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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Description: PURPOSE: The prominent ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCG2 are involved in substance transport across physiological barriers and therefore in drug absorption, distribution, and elimination. They also mediate multi-drug resistance in cancer cells. Different flavonoids are known to interfere with different ABC transporters. Here, the effect of the furanoflavonol karanjin, a potential drug with antiglycaemic, gastroprotective, antifungal, and antibacterial effects, was investigated on ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCG2-mediated drug transport in comparison to the flavonoids apigenin, genistein, and naringenin.METHODS: Cells expressing the relevant transporters (ABCB1: UKF-NB-3(ABCB1), UKF-NB-3(r)VCR¹⁰; ABCC1: G62, PC-3(r)VCR²⁰; ABCG2: UKF-NB-3(ABCG2)) were used in combination with specific fluorescent and cytotoxic ABC transporter substrates and ABC transporter inhibitors to study ABC transporter function. Moreover, the effects of the investigated flavonoids were determined on the ABC transporter ATPase activities.RESULTS: Karanjin interfered with drug efflux mediated by ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCG2 and enhanced the ATPase activity of all three transporters. Moreover, karanjin exerted more pronounced effects than the control flavonoids apigenin, genistein, and naringenin on all three transporters. Most notably, karanjin interfered with ABCB1 at low concentrations being about 1 µM.CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these findings should be taken into account during further consideration of karanjin as a potential drug for different therapeutic indications. The effects on ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCG2 may affect the pharmacokinetics of co-administered drugs.
    Keywords: Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology;
    ISSN: 14821826
    E-ISSN: 14821826
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Experimental Hematology, July 2013, Vol.41(7), pp.604-614.e4
    Description: Maintaining graft versus leukemia (GvL) and antivirus responses of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) while suppressing graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) remains a challenge after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Clinical observations indicate that combining glucocorticoids with multi-tyrosine-kinase inhibitors could be a successful therapeutic approach. We and others have shown that the BCR-ABL/SRC kinase inhibitor dasatinib may enhance or suppress T cells in vitro. In this report, we evaluated combination effects of dasatinib and dexamethasone on CD3 and virus-specific CD8 T cells directly ex vivo and on antigen-specific leukemia-reactive and alloreactive CD8 T cell clones. Functional outcomes assessed included cytokine production (IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α), degranulation (CD107a/b), activation (CD69 upregulation), proliferation, apoptosis and necrosis induction, and signal transduction. Overall, helper CD4 T cells were more sensitive to inhibitory effects of the drug combination than cytotoxic CD8 T cells and were more naive than memory T cell subsets. Of note, synergistic inhibitory effects occurred in different memory but not in naive T cell subsets. The drug combination inhibited virus-specific CD8 T cell proliferation, but left cytokine production and degranulation unaltered, which may be due to the viral memory subset composition. Dasatinib rather hampered IFN-γ secretion and cytotoxic activity of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-reactive CTLs, whereas effector functions of leukemia-reactive CTLs were maintained or enhanced when applied long term. Our data suggest that dasatinib might modulate GvL- differently than GvHD-promoting CTLs and provide a rationale to explore the drug combination further to treat GvHD while preserving GvL and antiviral CTL responses.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0301-472X
    E-ISSN: 1873-2399
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Immunobiology, May 2017, Vol.222(5), pp.719-725
    Description: Increasing evidence suggests that human NK cells may develop memory-like features. Here, we report the establishment of a robust 8-color flow cytometry panel that allows quantification and functional analysis of different memory-like NK cell subsets (NKG2C /CD57 , FcεRγ ) from relatively small blood samples. We could confirm previous publications reporting an enhanced prevalence of the mentioned memory-like NK cell subsets in CMV seropositive human donors and were able to show a clear congruence between enhanced expression of NKG2C and CD57, the absence of FcεRγ and CMV seropositivity supporting the hypothesis of memory-like NK cell development following viral infections. While we could not detect significant differences in effector functions (i.e. degranulation and production of IFNγ) in regard to age or CMV seropositivity when looking at the overall NK cell population, a significantly enhanced expression of CD107a and IFNγ could be observed in NKG2C /CD57 as well as FcεRγ NK cell subpopulations in CMV donors. This enhancement of effector functions was even more pronounced in NKG2C /CD57 NK cells that were also negative for FcεRγ; CMV seropositive donors showed a dramatically increased expression of CD107a as well as IFNγ. With only small-sized volumes of blood needed, our proposed 8-color panel and experimental protocol offers easy handling and a reliable and reproducible option for implementation in accompanying clinical research, e.g. for evaluation of immunosuppressed patients suffering from autoimmune diseases or in allograft recipients.
    Keywords: Nk Cells ; Hcmv ; Memory ; Biology
    ISSN: 0171-2985
    E-ISSN: 1878-3279
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Molecular Biology, 15 September 2017, Vol.429(19), pp.2954-2973
    Description: Owing to their high affinities and specificities, rabbit monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have demonstrated value and potential primarily as basic research and diagnostic reagents, but, in some cases, also as therapeutics. To accelerate access to rabbit mAbs bypassing immunization, we generated a large naïve rabbit antibody repertoire represented by a phage display library encompassing 〉 10 billion independent antibodies in chimeric rabbit/human Fab format and validated it by next-generation sequencing. Panels of rabbit mAbs selected from this library against two emerging cancer targets, ROR1 and ROR2, revealed high diversity, affinity, and specificity. Moreover, ROR1- and ROR2-targeting rabbit mAbs demonstrated therapeutic utility as components of chimeric antigen receptor-engineered T cells, further corroborating the value of the naïve rabbit antibody library as a rich and virtually unlimited source of rabbit mAbs.
    Keywords: Antibody Engineering ; Ror1 ; Ror2 ; Chimeric Antigen Receptors ; Cancer Therapy ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0022-2836
    E-ISSN: 1089-8638
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  • 5
    Language: German
    Description: Kinasen der SRC-Familie (SFKs) sind sowohl in Wachstum und Metastasierung von Tumor- und Leukämiezellen als auch an prominenter Stelle in vielgestaltige Signalwege aller Immunzellen involviert. Eine Hemmung von SFKs ist damit ein vielversprechendes Mittel zur Therapie maligner Erkrankungen, kann aber darüber hinaus auch sehr effektiv zur Immunmodulation genutzt werden. Für den zur Therapie von CML und AML zugelassenen Tyrosinkinaseinhibitor (TKI) Dasatinib (Handelsname Sprycel®), für den unter anderem SFKs die Hauptziele darstellen, wurden, neben der antitumoralen Wirkung, sowohl immunsuppressive als auch immunstimulierende Effekte beschrieben. Aus diesem Grund könnte Dasatinib ein für die Modulation von Immunantworten sehr interessantes Hilfsmittel darstellen. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden die hemmenden und fördernden Einflüsse von Dasatinib auf zwei Typen von Immunzellen genauer untersucht, um so die Auswirkungen einer Dasatinib-Behandlung auf Zellen des Immunsystems besser zu verstehen und sich das immunmodulatorische Potenzial von Dasatinib besser nutzbar machen zu können. Der erste Teil der Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Untersuchung möglicher kombinatorischer Effekte zwischen Dasatinib und dem Glucocorticoid Dexamethason auf verschiedene Subsets von T-Zellen vor dem Hintergrund eines potentiellen Einsatzes der Kombination bei der allogenen Hämatopoetischen Stammzelltransplantation (HSCT) zur Separation von Graft-versus-Leukemia (GvL)-Effekten und der Graft-versus-host Disease (GvHD). Während keine kombinatorischen Effekte bei der Aktivierung von T-Zellen auftraten, ergaben sich bei der Untersuchung des Einflusses auf die Proliferation besonders in CD8+ T-Zellen additive Effekte durch die Kombination. Die Proliferation naiver T-Zell-Subsets wurde bereits durch die beiden Einzelsubstanzen alleine stark gehemmt. Dagegen waren Memory T-Zell-Subsets deutlich unempfindlicher, allerdings konnte durch eine Kombination von Dexamethason und Dasatinib auch die Proliferation dieser Memory Subsets effektiv gehemmt werden. Hierbei zeigten sich bei CD8+ Memory Subsets die deutlichsten synergistischen Effekte. Da eine Kombination in stärkerem Maße auch CD8+ gegenüber CD4+ Memory Subsets hemmt und diese Subsets unterschiedliche Rollen in der Induktion von GvL-Effekten und der Auslösung einer GvHD zu spielen scheinen, ist eine Steigerung der GvL-Effektivität durch die Medikamenten-Kombination bei gleichzeitiger Minimierung eines GvHD-Risikos in Zusammenhang mit anderen publizierten Ergebnissen durchaus denkbar. Weil eine starke Hemmung von virus-spezifischen T-Zellen nur bei sehr hohen Konzentrationen auftrat, ist zudem das Risiko einer Virus-Reaktivierung, die ein großes Problem bei einer HSCT darstellt, eher als gering einzuschätzen. Der zweite Teil der Arbeit befasst sich mit dem Einfluss von Dasatinib auf aus Monozyten generierte Dendritische Zellen (moDCs) mit einem Fokus auf der Beeinflussung ihrer Migration. Während eine Behandlung mit Dasatinib nur sehr geringe Auswirkungen auf die Ausreifung der moDCs und die Expression von kostimulatorischen Molekülen hatte, führte eine Dasatinib-Behandlung zu einer Zeit- und Dosis-abhängigen Verringerung der Zytokinsekretion (IL-10 und IL-12). Im Gegensatz dazu hatte Dasatinib keinen Einfluss auf die phagozytotische Aktivität der moDCs und auf ihre Fähigkeit, Virus-spezifische T-Zell-Antworten auszulösen. Dasatinib zeigte dagegen einen deutlich steigernden Einfluss auf die Migration von moDCs gegen einen CCL19-Gradienten im Transwell-Assay, ohne die Expression des CCL19-Rezeptors CCR7 zu beeinflussen. Da ähnliche Migrations-steigernde Effekte auch bei einer Behandlung mit dem spezifischen SFK-Inhibitor SKI-1 auftraten, eine Behandlung mit Nilotinib, einem TKI der nicht auf SFKs wirkt, im Gegensatz dazu aber zu einer Hemmung der Migration führte, liegt es nahe dass die Migrations-steigernde Wirkung von Dasatinib über SFKs vermittelt wird. Dasatinib führte zu einer deutlichen Inhibierung der Phosphorylierung der inhibitorischen Immunrezeptoren Siglec-9 und Siglec-3 (CD33) ohne ihre Expressionslevel zu beeinflussen. Eine mit spezifischen Antikörpern durchgeführte Blockierung dieser Immunrezeptoren, deren ITIM-Domänen mutmaßlich von SFKs phosphoryliert werden, hatte eine deutliche Steigerung der Migration und eine verringerte Phosphorylierung von Siglec-9, Siglec-3 und SHP-2 zur Folge. Letztere ist eine Phosphatase, die nach Bindung an phosphorylierte ITIM-Domänen von Rezeptoren wie den Siglecs verschiedene Zielmoleküle dephosphoryliert. Die Ergebnisse dieser Arbeit legen nahe, dass die Migrations-steigernde Wirkung von Dasatinib über eine Hemmung von SFKs und daraus resultierend auf dem Wegfall eines inhibitorischen Signalwegs erfolgt. Diese Steigerung der Migration könnte in der Tumor-Therapie von großem Nutzen sein, da bei einer Vakzinierung mit autologen DCs, die mit Tumor-assoziierten Antigenen stimuliert wurden, die schlechte Einwanderung in die Lymphknoten eines der Hauptprobleme darstellt. Zur Überwindung dieses Problems könnte Dasatinib ein sehr effektives Hilfsmittel darstellen und die Therapie-Effizienz deutlich verbessern. Da Dasatinib aber auch eine ganze Reihe weiterer, sehr vielfältiger Einflüsse auf alle Arten von Immunzellen ausübt, scheint eine Verwendung spezifischer blockierender α-Siglec-Antikörper auf Grund geringerer Nebenwirkungen im Vergleich zu Dasatinib möglicherweise sogar noch deutlich besser geeignet zu sein, das Migrationsverhaltens Dendritischer Zellen positiv zu beeinflussen. Die Verwendung gegen Siglec-Rezeptoren gerichteter Antikörper als Adjuvantien könnte somit zu einem erfolgreicheren Einsatz der Vakzination mit Dendritischen Zellen in der Tumor-Therapie führen. SRC-family kinases (SFKs) are involved in growth and metastasis of tumor and leukemic cells as well as in manifold signaling pathways at prominent position in all types of immune cells. Inhibition of SFKs thereby represents a promising tool for the therapy of malignant diseases but can also be used quite effectively for immunomodulation. Besides its antitumoral activity, immune-suppressive as well as immune-stimulatory effects have been described for the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) dasatinib (trademark Sprycel®) which is approved for the treatment of CML and AML. Therefore the use of dasatinib could be a very interesting method for the modulation of immune responses. The present paper aimes to scrutinize the inhibitory and promoting effects of dasatinib on two types of immune cells to gain a better insight into the consequences of a dasatinib treatment in immune cells and to take advantage of the immunomodulatory potential of dasatinib. The first part of the paper deals with the investigation of potential combinatory effects between dasatinib and the glucocorticoid dexamethasone on various T cell subsets in the context of a potential use of the combination in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to dissect Graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effects and Graft-versus-host Disease. While no combinatory effects regarding T cell activation occurred, the investigation of the influence on T cell proliferation revealed significant additive effects of the combination especially in CD8+ T cells. The proliferation of naïve T cell subsets was inhibited already by use of the single agents. In contrast, memory T cell subsets proved to be much more insensitive, but their proliferation was effectively hampered by a combination of dasatinib and dexamethasone whereas the most pronounced synergistic effects occurred in CD8+ memory subsets. Since the combination more potently inhibits also CD8+ in comparison to CD4+ Memory subsets and since these subsets seem to fulfill diverging roles in mediation of GvL effects and induction of GvHD, an increase in GvL efficacy by the drug combination while concurrently reducing the risk of a GvHD is conceivable, especially when including other published results. Moreover, as a potent inhibition of virus-specific T cells only occurred at very high concentrations, the risk of viral reactivations, which represent a major problem with HSCT, could be considered as rather marginal. The second part of the paper addresses the influence of dasatinib on monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) with a special focus on its influence on their migration. While dasatinib treatment exhibited only negligible effects on moDCs’ maturation and expression of costimulatory molecules, dasatinib led to a time- and dose-dependent reduction in cytokine secretion (IL-10 and IL-12). In contrast, dasatinib had no influence on phagocytotic activity of moDCs and on their ability to induce virus-specific T cell responses. Notably Dasatinib had a pronounced beneficial effect on migration of moDCs towards a CCL-19 gradient in a transwell assay without altering the expression of the CCL19 receptor CCR7. Since comparable migration-enhancing effects also occurred in presence of the specific SFK-inhibitor SKI-1 while the use of nilotinib, a TKI not inhibiting SFKs, in contrast led to an inhibition of migration, it can be assumed that dasatinib mediates its migration-enhancing effects via an inhibition of SFKs. Dasatinib treatment led to a dramatic decrease in phosphorylation of the inhibitory immunoreceptors Siglec-9 and Siglec-3 (CD33) without altering their expression levels. The use of specific antibodies for blocking of these immunoreceptors, whose ITIM domains are thought to be phosphorylated by SFKs, led to a powerful increase in migration and diminished phosphorylation of Siglec-9, Siglec-3 and SHP-2. The latter is a phosphatase which dephosphorylates target molecules after binding phosphorylated ITIM domains of receptors like the Siglecs. This paper’s results suggest that dasatinib mediates its migration-enhancing effects via inhibition of SFKs resulting in omission of an inhibitory signaling pathway. This enhancement of migratory capacity could be very useful in anti-tumo...
    Keywords: Protein-Tyrosin-Kinasen ; Dexamethason ; T-Lymphozyt ; Dendritische Zelle ; Ddc:570
    Source: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: BMC research notes, 10 October 2014, Vol.7, pp.710
    Description: Various kinase inhibitors are known to be ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter substrates and resistance acquisition to kinase inhibitors has been associated to increased ABC transporter expression. Here, we investigated the role of the ABC transporters ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCG2 during melanoma cell resistance acquisition to the V600-mutant BRAF inhibitors PLX4032 (vemurafenib) and PLX4720. PLX4032 had previously been shown to interfere with ABCB1 and ABCG2. PLX4720 had been demonstrated to interact with ABCB1 but to a lower extent than PLX4032. PLX4032 and PLX4720 affected ABCC1- and ABCG2-mediated drug transport in a similar fashion. In a panel of 16 V600E BRAF-mutated melanoma cell lines consisting of four parental cell lines and their sub-lines with acquired resistance to PLX4032, PLX4720, vincristine (cytotoxic ABCB1 and ABCC1 substrate), or mitoxantrone (cytotoxic ABCG2 substrate), we detected enhanced ABC transporter expression in 4/4 cytotoxic ABC transporter substrate-resistant, 3/4 PLX4720-resistant, and 1/4 PLX4032-resistant melanoma cell lines. PLX4032 has the potential to induce ABC transporter expression but this potential is lower than that of PLX4720 or cytotoxic ABC transporter substrates. Since ABC transporters confer multi-drug resistance, this is of relevance for the design of next-line therapies.
    Keywords: Drug Resistance, Multiple ; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm ; ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters -- Drug Effects ; Antineoplastic Agents -- Pharmacology ; Indoles -- Pharmacology ; Protein Kinase Inhibitors -- Pharmacology ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-Raf -- Antagonists & Inhibitors ; Sulfonamides -- Pharmacology
    E-ISSN: 1756-0500
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Current Research in Translational Medicine, May 2018, Vol.66(2), pp.37-38
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 2452-3186
    E-ISSN: 2452-3186
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  • 8
    Description: PURPOSE: The clinically approved oncogenic BRAF inhibitor PLX4032 (vemurafenib) was shown to be a substrate of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCB1. Here, we compared PLX4032 and its structurally closely related precursor compound PLX4720 for their interference with ABCB1 and the ABCB1-mediated compound transport using docking and cell culture experiments.METHODS: For the docking study of PLX4032 and PLX4720 with ABCB1, we analysed binding of both compounds to mouse Abcb1a and to human ABCB1 using a homology model of human ABCB1 based on the 3D structure of Abcb1a. Naturally ABCB1 expressing cells including V600E BRAF-mutated and BRAF wild-type melanoma cells and cells transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding for ABCB1 were used as cell culture models. ABCB1 expression and function were studied by the use of fluorescent and cytotoxic ABCB1 substrates in combination with ABCB1 inhibitors.RESULTS: Docking experiments predicted PLX4032 to interact stronger with ABCB1 than PLX4720. Experimental studies using different cellular models and structurally different ABCB1 substrates confirmed that PLX4032 interfered stronger with ABCB1 function than PLX4720. For example, PLX4032 (20 µM) induced a 4-fold enhanced rhodamine 123 accumulation compared to PLX4720 (20 µM) in ABCB1-transduced UKF-NB-3 cells and reduced the IC₅₀ for the cytotoxic ABCB1 substrate vincristine in this model by 21-fold in contrast to a 9-fold decrease induced by PLX4720.CONCLUSIONS: PLX4032 exerted stronger effects on ABCB1-mediated drug transport than PLX4720. This indicates that small changes in a molecule can substantially modify its interaction with ABCB1, a promiscuous transporter that transports structurally different compounds.
    Keywords: Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology;
    ISSN: 14821826
    E-ISSN: 14821826
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Experimental Hematology, September 2014, Vol.42(9), pp.773-782.e3
    Description: The SRC family of kinases (SFKs) is crucial to malignant growth, but also important for signaling in immune cells such as dendritic cells (DCs). These specialized antigen-presenting cells are essential for inducing and boosting specific T-cell responses against pathogens and malignancies. Targeted therapy with SFK inhibitors holds great promise as a direct anti-cancer treatment, but potentially also as an indirect treatment via immunomodulation. Here, we investigated whether the BCR–ABL/SRC inhibitor dasatinib would modulate the major effector functions of DCs, especially their migration, a prerequisite to interaction with lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid organs. We report for the first time that dasatinib more than doubled the number of mature human monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) migrating toward a CCL19 gradient despite unchanged CCR7 expression when used for pretreatment. These effects were caused by dephosphorylation of SFKs, as confirmed by the specific SFK inhibitor SRC inhibitor 1, leading to dephosphorylation of the inhibitory immunoreceptors Siglec-9 and Siglec-3. The specific blocking of the latter also enhanced migration and underlined the importance of these SFK-dependent receptor systems for migration of moDCs. Dasatinib hampered the secretion of interleukin-12 by moDCs at clinically relevant concentrations. In contrast, endocytosis or boosting of cytomegalovirus-specific CD8 T-cell responses remained unaltered when applying dasatinib-pretreated moDCs, in line with minor effects on the expression of co-stimulatory molecules essential for DC–T cell interaction. The induction of enhanced migration of moDCs may potentially be useful in chemo-immunotherapeutic applications. Thus, the use of dasatinib or blocking Siglec antibodies as adjuvants in this setting to induce stronger immune responses is worthy of further study.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0301-472X
    E-ISSN: 1873-2399
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Leukemia, May 2018, Vol.32(5), pp.1168-1179
    Description: FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is a transmembrane protein expressed on normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSC) and retained on malignant blasts in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We engineered CD8 and CD4 T-cells expressing a FLT3-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) and demonstrate they confer potent reactivity against AML cell lines and primary AML blasts that express either wild-type FLT3 or FLT3 with internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD). We also show that treatment with the FLT3-inhibitor crenolanib leads to increased surface expression of FLT3 specifically on FLT3-ITD AML cells and consecutively, enhanced recognition by FLT3-CAR T-cells in vitro and in vivo. As anticipated, we found that FLT3-CAR T-cells recognize normal HSCs in vitro and in vivo, and disrupt normal hematopoiesis in colony-formation assays, suggesting that adoptive therapy with FLT3-CAR T-cells will require subsequent CAR T-cell depletion and allogeneic HSC transplantation to reconstitute the hematopoietic system. Collectively, our data establish FLT3 as a novel CAR target in AML with particular relevance in high-risk FLT3-ITD AML. Further, our data provide the first proof-of-concept that CAR T-cell immunotherapy and small molecule inhibition can be used synergistically, as exemplified by our data showing superior antileukemia efficacy of FLT3-CAR T-cells in combination with crenolanib.
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 08876924
    E-ISSN: 1476-5551
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