Kooperativer Bibliotheksverbund

Berlin Brandenburg


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  • 1
    In: The Gerontologist, 2014, Vol. 54(1), pp.93-100
    Description: The latter part of the 20th century was a period characterized by a fundamental transition in scholarship on activity and the aging process. Theory emphasizing the inevitable decline of human capacity was gradually replaced with concepts stressing positive, multidimensional views of aging. In this article, we highlight the key contributors and trace the origins and overlapping themes of successful aging, productive aging, and civic engagement in later life: 3 examples of scholarship representing a “positive” gerontology. Rowe and Kahn’s model of successful aging highlights the interplay between social engagement with life, health, and functioning for a positive aging experience. Productive aging, led by Robert Butler, recognizes the previously underappreciated participation of older adults in activities such as volunteering, paid work, and caregiving, and generates interest in the individual and societal barriers to and benefits of participation. Civic engagement in later life raises public awareness about the need to involve older adults in the community, creates opportunities for participation, and generates further interest in the mutual benefit of participation for community beneficiaries and participants. Successful aging, productive aging, and civic engagement represent important contributions to the field of gerontology through applications to policy, advocacy, and theory development.
    Keywords: 〈Kwd〉〈Italic〉Productive Aging〈/Italic〉〈/Kwd〉 ; 〈Kwd〉〈Italic〉Successful Aging〈/Italic〉〈/Kwd〉 ; 〈Kwd〉〈Italic〉Civic Engagement〈/Italic〉〈/Kwd〉
    ISSN: 0016-9013
    E-ISSN: 1758-5341
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, October 2010, Vol.36(4), p.511
    Description: This study reviews the creation and testing of a model of Therapist Personal Agency during MFT training. A model including self-efficacy, trainee developmental level, supervisor working alliance, family of origin relationships, and psychological...
    Keywords: Self Efficacy ; Family Relationship ; Training Methods ; Trainees ; Allied Health Personnel ; Models ; Social Welfare & Social Work ; Sociology & Social History ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0194-472X
    E-ISSN: 1752-0606
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Family Journal, October 2017, Vol.25(4), pp.368-375
    Description: When parents separate and divorce, they and their children often suffer dire emotional consequences, especially when the parents have a “high-conflict” relationship. When the parents are able to have a more collaborative relationship, however, outcomes are more positive. Family counseling can be an excellent resource for these parents, but the literature in this area is sparse. This article reviews a framework of understanding high conflict in the context of separated parents. After establishing this base of understanding, common challenges in working with high-conflict separated parents are presented, along with nonmodel-dependent strategies for meeting these challenges. Case examples are provided to illustrate both the challenges counselors may face and the strategies that are suggested for meeting those challenges.
    Keywords: Divorce ; Co-Parenting ; High Conflict ; Conjoint Counseling ; Sociology & Social History ; Psychology
    ISSN: 1066-4807
    E-ISSN: 1552-3950
    Source: SAGE HSS (Sage Publications)
    Source: Sage Journals (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Psychology (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Journals (Sage Publications)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 17 May 2016, Vol.113(20), pp.5536-41
    Description: Since 2013, a stream of disclosures has prompted reconsideration of surveillance law and policy. One of the most controversial principles, both in the United States and abroad, is that communications metadata receives substantially less protection than communications content. Several nations currently collect telephone metadata in bulk, including on their own citizens. In this paper, we attempt to shed light on the privacy properties of telephone metadata. Using a crowdsourcing methodology, we demonstrate that telephone metadata is densely interconnected, can trivially be reidentified, and can be used to draw sensitive inferences.
    Keywords: Metadata ; Privacy ; Social Network ; Surveillance ; Telephone ; Telephone ; Privacy -- Legislation & Jurisprudence
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 5
    In: Nature, 2017, Vol.549(7672), p.357
    Description: The asteroids are primitive solar system bodies which evolve both collisionally and through disruptions due to rapid rotation [1]. These processes can lead to the formation of binary asteroids [2-4] and to the release of dust [5], both directly and, in some cases, through uncovering frozen volatiles. In a sub-set of the asteroids called main-belt comets (MBCs), the sublimation of excavated volatiles causes transient comet-like activity [6-8]. Torques exerted by sublimation measurably influence the spin rates of active comets [9] and might lead to the splitting of bilobate comet nuclei [10]. The kilometer-sized main-belt asteroid 288P (300163) showed activity for several months around its perihelion 2011 [11], suspected to be sustained by the sublimation of water ice [12] and supported by rapid rotation [13], while at least one component rotates slowly with a period of 16 hours [14]. 288P is part of a young family of at least 11 asteroids that formed from a ~10km diameter precursor during a shattering collision 7.5 million years ago [15]. Here we report that 288P is a binary main-belt comet. It is different from the known asteroid binaries for its combination of wide separation, near-equal component size, high eccentricity, and comet-like activity. The observations also provide strong support for sublimation as the driver of activity in 288P and show that sublimation torques may play a significant role in binary orbit evolution. Comment: 18 pages, 8 figures, 2 tables
    Keywords: Astrophysics - Earth And Planetary Astrophysics;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 6
    In: Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 2013, Vol. 68(2), pp.310-319
    Description: Objectives. This study investigated race differences in the relationship between formal volunteering and hypertension prevalence among middle-aged and older adults. Method. Using data from the 2004 and 2006 Health and Retirement Study (N = 5,666; 677 African Americans and 4,989 whites), we examined regression models stratified by race to estimate relationships among hypertension prevalence, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and volunteer status and hours spent volunteering among persons aged 51 years old and older. Results. White volunteers had a lower risk of hypertension than white nonvolunteers. A threshold effect was also present; compared with nonvolunteers, volunteering a moderate number of hours was associated with lowest risk of hypertension for whites. Results for hypertension were consistent with results from alternative models of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We found no statistically significant relationship between volunteering activity and hypertension/blood pressure for African Americans. Discussion. There may be unmeasured cultural differences related to the meaning of volunteering and contextual differences in volunteering that account for the race differences we observed. Research is needed to determine the pathways through which volunteering is related to hypertension risk and that may help explain race differences identified here. Key Words: African Americans--Blood pressure--Health and Retirement Study--Hypertension--Volunteering-Whites. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbs162.
    Keywords: African Americans ; Blood Pressure ; Health And Retirement Study ; Hypertension ; Volunteering ; Whites.
    ISSN: 1079-5014
    E-ISSN: 1758-5368
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, January 2017, Vol.486, pp.105-113
    Description: The relative influence of top-down and bottom-up factors in seagrass communities has received considerable attention; however, individual seagrass attributes do not always respond in consistent fashion across studies. Because these metrics have been used as indicators of ecosystem stress, it is necessary to examine whether seagrass response to nutrient enrichment and grazing is persistent. To do so, we examined seagrass and epiphyte response to field manipulations of nutrients and grazing in Big Lagoon, FL, USA where previous studies were conducted with similar methodologies. Our manipulations were successful in elevating water column and porewater nutrient levels. Nutrient additions caused significant increases in tissue nitrogen contents ( = 0.01), but they did not affect seagrass or epiphyte biomass, shoot density, or percent cover. Aboveground biomass was significantly reduced in both treatments involving grazing simulations when compared to the fertilizer addition only treatment ( = 0.001). Fish counts revealed greater numbers of pinfish in fertilized plots compared to all other treatments ( = 0.000), suggesting the fish were attracted to plots in which fertilization resulted in elevated tissue nitrogen contents. Overall, effects of fertilization and grazing on various seagrass attributes showed both similarities and differences in comparison to other studies from the same and different locations, raising the question about how predictable and informative the responses of individual seagrass characteristics for discerning the relative, long-term influence of these factors on seagrass populations.
    Keywords: Seagrass ; Herbivory ; Pinfish ; Epiphytes ; Thalassia ; Nutrient Enrichment ; Biology ; Oceanography ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0022-0981
    E-ISSN: 1879-1697
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  • 8
    In: Nature, 2010, Vol.467(7317), p.817
    Description: Most inner main-belt asteroids are primitive rock and metal bodies in orbit about the Sun between Mars and Jupiter. Disruption, through high-velocity collisions or rotational spin-up, is believed to be the primary mechanism for the production and destruction of small asteroids and a contributor to dust in the Sun's zodiacal cloud, while analogous collisions around other stars feed dust to their debris disks. Unfortunately, direct evidence about the mechanism or rate of disruption is lacking, owing to the rarity of the events. Here we report observations of P/2010 A2, a previously unknown inner-belt asteroid with a peculiar, comet-like morphology. The data reveal a nucleus of diameter approximately 120 metres with an associated tail of millimetre-sized dust particles. We conclude that it is most probably the remnant of a recent asteroidal disruptionin February/March 2009, evolving slowly under the action of solar radiation pressure, in agreement with independent work. [PUBLICATION ]
    Keywords: Astronomy ; Space Telescopes ; Asteroids;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 9
    In: Health Education Research, 2011, Vol. 26(3), pp.489-505
    Description: Young adults, particularly young gay men (YGM), are vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Yet, little is known about how YGM discuss sexual health issues with their friends (‘gay boy talk’). We conducted semi-structured interviews with YGM and their best friends (11 YGM/YGM dyads and 13 YGM/heterosexual female dyads). In this paper, we examine risk assessment assumptions conveyed within YGM's communication about sexual health with their friends and how, if at all, the sexual scripts guiding these assumptions may differ between YGM and young women. Findings demonstrated that, while these young adults clearly intended to support their friends and promote safer sex, they also conveyed assumptions about HIV risk assessment, especially regarding sexual partner selection, that may actually increase their friends’ risk for HIV infection. Since inaccurate HIV risk assessment assumptions were transmitted via sexual health communication between peers, it is suggested that such assumptions may need to be addressed in HIV prevention programs working with YGM and their friends. Further, gender differences were identified within the sexual scripts shared between YGM and their friends, suggesting that such interventions should be tailored to the specific needs of different friendship networks.
    Keywords: Friendship ; Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ; Risk Assessment ; Sexual Behavior ; Homosexuality ; Young Adults ; Communication ; Females ; Heterosexuality ; Sociology of Health and Medicine; Sociology of Medicine & Health Care ; Article;
    ISSN: 0268-1153
    E-ISSN: 1465-3648
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of adolescent research, July 2014, Vol.29(4), pp.464-498
    Description: Conversations with friends are a crucial source of information about sexuality for young gay men, and a key way that sexual health norms are shared during emerging adulthood. However, friends can only provide this support if they are able to talk openly about sexuality. We explored this issue through qualitative interviews with an ethnically diverse sample of young gay men and their best friends. Using theories of sexual scripts, stigma, and emerging adulthood, we examined how conversations about sex could be obstructed or facilitated by several key factors, including judgmentalism, comfort/discomfort, and receptivity. Gay male friends sometimes spoke about unprotected sex in judgmental ways (e.g., calling a friend "slut" or "whore" for having sex without condoms). In some cases, this language could be used playfully, while in others it had the effect of shaming a friend and obstructing further communication about sexual risk. Female friends were rarely openly judgmental, but often felt uncomfortable talking about gay male sexuality, which could render this topic taboo. Sexual communication was facilitated most effectively when friends encouraged it through humor or supportive questioning. Drawing on these findings, we show how judgmentalism and discomfort may generate sexual scripts with contradictory norms, and potentially obstruct support from friends around sexual exploration during a period of life when it may be most developmentally important.
    Keywords: Emerging Adulthood ; Gender ; Lesbians/Gays/Bisexuals/Transexuals ; Peers/Friends ; Risk Behavior ; Sexuality
    ISSN: 0743-5584
    E-ISSN: 15526895
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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