AIDS research and human retroviruses, April 2015, Vol.31(4), pp.375-83
We sought to determine the relationships among intrarenal and systemic inflammation and renal disease in HIV. We compared paired serum and urinary levels (normalized to urine creatinine) of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), interferon-γ-induced protein-10 (IP-10), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and β2-microglobulin (B2M) between two groups of HIV-infected subjects not receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) [A: not expecting to initiate ART immediately due to having CD4 cell counts ≥350/μl, N=26; B: about to initiate ART, N=19], a group of HIV-infected subjects receiving virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy [C, N=30], and a group of HIV-uninfected, healthy volunteers [D, N=45]. We then correlated these inflammatory biomarker levels with urine protein/creatinine ratios (uPCR), urine albumin/creatinine ratios (uACR), and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR). Urine inflammatory biomarker levels were highest in Group B. When combining all four study groups, statistically significant positive correlations included uPCR with urine IL-8, urine MCP-1, urine IP-10, and serum IP-10 and uACR with urine IL-8, urine B2M, serum IP-10, and serum B2M. eGFR was statistically significantly negatively correlated with serum MCP-1 and serum B2M. Paired serum and urine levels of IP-10 and B2M (but not IL-8, RANTES, or MCP-1) were significantly correlated with each other in the overall group. The levels of urine inflammatory markers tested differed by HIV status and use of virologically suppressive ART. These urine and serum inflammatory markers were differentially correlated with uPCR, uACR, and eGFR, suggesting that different intrarenal and systemic inflammatory pathways may contribute to different measures of nephropathy.
Biomarkers -- Blood ; HIV Infections -- Complications ; Kidney Diseases -- Pathology ; Serum -- Chemistry ; Urine -- Chemistry
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