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  • 1
    In: Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2011, Vol.34(6), pp.328-347
    Description: Abstract Proposing a change to the view on psychoactive drug use in non-addicts touches a sensitive issue because of its potential implications to addiction prevention, therapeutic practice, and drug policy. Commentators raised nine questions that ranged from clarifications, suggested extensions of the model to supporting data previously not regarded, to assumptions on the implications of the model. Here, we take up the suggestions of the commentators to expand the model to behavioral addictions, discuss additional instrumentalization goals, and review the evidence from laboratory animal studies on drug instrumentalization. We consider further the role of sociocultural factors and individual development in the establishment in drug instrumentalization and addiction. Finally, we clarify which implications we think this model may have. We conclude that drug instrumentalization theory can be further applied to other behaviors but will require a sensitive debate when used for drug and addiction policy that directly affects prevention and treatment.
    Keywords: Psychotropic Drugs -- Analysis ; Psychotropic Drugs -- Usage ; Animal Behavior -- Usage ; Animal Behavior -- Analysis;
    ISSN: 0140-525X
    E-ISSN: 1469-1825
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Clinical Chemistry, Jan, 2012, Vol.58(1), p.162(3)
    Description: Invariably, there is some time delay between the onset of AMI (coronary plaque rupture and coronary occlusion) and the appearance of cardiac troponin in the peripheral circulation. Because cardiac troponin signals cardiomyocyte damage regardless of the underlying cause, multiple nonischemic conditions...
    Keywords: Studies ; Cardiology ; Heart Attacks ; Acute Coronary Syndromes ; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor ; Atherosclerosis ; Regression Analysis ; Biomarkers ; Stress ; Cardiomyocytes ; Molecular Weight;
    ISSN: 0009-9147
    E-ISSN: 15308561
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  • 3
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Annals of Emergency Medicine, 2016, Vol.67(6), p.794(2)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2016.02.037 Byline: Christian Mueller Author Affiliation: Department of Cardiology & Cardiovascular Research Institute Basel, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland Article Note: (footnote) Funding and support: By Annals policy, all authors are required to disclose any and all commercial, financial, and other relationships in any way related to the subject of this article as per ICMJE conflict of interest guidelines (see www.icmje.org). The study was sponsored by Roche Diagnostics. Dr. Mueller has received research support from the European Union, the Swiss National Science Foundation, the Swiss Heart Foundation, the Cardiovascular Research Foundation Basel, Abbott, Alere, AstraZeneca, Beckman Coulter, BRAHMS, Critical Diagnostics, Roche, Siemens, Singulex, Sphingotec, and the Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Basel, as well as speaker/consulting honoraria or travel support from Abbott, Alere, AstraZeneca, Bayer, BG Medicine, bioMerieux, BRAHMS, Cardiorentis, Daiichi Sankyo, Eli Lilly, MSD, Novartis, Radiometer, Roche, Siemens, and Singulex. Dr. Giannitsis has received honoraria for lecturers from Roche Diagnostics, BRAHMS ThermoFisher, and Mitsubishi Chemical Europe; has received an institutional research grant from Roche Diagnostics; and serves as a consultant for Roche Diagnostics and BRAHMS ThermoFisher. Dr. Lindahl has served as a consultant for Roche Diagnostics, Beckman Coulter Inc., Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Radiometer Medical, bioMerieux Clinical Diagnostics, Philips Healthcare, and Fiomidiagnostics AB; has received lecture fees from ThermoFisher; and has received research grants from Roche Diagnostics, Fiomidiagnostics AB, and bioMerieux Clinical Diagnostics.
    ISSN: 0196-0644
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Article
    Article
    BMJ Publishing Group Ltd and British Cardiovascular Society
    Language: English
    In: Heart, 15 August 2013, Vol.99(16), p.1143
    Description: In the recent Heart paper, Cuculi et al1 from Oxford University challenge two conventional wisdoms in clinical cardiology: first, biomarkers do not have a role in the management of patients presenting with suspected ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI); and second, in the absence of cardiogenic shock, there is no remaining unmet clinical need in STEMI as contemporary coronary reperfusion strategies yield excellent patient outcomes.
    Keywords: Heart Attacks ; Rodents ; Biomarkers ; Cardiomyocytes ; Neuropeptides;
    ISSN: 1355-6037
    ISSN: 13556037
    E-ISSN: 1468-201X
    E-ISSN: 1468201X
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  • 5
    In: Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2011, Vol.34(6), pp.293-310
    Description: Abstract Most people who are regular consumers of psychoactive drugs are not drug addicts, nor will they ever become addicts. In neurobiological theories, non-addictive drug consumption is acknowledged only as a “necessary” prerequisite for addiction, but not as a stable and widespread behavior in its own right. This target article proposes a new neurobiological framework theory for non-addictive psychoactive drug consumption, introducing the concept of “drug instrumentalization.” Psychoactive drugs are consumed for their effects on mental states. Humans are able to learn that mental states can be changed on purpose by drugs, in order to facilitate other, non-drug-related behaviors. We discuss specific “instrumentalization goals” and outline neurobiological mechanisms of how major classes of psychoactive drugs change mental states and serve non-drug-related behaviors. We argue that drug instrumentalization behavior may provide a functional adaptation to modern environments based on a historical selection for learning mechanisms that allow the dynamic modification of consummatory behavior. It is assumed that in order to effectively instrumentalize psychoactive drugs, the establishment of and retrieval from a drug memory is required. Here, we propose a new classification of different drug memory subtypes and discuss how they interact during drug instrumentalization learning and retrieval. Understanding the everyday utility and the learning mechanisms of non-addictive psychotropic drug use may help to prevent abuse and the transition to drug addiction in the future.
    Keywords: Addiction; Drug Instrumentalization; Drug Memory; Evolution; Mental States
    ISSN: 0140-525X
    E-ISSN: 1469-1825
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Chemistry of Materials, 2015, Vol.27(8), pp.2740-2754
    Description: The glass transition temperature is a critical processing parameter that governs the kinetics of molecular organization of polymer semiconductors during solidification. Yet, little attention is paid to the resulting structure-processing-property relationships that lead to optimal optoelectronic performance,...
    Keywords: Kemi ; Chemical Sciences
    ISSN: 0897-4756
    E-ISSN: 15205002
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  • 7
    In: Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2014, Vol.37(2), pp.152-152
    Description: Abstract Here we argue that the selfish goal concept may well be suitable to explain inconsistencies not only in micro-behaviors, but also in the gross behavioral repertoire of an individual, which is often associated with psychopathologies, such as addiction. Neurophysiological evidence for pathological conditions like addiction emerged, and this evidence may also serve as an explanatory model for normal behaviors.
    Keywords: Open Peer Commentary
    ISSN: 0140-525X
    E-ISSN: 1469-1825
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, 02/2016, Vol.2016(5)
    Description: The cover picture, designed by Guest Editor Christian Müller, shows the original paper published in Angew. Chemie in 1966 of the synthesis of the first stable low‐coordinate organophosphorus compound, 2,4,6‐triphenylphosphabenzene, by Gottfried Märkl. The structure of the stable yellow crystalline compound is also depicted. This communication was central in changing the way the bonding around phosphorus atoms was viewed, and the demonstration that hybridization was possible for phosphorus led to many reports on formally sp 2 ‐hybridized phosphorus(III) compounds with significantly different properties from those of classical trivalent phosphorus species.
    Keywords: Chemistry;
    ISSN: European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
    E-ISSN: 14341948
    E-ISSN: 10990682
    Source: Wiley (via CrossRef)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, February 2016, Vol.2016(5), pp.563-566
    Description: Byline: Christian Muller ***** No abstract is available for this article. *****
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    E-ISSN: 1099-0682
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  • 10
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