetic practice. This study provides data on in-hospital mortality in current pediatric anesthetic practice in a reference hospital in South Africa.
    Keywords: Child ; Complications ; General Anesthesia ; Infant ; Neonate ; Outcomes
    ISSN: 1155-5645
    E-ISSN: 1460-9592
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 31 October 2018, Vol.38(44), pp.9433-9445
    Description: The ability to anticipate and respond appropriately to the challenges and opportunities present in our environments is critical for adaptive behavior. Recent methodological innovations have led to substantial advances in our understanding of the neurocircuitry supporting such motivated behavior in adulthood. However, the neural circuits and cognitive processes that enable threat- and reward-motivated behavior undergo substantive changes over the course of development, and these changes are less well understood. In this article, we highlight recent research in human and animal models demonstrating how developmental changes in prefrontal-subcortical neural circuits give rise to corresponding changes in the processing of threats and rewards from infancy to adulthood. We discuss how these developmental trajectories are altered by experiential factors, such as early-life stress, and highlight the relevance of this research for understanding the developmental onset and treatment of psychiatric disorders characterized by dysregulation of motivated behavior.
    Keywords: Development ; Dopamine ; Early Life Stress ; Motivation ; Prefrontal Cortex ; Reward ; Threat ; Adaptation, Psychological -- Physiology ; Child Development -- Physiology ; Cognition -- Physiology ; Motivation -- Physiology ; Nerve Net -- Growth & Development ; Prefrontal Cortex -- Growth & Development
    ISSN: 02706474
    E-ISSN: 1529-2401
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: English Teaching: Practice & Critique, 04 December 2017, Vol.16(3), pp.391-406
    Description: Purpose The purpose of this work is to describe the current sociopolitical context and complex consequences surrounding elementary literacy education in one Midwestern US state and consider how power works through language. Design/methodology/approach Using qualitative methods and critical discourse analysis as a theory and method, surveys and interview data from teachers, administrators and parents, policy documents and other artifacts were analyzed and described to explain the sociopolitical climate. Findings Using Fairclough (2015) and Gee’s (2015) tools, the authors identified the discourses of deficiency, efficiency and gatekeeping in the data. Foucault’s ideas about governmentality and regimes of truth are used to explain the ways teachers took up the policies and resisted them. Research limitations/implications The authors argue that a new testing regime is on the move, and more unity and critique by elementary and secondary teachers and administrators will be important for restoring and sustaining quality literacy instruction and decision-making in all classrooms. Practical implications Continued research is needed to understand how particular reading assessments exacerbate and perpetuate the ranking and sorting in schools and the loss and struggle children face when they are denied literacy experiences that validate their lives outside of school and give meaning and purpose to reading in school. Originality value As the reality for secondary education language arts teachers begins to shift to a more restrictive curriculum, a loss of academic freedom and frequent testing, the authors see an opportunity for new professional alliances to form in support of a complex theory of literacy.
    Keywords: Literacy ; Assessment ; Critical Literacy ; Elementary ; Secondary ; Education
    ISSN: 1175-8708
    E-ISSN: 1175-8708
    Source: Emerald Insight Journals (Emerald Group)
    Source: Emerald Management (Emerald Group)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, 2005, Vol.124(6), pp.507-516
    Description: The loss of the function of the peroxisomal Mpv17-protein and associated imbalanced radical oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis leads to an early onset of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and sensorineural deafness associated with severe degeneration of cochlear structures. An excessive enlargement of basal laminae of the stria vascularis capillaries and glomeruli indicates numerous changes in their molecular composition. The basement membrane (BM) of the glomeruli and the stria vascularis are simultaneously affected in early stages of the disease and the lamination, splitting of the membrane and formation of the “basket weaving” seen at the onset of the disease in the kidney are similar to the ultrastructural alterations characteristic for Alportȁ9s syndrome. The progressive alteration of the BMs is accompanied by irregularity in the distribution of the collagen IV subunits and by an accumulation of the laminin B2(γ1) in the inner ear and B(β1) in the kidney. Since Mpv17 protein contributes to ROS homeostasis, further studies are necessary to elucidate downstream signaling molecules activated by ROS. These studies explain the cellular responses to missing Mpv17-protein, such as accumulation of the extracellular matrix, degeneration, and apoptosis in the inner ear.
    Keywords: Collagen ; Laminin ; Alport syndrome ; ROS ; Peroxisomes ; Cochlea
    ISSN: 0948-6143
    E-ISSN: 1432-119X
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  • 7
    In: Journal of Small Business Management, April 2004, Vol.42(2), pp.190-208
    Description: This paper reports the results of a two‐phase study that explores new venture creation within the context of an entrepreneurial system. First, a genealogy of high‐technology companies is presented depicting a high spin‐off rate resulting from the presence of seven incubator organizations. Second, semantic structure analysis (Spradley 1980) based on semi‐structured interviews with founders is used to develop a taxonomy. This taxonomy depicts the relationship among components in one entrepreneurial system, Boulder County, Colorado, that encourages, supports, and enhances regional entrepreneurial activity. Findings indicate that incubator organizations, spin‐offs, informal and formal networks, the physical infrastructure, and the culture of the region are related uniquely and interact to form a system conducive for dense high‐technology entrepreneurial activity. Additionally, greater rates of new venture formation were found following critical moments in the life of incubator organizations.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship -- Case Studies ; Entrepreneurship -- Analysis ; Entrepreneurship -- Management;
    ISSN: 0047-2778
    E-ISSN: 1540-627X
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: The American Journal of Psychology, 01 September 2011, Vol.124(3), pp.341-354
    Description: We are developing technology to translate acoustic characteristics of speech into visual cues that can be used to supplement speechreading when hearing is limited. Research and theory have established that perceivers are influenced by multiple sources of sensory and contextual information in spoken language processing. Previous research has also shown that additional sources of information can be learned and used to supplement those that are normally available but have been degraded by sensory impairment or difficult environments. We tested whether people can combine or integrate information from the face and information from newly learned cues in an optimal manner. Subjects first learned the visual cues and then were tested under three conditions. Words were presented with just the face, just the visual cues, or both together. Performance was much better with both cues than with either one alone. Similar to the description of previous results with audible and visible speech, the present results were well described by the Fuzzy Logical Model of Perception (Massaro, 1998), which predicts optimal or maximally efficient integration.
    Keywords: Visual Cues ; Speech ; Cues ; Hearing ; Contextual Information ; Spoken Language ; Article;
    ISSN: 00029556
    E-ISSN: 19398298
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Behavioral Neuroscience, 2014, Vol.128(6), pp.644-653
    Description: Few studies have considered the process by which individuals learn to omit a response, which is an essential aspect of adaptive behavior. Several lines of evidence indicate that two regions of the medial prefrontal cortex have disparate roles in behavioral flexibility. In particular, the prelimbic cortex (PL) is thought to facilitate the generation of a strategy to inhibit a prepotent response, whereas the infralimbic cortex (IL) appears to be more important for maintaining extensively trained inhibitory behaviors. The present experiments were designed to elucidate the contributions of PL and IL to the acquisition and maintenance of Pavlovian conditioned inhibition. In Experiment 1, damage to PL before training in a compound feature negative discrimination task impaired inhibitory learning. By comparison, lesions of IL had little effect. In Experiment 2, lesions of PL or IL occurred after overtraining, and damage to IL significantly impaired subsequent performance in the task, suggesting that this region is involved in the continued expression of Pavlovian conditioned inhibition after thorough training. PL may also be involved in maintaining inhibition, as evidenced by a marginally significant lesion-induced performance deficit. These data support the notion that PL and IL have distinguishable roles in modulating inhibition, while contributing important information about the specific role for PL in acquisition of an inhibitory response and IL in performance.
    Keywords: Prelimbic ; Infralimbic ; Associative Learning
    ISSN: 0735-7044
    E-ISSN: 1939-0084
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Physiology & Behavior, 01 December 2016, Vol.167, pp.354-362
    Description: Mounting evidence indicates that adolescents exhibit heightened sensitivity to rewards and reward-related cues compared to adults, and that adolescents are often unable to exert behavioral control in the face of such cues. Moreover, differences in reward processing during adolescence have been linked to heightened risk taking and impulsivity. However, little is known about the processes by which adolescents learn about the appetitive properties of environmental stimuli that signal reward. To address this, Pavlovian conditioning procedures were used to test for differences in excitatory conditioning between adult and adolescent rats using various schedules of reinforcement. Specifically, separate cohorts of adult and adolescent rats were trained under conditions of consistent (continuous) or intermittent (partial) reinforcement. We found that the acquisition of anticipatory responding to a continuously-reinforced cue proceeded similarly in adolescents and adults. In contrast, responding increased at a greater rate in adolescents compared to adults during presentations of a partially-reinforced cue. We subsequently compared the ability of adolescent and adult rats to dynamically adjust the representation of a reward-predictive cue during extinction trials, in which a secondary inhibitory representation is acquired for the previously-reinforced stimulus. We observed significant age differences in the ability to flexibly update cue representations during extinction, in that the appetitive properties of cues with a history of either continuous or partial reinforcement persisted to a greater extent in adolescents relative to adults.
    Keywords: Adolescence ; Learning ; Reinforcement ; Appetitive ; Pavlovian ; Anatomy & Physiology ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0031-9384
    E-ISSN: 1873-507X
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