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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 19 November 2013, Vol.110(47), pp.18916-21
    Description: During their transport cycle, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters undergo large-scale conformational changes between inward- and outward-facing states. Using an approach based on designing system-specific reaction coordinates and using nonequilibrium work relations, we have performed extensive all-atom molecular dynamics simulations in the presence of explicit membrane/solvent to sample a large number of mechanistically distinct pathways for the conformational transition of MsbA, a bacterial ABC exporter whose structure has been solved in multiple functional states. The computational approach developed here is based on (i) extensive exploration of system-specific biasing protocols (e.g., using collective variables designed based on available low-resolution crystal structures) and (ii) using nonequilibrium work relations for comparing the relevance of the transition pathways. The most relevant transition pathway identified using this approach involves several distinct stages reflecting the complex nature of the structural changes associated with the function of the protein. The opening of the cytoplasmic gate during the outward- to inward-facing transition of apo MsbA is found to be disfavored when the periplasmic gate is open and facilitated by a twisting motion of the nucleotide-binding domains that involves a dramatic change in their relative orientation. These results highlight the cooperativity between the transmembrane and the nucleotide-binding domains in the conformational transition of ABC exporters. The approach introduced here provides a framework to study large-scale conformational changes of other membrane transporters whose computational investigation at an atomic resolution may not be currently feasible using conventional methods.
    Keywords: Bias-Exchange Umbrella Sampling ; Conformational Free Energy ; Orientation Quaternion ; Models, Chemical ; Models, Molecular ; Protein Conformation ; ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters -- Chemistry ; Bacterial Proteins -- Chemistry ; Salmonella Typhimurium -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Counseling Psychologist, January 2011, Vol.39(1), pp.153-163
    Description: This article elaborates on three themes related to Szymanski, Moffitt, and Carr’s major contribution aims. First, the article describes the promise of objectification theory as a grounding framework in research and practice, outlining how this theory integrates key aspects of several other important theoretical models. Second, this article suggests areas for theoretical refinement and clarification related to the conceptualization and operationalization of self-objectification, sexually objectifying environments, and the mechanisms linking sexual objectification with substance use. Third, this article offers considerations regarding the state of objectification theory—based intervention recommendations. The article concludes with a discussion of potential roles of counseling psychologists in advancing research, practice, and advocacy informed by objectification theory.
    Keywords: Objectification Theory ; Self-Objectification ; Body Surveillance ; Gender ; Culture ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0011-0000
    E-ISSN: 1552-3861
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Counseling Psychologist, November 2012, Vol.40(8), pp.1133-1148
    Description: This article underscores several themes evident in Yoder, Snell, and Tobias’s research; these include the conceptualization of feminism and social justice as inextricably linked, the conceptualization and operationalization of optimal functioning at intrapersonal, interpersonal, and collective levels, and potential connections and disconnections between empowerment and liberation from oppression. In addition, selected patterns of findings from Yoder et al.’s study are elaborated on in the context of prior research on feminism in order to probe potential connections and disconnections among empowerment, oppression consciousness, and optimal functioning. This analysis culminates in the following question: Is feminist social justice orientation, with its potential accompanying sense of discontent, itself a form of optimal functioning? This question is posed, with an invitation to critically evaluate it and its implications, and with the hope of informing future scholarship, practice, and training in feminist social justice orientation and optimal functioning.
    Keywords: Feminism ; Social Justice ; Multiculturalism ; Feminist Identity ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0011-0000
    E-ISSN: 1552-3861
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Neuroimage, Nov 15, 2013, Vol.82, p.182(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.05.110 Byline: Farshad Moradi, Richard B. Buxton Abstract: Prolonged visual stimulation results in neurophysiologic and hemodynamic adaptation. However, the hemodynamic adaptation appears to be small compared to neural adaptation. It is not clear how the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO.sub.2) is affected by adaptation. We measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) and CMRO.sub.2 change in responses to peripheral stimulation either continuously, or intermittently (on/off cycles). A linear system's response to the continuous input should be equal to the sum of the original response to the intermittent input and a version of that response shifted by half a cycle. The CMRO.sub.2 response showed a large non-linearity consistent with adaptation, the CBF response adapted to a lesser degree, and the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response was nearly linear. The metabolic response was coupled with a larger flow in the continuous condition than in the intermittent condition. Our results suggest that contrast adaptation improves energy economy of visual processing. However BOLD modulations may not accurately represent the underlying metabolic nonlinearity due to modulation of the coupling of blood flow and oxygen metabolism changes. Article History: Accepted 27 May 2013
    Keywords: Visual Perception -- Physiological Aspects ; Blood Flow -- Physiological Aspects
    ISSN: 1053-8119
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 15 January 2011, Vol.109(2)
    Description: An analytical model, with incorporation of transferred-electron effect, for drain-current characteristics of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) is presented. The transferred-electron effect is often neglected in modeling the drain-current of III-V HFETs. The broad steady-state electron drift-velocity overshoot of GaN in comparison to other direct semiconductors such as GaAs and InP, in addition to the larger difference between the peak and saturation drift-velocity, and the wider band gap of this semiconductor suggest the importance of the incorporation of transferred-electron effect (i.e., steady-state drift-velocity overshoot) in modeling the drain-current of these devices. Simulation results are compared with the results of the adoption of a saturating drift transport model, which has been recently used in modeling the drain-current of these devices. Comparisons between the two models demonstrate the importance of the consideration of transferred-electron effect, especially as the Ohmic contact quality is improved.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications, June 2015, Vol.15, pp.41-45
    Description: We study the dispersion curves of the plasmonic waves of a semicontinuous metal film that contains randomly distributed dielectric nanoparticles. We use the Maxwell-Garnet approximation to treat the random media as uniform effective media. Four branches of p-polarised surface plasmon-polariton modes are found to exist. We also illustrate the attenuated total reflection spectra of the system for the case of p-polarisation.
    Keywords: Surface Plasmon Polariton ; Dispersion Relation ; Attenuated Total Reflection ; Applied Sciences
    ISSN: 1569-4410
    E-ISSN: 1569-4429
    E-ISSN: 10897690
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Chemical Physics, 14 July 2014, Vol.141(2)
    Description: We study the multipole plasmon mode frequencies of a pair of C 60 molecules by means of the linearized hydrodynamic theory for electronic excitations on the each C 60 surface. We apply the two-center spherical coordinate system for mathematical convenience and find an explicit form of the surface plasmon energies. Numerical result shows when approaching the two C 60 molecules, the coupling between the bare plasmon modes leads to the appearance of additional modes having energies that are different from those of the isolated C 60 molecules.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0021-9606
    E-ISSN: 1089-7690
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Renewable Energy, Dec, 2012, Vol.48, p.364(5)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2012.05.016 Byline: H. Moradi (a), H. Eskandari (b) Abstract: Shovadan is the underground room which, for a long time, has been used in several areas of Iran for heating and cooling purposes. In the present work, Shovadan heating and cooling performance is experimentally investigated during a year. In the sample studied, when the ambient temperature is 7 [degrees]C in January and 47 [degrees]C in July, Shovadan average temperature is 17 [degrees]C and 23 [degrees]C, respectively. The suitable Shovadan temperature range proves the ability of this space in architecture optimization for saving energy. Next, in order to save time and cost to study more Shovadans in other locations, a three-dimensional model is simulated in real size. Then, Navier-Stokes and energy equations have been numerically solved and the temperature distribution within a Shovadan has been calculated. Numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. Finally, ventilation effectiveness was evaluated in the coldest and warmest months. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yasouj Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. 7591963539, Yasouj, Iran (b) Department of Civil Engineering, Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran Article History: Received 25 April 2012; Accepted 21 May 2012
    Keywords: Mechanical Engineering -- Analysis ; Energy Management -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0960-1481
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, March 15, 2010, Vol.107(6), p.066104-1-066104-2
    Description: The correct form of the microwave absorption coefficient of the magnetized hydrogen plasma embedded inside the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is derived and it is shown that the absorption band has moved from low to high frequencies when the magnetic field strength has increased. The studies have also shown that the attenuation (ATT) of the microwave in the system is not sensitive to the thermal frequency.
    Keywords: Nanotubes -- Thermal Properties ; Absorption -- Analysis ; Hydrogen -- Thermal Properties
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, 15 September 2015, Vol.98(1-2), pp.14-25
    Description: Spatio-temporal variability of SST and Chl- evaluated using MODIS products from 2002 to 2013 in the Persian Gulf. Wavelet Transform was utilized to analyze the spatio-temporal stability and abnormality of MODIS SST and Chl- . The stationary level of SST decreases from west to the east during summer to early autumn, and increases from late autumn to spring. The stationary level of Chl- is higher in the coastal areas, while its average ranged from 0.1 to 0.5 mg m . No meaningful major oscillating period observed in the abnormal variability of SST and Chl- . The winter and summer peaks of SST and Chl- were observed in the central parts and north-west regions. The timing of maximum SST was observed in August, which is not correlated with Chl- maxima. The variability of SST and Chl- in the whole Persian Gulf is seasonal, and related to river outflows, water circulation and climate regimes.
    Keywords: Chlorophyll-a ; Sea Surface Temperature ; Wavelet Transform ; Modis Imagery ; Remote Sensing ; Environmental Sciences ; Oceanography
    ISSN: 0025-326X
    E-ISSN: 1879-3363
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