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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 2007, Vol.183(1), pp.427-436
    Description: This study aims to evaluate the performance of different leaching schemes with respect to the mobilization of antimony and arsenic from polluted samples collected at different sites in Mansfeld District, Germany. Besides the elution by water the leaching by artificial acidic rain and by two different schemes of sequential extraction were employed for estimation of the mobilization of antimony and arsenic. The samples were characterized by X-ray fluorescence analysis for their total concentration of metalloids, metals and main constituents. It was found that both antimony and arsenic show little mobilization with de-ionized water as well as artificial acidic rain in single step batch procedures (≤ 0.13% of the total content). Although the percentage leached is very low, the concentrations in the resulting solutions are of ecotoxicological relevance. BCR procedure indicate a very strong binding of Sb and of As in the samples. Less than 20% of the total content can be leached in sum in all leaching steps, of it most under strongly oxidizing conditions. This scheme seems not suitable for a detailed investigation of possible mobilization processes under environmental conditions for the metalloids under investigation. The four-step extraction procedure by Wenzel et al. gives a more detailed pattern of the binding of antimony and arsenic. This procedure was found to be a suitable scheme for evaluating the possible mobilization processes from the samples contaminated by ore processing waste, especially by change through other ions or under reducing conditions.
    Keywords: Antimony ; Arsenic ; Fractionation ; Leaching ; Sequential extraction ; Sediment ; Soil ; Simulated acidic rain ; Water extraction
    ISSN: 0049-6979
    E-ISSN: 1573-2932
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Molecular Medicine, February 2005, Vol.15(2), pp.323-327
    Description: Clinical observations and our high-density oligonucleotide microarray results demonstrated increased expression of proinflammatory chemokines after SARS-CoV infection. Here, we investigated the influence of SARS-CoV infection on CXCL8 (interleukin 8) and CXCL10 (interferon-γ-inducible protein 10) in human intestinal epithelial (Caco2) cells. RT-PCR and ELISA showed time-dependent up-regulation of both chemokines after SARS-CoV infection. Electric mobility shift assay revealed increased DNA binding activity of the cellular transcription factors activator protein 1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor (B (NF-κB) in SARS-CoV infected cells. High hydrocortisone concentrations (≥50 µg/ml) completely prevented increased DNA binding activity of AP-1 and NF-κB and inhibited up-regulation of CXCL8 and CXCL10, but did not reduce chemokine expression to basal levels. Ribavirin that does not inhibit SARS-CoV replication in Vero cells inhibited SARS-CoV replication in Caco2 cells at therapeutical concentrations. Hydrocortisone neither influenced SARS-CoV titres alone nor in combination with ribavirin. Our results show that corticosteroids may be of limited benefit in the suppression of chemokine production by SARS-CoV-infected cells.
    Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Chemokines, Cxc -- Biosynthesis ; Colonic Neoplasms -- Metabolism ; Hydrocortisone -- Pharmacology ; Interleukin-8 -- Biosynthesis ; Intestines -- Cytology ; Sars Virus -- Metabolism ; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome -- Metabolism;
    ISSN: 1107-3756
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  • 3
    In: International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 02/01/2005
    ISSN: 1107-3756
    E-ISSN: 1791-244X
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2005, Vol.326(4), pp.905-908
    Description: Initial in vitro investigations demonstrated type I interferons (IFNs: IFN-α, IFN-β) to inhibit replication of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), but found the nucleoside analogue ribavirin ineffective in Vero cells. In this report, ribavirin was shown to inhibit SARS-CoV replication in five different cell types of animal or human origin at therapeutically achievable concentrations. Since clinical anti-SARS-CoV activity of type I interferons or ribavirin is limited, we investigated the combination of IFN-β and ribavirin. Determination of the virus yield indicated highly synergistic anti-SARS-CoV action of the combination suggesting the consideration of ribavirin plus IFN-β for the treatment of SARS.
    Keywords: Human Primary Epithelial Kidney Cells ; Caco2 ; Cl14 ; Ma104 ; Vero ; Biology ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    E-ISSN: 1090-2104
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Clinical Virology, 2002, Vol.25, pp.65-72
    Description: Background: Specific mutations in the reverse transcriptase (RT) gene of HIV-1 are associated with reduced activity of nucleoside inhibitors used in the antiretroviral treatment of infected patients. The appearance of these mutations may result in therapy failure. Therefore, HIV-1 genotyping is an important tool for monitoring antiretroviral therapy. At present different assay systems are used to obtain information about the changes in the viral genome. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the LiPA HIV-1 RT assay version 1 for monitoring drug resistance mutations in comparison to full-length sequencing. Study design: Two hundred and forty-four samples were analyzed using the LiPA HIV-1 RT assay version 1 and were compared with full RT gene sequences obtained by in-house sequencing. Results: In 129/244 (52.9%) samples full concordance between both systems was found, in 86/244 (35.2%) samples at least one position was not detected by the LiPA assay, in 19/244 (7.8%) samples the results were contradictory, and in 10/244 (4.1%) contradictory as well as absent signals from the LiPA assay were found. Analyzing total codons, missing signals were observed at 137 codons, mainly found at positions 41 (40/137) and 215 (41/137). The 32 contradictions between LiPA and sequencing were equally distributed across all codons except for position 184 with only one case. The main reason for missing signals is the heterogeneity of the HIV genome, which could not be fully covered by the LiPA probes, e.g. unusual mutations or polymorphisms in the vicinity of the relevant positions. The same is the case for some contradictions, although most of them are not evident (19/32 positions). Conclusions: We analyzed a patient population with partly multiple therapy failures. The LiPA HIV-1 RT assay version 1 gives a high degree of samples with at least one missing signal (39.4%) in our cohort and this is not acceptable for a diagnostic tool. However, the LiPA assay might work better in untreated patients and could, therefore, still be used for screening.
    Keywords: Line Probe Assay ; Sequencing ; HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase ; Drug Resistance ; Genetic Polymorphism ; Biology
    ISSN: 1386-6532
    E-ISSN: 1873-5967
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology, December 2002, Vol.25 Suppl 3, pp.S65-72
    Description: Specific mutations in the reverse transcriptase (RT) gene of HIV-1 are associated with reduced activity of nucleoside inhibitors used in the antiretroviral treatment of infected patients. The appearance of these mutations may result in therapy failure. Therefore, HIV-1 genotyping is an important tool... The aim of this study was to evaluate the LiPA HIV-1 RT assay version 1 for monitoring drug resistance mutations in comparison to full-length sequencing. Two hundred and forty-four samples were analyzed using the LiPA HIV-1 RT assay version 1 and were compared with full RT gene sequences obtained by in-house sequencing. In 129/244 (52.9%) samples full concordance between both systems was found, in 86/244 (35.2%) samples at least one position was not detected by the LiPA assay, in 19/244 (7.8%) samples the results were contradictory, and in 10/244 (4.1%) contradictory as well as absent signals from the LiPA assay were... We analyzed a patient population with partly multiple therapy failures. The LiPA HIV-1 RT assay version 1 gives a high degree of samples with at least one missing signal (39.4%) in our cohort and this is not acceptable for a diagnostic tool. However, the LiPA assay might work better in untreated patients...
    Keywords: HIV Reverse Transcriptase -- Genetics ; HIV-1 -- Enzymology ; Immunoassay -- Methods
    ISSN: 1386-6532
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, June, 2012, Vol.165, p.59(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2012.02.006 Byline: Rainer Wennrich (a), Birgit Daus (b), Karsten Muller (c), Hans-Joachim Stark (a), Lutz Bruggemann (a), Peter Morgenstern (a) Abstract: The mobilization behaviour of metalloids and metals when leached by water from highly polluted soil/sediment samples was studied using static and dynamic approaches employing batch methodology and rotating coiled columns (RCC), respectively. Increasing the solution-to-solid ratios during batch leaching resulted in different enhanced mobilization rates, which are element-specific and matrix-specific. When dynamic leaching is employed with continuous replacement of the eluent, a higher portion is mobilized than when using batch elution with an identical solid-to-water ratio. Using RCC the time-resolved leaching of the elements was monitored to demonstrate the leaching patterns. For the majority of elements a significant decrease could be shown in the mobilized portion of the elements with ongoing leaching process. The data were discussed targeted at solid liquid partitioning coefficients of the metal(loid)s. The capabilities in application of K.sub.d values was demonstrated for dynamic leaching which is relevant for environmental processes. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Analytical Chemistry, UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany (b) Department of Groundwater Remediation, UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany (c) Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging IVV, Giggenhauserstrasse 35, 85354 Freising, Germany Article History: Received 1 November 2011; Revised 31 January 2012; Accepted 3 February 2012
    Keywords: Leaching -- Analysis ; Sediments (Geology) -- Analysis ; Groundwater -- Analysis ; Pollution -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Microchimica Acta, Nov, 2005, Vol.152(1), p.175
    Description: Byline: Birgit Daus (1), Rainer Wennrich (1), Peter Morgenstern (1), Holger Weiss (1), Helena Eugenia Leonhardt Palmieri (2), Herminio Arias Nalini (3), Liliam Viana Leonel (2), Roberto Pellacani Guedes Monteiro (2), Rubens Martins Moreira (2) Keywords: Key words: Arsenic speciation; ferns; bioaccumulation; Iron Quadrangle. Abstract: Several plants, especially ferns, have been shown to tolerate and accumulate high arsenic concentrations in soils. The leaves and roots of the ferns Pteris vittata (Chinese brake) and Pityrogramma calomelanos as well as a medical plant (Baccharis trimera) were sampled together with their associated soils in a region impacted by ore mining, the Iron Quadrangle in Brazil, where arsenic concentrations in the soils vary sharply (6--900Augg.sup.-1). The bioaccumulation factors were found to be low compared to the literature data, which can be explained by the low water-soluble fraction of arsenic in soil. The arsenic species in the plants were mainly arsenite. In comparison to the rhizoid samples, the concentrations of arsenic were higher in the leaves of the fern samples. The medical plant behaved differently. The bioaccumulation factor was low (0.7), and trimethylarsine oxide was detected as the third arsenic species beside arsenite and arsenate in both the roots and the leaves. Author Affiliation: (1) UFZ -- Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Leipzig, Germany (2) Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear -- CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil (3) Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, (Degeo/UFOP), Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil Article History: Registration Date: 01/01/2005 Received Date: 10/10/2004 Accepted Date: 24/05/2005 Online Date: 22/08/2005
    Keywords: Iron Industry
    ISSN: 0026-3672
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Environmental pollution, 2012, Vol.165, pp.59-66
    Description: The mobilization behaviour of metalloids and metals when leached by water from highly polluted soil/sediment samples was studied using static and dynamic approaches employing batch methodology and rotating coiled columns (RCC), respectively. Increasing the solution-to-solid ratios during batch leaching resulted in different enhanced mobilization rates, which are element-specific and matrix-specific. When dynamic leaching is employed with continuous replacement of the eluent, a higher portion is mobilized than when using batch elution with an identical solid-to-water ratio. Using RCC the time-resolved leaching of the elements was monitored to demonstrate the leaching patterns. For the majority of elements a significant decrease could be shown in the mobilized portion of the elements with ongoing leaching process. The data were discussed targeted at solid liquid partitioning coefficients of the metal(loid)s. The capabilities in application of Kd values was demonstrated for dynamic leaching which is relevant for environmental processes. ; p. 59-66.
    Keywords: Metals ; Metalloids ; Sediments ; Leaching ; Polluted Soils ; Soil Sampling
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Pollution, June 2012, Vol.165, pp.59-66
    Description: The mobilization behaviour of metalloids and metals when leached by water from highly polluted soil/sediment samples was studied using static and dynamic approaches employing batch methodology and rotating coiled columns (RCC), respectively. Increasing the solution-to-solid ratios during batch leaching resulted in different enhanced mobilization rates, which are element-specific and matrix-specific. When dynamic leaching is employed with continuous replacement of the eluent, a higher portion is mobilized than when using batch elution with an identical solid-to-water ratio. Using RCC the time-resolved leaching of the elements was monitored to demonstrate the leaching patterns. For the majority of elements a significant decrease could be shown in the mobilized portion of the elements with ongoing leaching process. The data were discussed targeted at solid liquid partitioning coefficients of the metal(loid)s. The capabilities in application of values was demonstrated for dynamic leaching which is relevant for environmental processes. ► We examine the mobilization of metal(loid)s by water under simulated conditions. ► Static versus dynamic leaching (RCC) with continuous supply of extractant was compared. ► RCC is favourable for detailed time-resolved investigations of the leaching behaviour. ► The influence of matrices on the leaching behaviour was investigated. ► The capabilities of the values in environmentally relevant processes is shown. Dynamic leaching with continuous supply of water has proved as tool for long-term and time-resolved mobility of metal(loid)s in contaminated soils.
    Keywords: Metal(Loid)S ; Soil ; Mobilization By Water ; Dynamic Extraction ; Partitioning Coefficients ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    E-ISSN: 1873-6424
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