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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: Kidney International, 2012, Vol.82(9), p.1034
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 0085-2538
    E-ISSN: 15231755
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: FEBS Letters, 2011, Vol.585(22), pp.3544-3548
    Description: ► We studied the role of CD38 in formation of the second messenger NAADP. ► We used gene silencing and CD38 KO mice to show a lack of inhibition of NAADP synthesis. ► We conclude that CD38 appears to be a NAADP degrading enzyme in intact cells. The role of the multifunctional enzyme CD38 in formation of the Ca -mobilizing second messenger nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) was investigated. Gene silencing of CD38 did neither inhibit NAADP synthesis in intact Jurkat T cells nor in thymus or spleen obtained from CD38 knock out mice. In vitro, both NAADP formation by base-exchange and degradation to 2-phospho adenosine diphosphoribose were efficiently decreased. Thus in vivo CD38 appears to be a NAADP degrading rather than a NAADP forming enzyme, perhaps avoiding desensitizing NAADP levels in intact cells.
    Keywords: Calcium Signalling ; Naadp ; Cd38 ; Jurkat T Lymphocyte ; Biology ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0014-5793
    E-ISSN: 1873-3468
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2014, Vol.9(5), p.e97701
    Description: The chemokine receptor CXCR6 is expressed on different T cell subsets and up-regulated following T cell activation. CXCR6 has been implicated in the localization of cells to the liver due to the constitutive expression of its ligand CXCL16 on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. Here, we analyzed the role of CXCR6 in CD8+ T cell responses to infection of mice with Listeria monocytogenes. CD8+ T cells responding to listerial antigens acquired high expression levels of CXCR6. However, deficiency of mice in CXCR6 did not impair control of the L. monocytogenes infection. CXCR6-deficient mice were able to generate listeria-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses and showed accumulation of T cells in the infected liver. In transfer assays, we detected reduced accumulation of listeria-specific CXCR6-deficient CD8+ T cells in the liver at early time points post infection. Though, CXCR6 was dispensable at later time points of the CD8+ T cell response. When transferred CD8+ T cells were followed for extended time periods, we observed a decline in CXCR6-deficient CD8+ T cells. The manifestation of this cell loss depended on the tissue analyzed. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that CXCR6 is not required for the formation of a T cell response to L. monocytogenes and for the accumulation of T cells in the infected liver but CXCR6 appears to influence long-term survival and tissue distribution of activated cells.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 10 September 2013, Vol.110(37), pp.15019-24
    Description: Robust cytotoxic CD8(+) T-cell response is important for immunity to intracellular pathogens. Here, we show that the transcription factor IFN Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF4) is crucial for the protective CD8(+) T-cell response to the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. IRF4-deficient (Irf4(-/-)) mice could not clear L. monocytogenes infection and generated decreased numbers of L. monocytogenes-specific CD8(+) T cells with impaired effector phenotype and function. Transfer of wild-type CD8(+) T cells into Irf4(-/-) mice improved bacterial clearance, suggesting an intrinsic defect of CD8(+) T cells in Irf4(-/-) mice. Following transfer into wild-type recipients, Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells became activated and showed initial proliferation upon L. monocytogenes infection. However, these cells could not sustain proliferation, produced reduced amounts of IFN-γ and TNF-α, and failed to acquire cytotoxic function. Forced IRF4 expression in Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells rescued the defect. During acute infection, Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells demonstrated diminished expression of B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1), inhibitor of DNA binding (Id)2, and T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet), transcription factors programming effector-cell generation. IRF4 was essential for expression of Blimp-1, suggesting that altered regulation of Blimp-1 contributes to the defects of Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells. Despite increased levels of B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL-6), Eomesodermin, and Id3, Irf4(-/-) CD8(+) T cells showed impaired memory-cell formation, indicating additional functions for IRF4 in this process. As IRF4 governs B-cell and CD4(+) T-cell differentiation, the identification of its decisive role in peripheral CD8(+) T-cell differentiation, suggests a common regulatory function for IRF4 in adaptive lymphocytes fate decision.
    Keywords: Interferon Regulatory Factors -- Immunology ; T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic -- Immunology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of cell biology, 19 January 2015, Vol.208(2), pp.171-80
    Description: Antigen processing and presentation and cytotoxic targeting depend on the activities of several lysosomal enzymes that require mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) sorting signals for efficient intracellular transport and localization. In this paper, we show that mice deficient in the formation of M6P residues exhibit significant loss of cathepsin proteases in B cells, leading to lysosomal dysfunction with accumulation of storage material, impaired antigen processing and presentation, and subsequent defects in B cell maturation and antibody production. The targeting of lysosomal and granular enzymes lacking M6P residues is less affected in dendritic cells and T cells and sufficient for maintenance of degradative and lytic functions. M6P deficiency also impairs serum immunoglobulin levels and antibody responses to vaccination in patients. Our data demonstrate the critical role of M6P-dependent transport routes for B cell functions in vivo and humoral immunity in mice and human.
    Keywords: B-Lymphocytes -- Enzymology ; Lysosomes -- Enzymology ; Mannosephosphates -- Metabolism ; Peptide Hydrolases -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00219525
    E-ISSN: 1540-8140
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity, November 2013, Vol.81(11), pp.4091-9
    Description: CD38, adenosine-5'-diphosphate-ribosyl cyclase 1, is a multifunctional enzyme, expressed on a wide variety of cell types. CD38 has been assigned diverse functions, including generation of calcium-mobilizing metabolites, cell activation, and chemotaxis. Using a murine Listeria monocytogenes infection model, we found that CD38 knockout (KO) mice were highly susceptible to infection. Enhanced susceptibility was already evident within 3 days of infection, suggesting a function of CD38 in the innate immune response. CD38 was expressed on neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes, and especially inflammatory monocytes further upregulated CD38 during infection. Absence of CD38 caused alterations of the migration pattern of both cell types to sites of infection. We observed impaired accumulation of cells in the spleen but surprisingly similar or even higher accumulation of cells in the liver. CD38 KO and wild-type mice showed similar changes in the composition of neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes in blood and bone marrow, indicating that mobilization of these cells from the bone marrow was CD38 independent. In vitro, macrophages of CD38 KO mice were less efficient in uptake of listeria but still able to kill the bacteria. Dendritic cells also displayed enhanced CD38 expression following infection. However, absence of CD38 did not impair the capacity of mice to prime CD8(+) T cells against L. monocytogenes, and CD38 KO mice could efficiently control secondary listeria infection. In conclusion, our results demonstrate an essential role for CD38 in the innate immune response against L. monocytogenes.
    Keywords: Host-Pathogen Interactions ; Immunity, Innate ; Adp-Ribosyl Cyclase 1 -- Immunology ; Listeria Monocytogenes -- Immunology ; Membrane Glycoproteins -- Immunology
    E-ISSN: 1098-5522
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  • 7
    In: Kidney International, 2011, Vol.80(2), p.154
    Description: Crescentic glomerulonephritis is mediated by inappropriate humoral and cellular immune responses toward self-antigens that may result from defects in central and peripheral tolerance. Evidence now suggests that regulatory T cells (Tregs) may be of pathophysiological importance in proliferative and crescentic forms of glomerulonephritis. To analyze the role of endogenous Tregs in a T cell-dependent glomerulonephritis model of nephrotoxic nephritis, we used 'depletion of regulatory T cell' (DEREG) mice that express the diphtheria toxin receptor under control of the FoxP3 (forkhead box P3) gene promoter. Toxin injection into these mice efficiently depleted renal and splenic FoxP3 super(+) Treg cells as determined by fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) and immunohistochemical analyses. Treg depletion exacerbated systemic and renal interferon- gamma (IFN gamma ) expression and increased recruitment of IFN gamma -producing Th1 cells into the kidney without an effect on the Th17 immune response. The enhanced Th1 response, following Treg cell depletion, was associated with an aggravated course of glomerulonephritis as measured by glomerular crescent formation. Thus, our results establish the functional importance of endogenous Tregs in the control of a significantly enhanced systemic and renal Th1 immune response in experimental glomerulonephritis.
    Keywords: Immunoregulation ; Gamma -Interferon ; Glomerulonephritis ; Helper Cells ; Animal Models ; Spleen ; Immunological Tolerance ; Toxins ; Diphtheria Toxin ; Autoantigens ; Flow Cytometry ; Forkhead Protein ; Promoters ; Foxp3 Protein ; Nephritis ; Lymphocytes T ; Kidney ; Immune Response ; Immune Response (Humoral) ; Development, Aging & Organ Systems;
    ISSN: 0085-2538
    E-ISSN: 15231755
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2017, Vol.12(9), p.e0184320
    Description: ADAM17 is a member of the A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase family of proteases. It is ubiquitously expressed and causes the shedding of a broad spectrum of surface proteins such as adhesion molecules, cytokines and cytokine receptors. By controlled shedding of these proteins from leukocytes, ADAM17 is able to regulate immune responses. Several ADAM17 targets on T cells have been implicated in T-cell migration, differentiation and effector functions. However, the role of ADAM17 in T-cell responses is still unclear. To characterize the function of ADAM17 in T cells, we used Adam17fl/fl×CD4cre+ mice with a T-cell restricted inactivation of the Adam17 gene. Upon stimulation, ADAM17-deficient CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were impaired in shedding of CD62L, IL-6Rα, TNF-α, TNFRI and TNFRII. Surprisingly, we could not detect profound changes in the composition of major T-cell subsets in Adam17fl/fl×CD4cre+ mice. Following infection with Listeria monocytogenes, Adam17fl/fl×CD4cre+ mice mounted regular listeria-specific CD4+ TH1 and CD8+ T-cell responses and were able to control primary and secondary infections. In conclusion, our study indicates that ADAM17 is either not required in T cells under homoeostatic conditions and for control of listeria infection or can be effectively compensated by other mechanisms.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2018, Vol.13(5), p.e0197151
    Description: The ectoenzymes CD39 and CD73 degrade extracellular ATP to adenosine. ATP is released by stressed or damaged cells and provides pro-inflammatory signals to immune cells through P2 receptors. Adenosine, on the other hand, suppresses immune cells by stimulating P1 receptors. Thus, CD39 and CD73 can shape the quality of immune responses. Here we demonstrate that upregulation of CD39 is a consistent feature of activated conventional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Following stimulation in vitro, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from human blood gained surface expression of CD39 but displayed only low levels of CD73. Activated human T cells from inflamed joints largely presented with a CD39+CD73- phenotype. In line, in spleens of mice with acute Listeria monocytogenes, listeria-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells acquired a CD39+CD73- phenotype. To test the function of CD39 in control of bacterial infection, CD39-deficient (CD39-/-) mice were infected with L. monocytogenes. CD39-/- mice showed better initial control of L. monocytogenes, which was associated with enhanced production of inflammatory cytokines. In the late stage of infection, CD39-/- mice accumulated more listeria-specific CD8+ T cells in the spleen than wildtype animals suggesting that CD39 attenuates the CD8+ T-cell response to infection. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that CD39 is upregulated on conventional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells at sites of acute infection and inflammation, and that CD39 dampens responses to bacterial infection.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2015, Vol.10(5), p.e0126007
    Description: The enzyme CD38 is expressed on a variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and is involved in diverse processes such as generation of calcium-mobilizing metabolites, cell activation, and chemotaxis. Here, we show that under homeostatic conditions CD38 is highly expressed on immune cells of the colon mucosa of C57BL/6 mice. Myeloid cells recruited to this tissue upon inflammation also express enhanced levels of CD38. To determine the role of CD38 in intestinal inflammation, we applied the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model. Whereas wild-type mice developed severe colitis, CD38-/- mice had only mild disease following DSS-treatment. Histologic examination of the colon mucosa revealed pronounced inflammatory damage with dense infiltrates containing numerous granulocytes and macrophages in wild-type animals, while these findings were significantly attenuated in CD38-/- mice. Despite attenuated histological findings, the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines was only marginally lower in the colons of CD38-/- mice as compared to wild-type mice. In conclusion, our results identify a function for CD38 in the control of inflammatory processes in the colon.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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