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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2013, Vol.371(1), pp.435-446
    Description: Background and aims: The partitioning of below ground carbon inputs into roots and extramatrical ectomycorrhizal mycelium (ECM) is crucial for the C cycle in forest soils. Here we studied simultaneously the newly grown biomass of ECM and fine roots in a young Norway spruce stand. Methods: Ingrowth mesh bags of 16 cm diameter and 12 cm height were placed in the upper soil and left for 12 to 16 months. The 2 mm mesh size allowed the ingrowth of fungal hyphae and roots whereas a 45 mu m mesh size allowed only the ingrowth of hyphae. The mesh bags were filled with either EA horizon soil, pure quartz sand or crushed granite. Controls without any ingrowth were established for each substrate by solid tubes (2010) and by 1 mu m mesh bags (2011). The fungal biomass in the substrates was estimated by the PLFA 18:2 omega 6,9 and ECM biomass was calculated as difference between fungal biomass in mesh bags and controls. Results: The maximum ECM biomass was 438 kg ha super(-1) in October 2010 in 2 mm mesh bags with EA substrate, and the minimum was close to zero in 2011 in 45 mu m mesh bags with quartz sand. The high P content of the crushed granite did not influence the ECM biomass. Fine root biomass reached a maximum of 2,343 kg ha super(-1) in October 2010 in mesh bags with quartz sand after 16 months exposure. In quartz sand and crushed granite, ECM biomass correlated positively with fine root biomass and the number of root tips, and negatively with specific root length. Conclusion: The ratio of ECM biomass/fine root biomass in October ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 in quartz sand and crushed granite, but from 0.7 to 1.8 in the EA substrate. The results for the EA substrate suggest a large C flux to ECM under field conditions.
    Keywords: Biomass ; Ectomycorrhizal mycelium ; Fine roots ; Ingrowth bags ; Substrate quality ; Norway spruce
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2014, Vol.378(1), pp.73-82
    Description: Background and aims Partitioning of soil respiration is a challenging task when resolving the C cycling in forest ecosystems. Our aim was to partition the respiration of newly grown extramatrical ectomycorrhizal mycelium (ECM) and fine roots (and their associated microorganisms) in a young Norway spruce forest. Methods Ingrowth mesh bags of 16 cm diameter and 12 cm height were placed in the upper soil and left for 12-16 months in 2010 and 2011. The 2 mm mesh size allowed the ingrowth of ECM and fine roots whereas a 45 [micro]m mesh size allowed only the ingrowth of ECM. The mesh bags were filled with either homogenized EA horizon soil, pure quartz sand (QS) or crushed granite (CG, only 2011), each with five replicates. Controls without any ingrowth were established for each substrate by solid plastic tubes (2010) and by 1 [micro]m mesh bags (2011). Fluxes of C[O.sub.2] from the mesh bags and controls were measured biweekly during the growing season by the closed chamber method. Results The contribution of ECM to soil respiration was largest in the QS treatments, reaching cumulatively 1.2 and 2.2 Mg C [ha.sup.-1] 6 [months.sup.-1] in 2010 and 2011, respectively. For EA and CG treatments, the cumulative respiration from ECM was larger than from controls, however the differences being not statistically significant. The respiration of newly grown fine roots in QS amounted to 1.0 Mg C [ha.sup.-1] in 2010, but could not be identified in 2011 since fluxes from 2 mm and 45 [micro]m mesh bags were similar. The correlation of total root length in single QS mesh bags to C[O.sub.2] fluxes was poor. The contribution of fine root respiration was also not detectable in the EA and CG treatment. No correlation was found between the autumnal biomass of newly grown ECM and its cumulative respiration. Conclusion Our results suggest a substantial contribution of newly grown ECM to soil respiration. Respiration of ECM might be larger than respiration of fine roots. Keywords Soil respiration * Carbon allocation * Ectomycorrhiza * Picea abies * Fine roots
    Keywords: Soil respiration ; Carbon allocation ; Ectomycorrhiza ; Picea abies ; Fine roots
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 3
    Language: English
    Description: Recently a new radiation protection interlock system has been established at the Darmstadt superconducting linear electron accelerator S-DALINAC [*]. It prevents the staff from entering radiation protection areas during operation and allows a systematic scanning of these areas for workers before running the accelerator. As an extension of the new interlock, a new dose rate monitoring system has been developed using PIN diodes and self-made ion chambers. These detectors will be used to perfom online dose rate measurements in order to switch automtically the status of illuminated radiation protection panels, which show the current level of protection area. Furthermore, they will be used to characterize systematically the radiation fluxes inside the accelerator facility and to support the beam diagnostics. The readout electronics consists ofμcontrollers with ethernet interfaces using TCP/IP based serial communication. The data acquisition is integrated into the EPICS based control system. First results of the commissioning will be presented....
    Keywords: Accelerator Physics ; Functional Safety And Machine Protection
    ISBN: 978-3-95450-193-9
    Source: DataCite
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  • 4
    Language: English
    Description: The Superconducting Darmstadt Linear Electron Accelerator S-DALINAC has been running since 1991. It consists of an injector linac, a main linac with two recirculations and is mainly used for in-house nuclear physics experiments as well as accelerator physics and technology. Radiation safety regulations demand an interlock system during operation of the accelerator. Amongst other major projects increasing the versatility and operation stability of the S-DALINAC, the existing, hardware based, interlock system is going to be replaced in the next shutdown period. The new interlock system is based on a PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) and will provide two subsystems, a personnel interlock system as well as a machine safety interlock system. Whereas the first subsystem is to protect staff and visitors from being harmed by ionizing radiation, the latter subsystem prohibits the S-DALINAC beam transport and vacuum elements from being damaged due to malfunctioning of any components during accelerator operation. This contribution will give an overview on this new system and will show the latest status....
    Keywords: Accelerator Physics ; Instrumentation, Controls, Feedback & Operational Aspects ; T18 Radiation Monitoring And Safety
    ISBN: 978-3-95450-132-8
    Source: DataCite
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  • 5
    Description: The superconducting electron accelerator S-DALINAC enables electron scattering experiments with low momentum transfer and high energy resolution. In order to perform experiments on helium with high precision and high luminosity, a superfluid liquid helium target with good temperature stability was developed. The functionality of this target could be confirmed and its properties were characterized in a commissioning experiment. Comment: 18 pages, 8 figures, submitted to NIMA
    Keywords: Physics - Instrumentation And Detectors ; Nuclear Experiment
    Source: Cornell University
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 2019, Vol.28(11), p.2061
    Description: Keywords Shoulder; arthroplasty; unfavorable events; complications; standardization; Delphi process; core event set Background Shoulder arthroplasty (SA) complications require standardization of definitions and are not limited to events leading to revision...
    Keywords: Medical Societies ; Arthroplasty
    ISSN: 1058-2746
    E-ISSN: 15326500
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