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  • 1
    Language: English
    Description: Since the release of the 1967 film classic, The Graduate, the name ‘Mrs. Robinson’ has become synonymous with older women seducing younger men. However, the historical context produces her character as much as her actions, and the way society portrays women like Mrs. Robinson changes over time. Because of cultural, political, scientific, and legal innovations, a woman today who behaves like Mrs. Robinson has different motivations and will be treated differently by society than she would have in the 1960s. Films and television shows simultaneously shape cultural norms while reflecting existing ones. Thus, depictions of real and fictional Mrs. Robinsons jointly figure her within a particular time period. This essay focuses on three disparate ways in which society has portrayed women who have sex with younger men: calculating predators, liberated role models, or troubled criminals.
    Keywords: Arts and Humanities; Other Feminist, Gender, and Sexuality Studies; Other Film and Media Studies
    Source: eScholarship
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Marine Biology, 2013, Vol.160(5), pp.1259-1270
    Description: Larval settlement of the infaunal spionid polychaetes Polydora cornuta and Streblospio benedicti is mediated by sediment-associated microorganisms. To investigate if larval preference for certain sediment is guided by individual sediment-associated bacteria, 13 bacterial isolates (5 phyla) obtained from the natural habitat of adult polychaetes (Wadden Sea, Germany) in 2008 were screened in still-water, no-choice settlement assays. Two isolates (α- Proteobacterium -Strain DF11 and Flavobacterium -Strain 54) significantly triggered larval settlement in comparison with sterile sediment. In still-water, multiple-choice settlement assays comprising natural and sterile sediment and sediment re-inoculated with isolates DF11 and 54, significant preferences for natural sediment and sediment containing bacterial isolates at 10 8  cells g −1 were observed. Larval settlement was influenced by bacterial abundance in sediment but the correlation was not strictly positive; thus, maximum larval settlement in response to single bacterial species may occur at certain optimum densities. Non-viable or suspended bacteria and water-soluble bacterial products did not induce larval settlement, suggesting that sediment-associated bacterial settlement cues for P. cornuta and S. benedicti were either produced in situ and/or consisted of heat-labile bacterial products.
    Keywords: Resuspended Sediments ; Meiobenthos ; Microorganisms ; Population Density ; Larval Settlement ; Sediments ; Microorganisms ; Habitat ; Sediments ; Abundance ; Larvae ; Microorganisms ; Larval Settlement ; Habitat ; Sediments ; Streblospio Benedicti ; Polydora Cornuta ; Ane, Wadden Sea ; Ane, Germany ; Marine ; Issues in Sustainable Development ; Human Diseases ; Geographical Distribution ; Ecology/Community Studies;
    ISSN: 0025-3162
    E-ISSN: 1432-1793
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Computational Geosciences, 2013, Vol.17(1), pp.139-149
    Description: Carbon capture and storage is a recently discussed new technology, aimed at allowing an ongoing use of fossil fuels while preventing the produced CO 2 to be released to the atmosphere. CCS can be modeled with two components (water and CO 2 ) in two phases (liquid and CO 2 ). To simulate the process, a multiphase flow equation with equilibrium phase exchange is used. One of the big problems arising in two-phase two-component flow simulations is the disappearance of the nonwetting phase, which leads to a degeneration of the equations satisfied by the saturation. A standard choice of primary variables, which is the pressure of one phase and the saturation of the other phase, cannot be applied here. We developed a new approach using the pressure of the nonwetting phase and the capillary pressure as primary variables. One important advantage of this approach is the fact that we have only one set of primary variables that can be used for the biphasic as well as the monophasic case. We implemented this new choice of primary variables in the DUNE simulation framework and present numerical results for some test cases.
    Keywords: Two-phase flow ; Multicomponent flow ; Porous medium ; CO storage
    ISSN: 1420-0597
    E-ISSN: 1573-1499
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Applied Economics, Vol.45(25), pp.3625-3636
    Description: This article compares the Unemployment Rate (UR) as a measure of inefficiency with several other potential measures across 18 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. Results show that the UR is not a very good measure of relative inefficiency between countries,...
    Keywords: Inefficiency ; Unemployment ; Cross-Country ; Underutilization of Labour ; Economics
    ISSN: 0003-6846
    E-ISSN: 1466-4283
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  • 5
    In: Macroeconomic Dynamics, 2015, Vol.19(2), pp.270-287
    Description: This paper seeks to provide a theoretical explanation for the weak association between measures of financial structure—as defined by the mixture of bank-based and market-based financial systems in an economy—and economic development. Lenders fund risky investment projects of firms by drawing up loan contracts in the presence of an informational asymmetry. An optimal contract entails the issue of debt, equity, or a mix of the two. The equilibrium choice of contract and the financial structure depend on the state of the economy, which in turn depends on the contracting regime. Based on this analysis, the paper provides a theory that can explain the wide diversity of financial structure among middle-income countries.
    Keywords: Articles; Financial Structure; Economic Development
    ISSN: 1365-1005
    E-ISSN: 1469-8056
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  • 6
    In: Journal of African Economies, 2016, Vol. 25(1), pp.55-109
    Description: This article examines the extent to which political variables affect budget deficits, money growth and inflation in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Using the Arellano–Bond dynamic panel data analysis on 36 SSA countries from 1980 to 2010, we first characterise the impact of presidential elections on two policy variables: government budget deficits and money growth. We then examine the impact of government budget deficits and money growth on inflation, while taking account of any direct political pressure via presidential elections. Importantly, we show that country groups, based on the level of income, are important in teasing out the varying effects of budget deficits and elections, finding evidence of political budget cycles and political monetary cycles in the middle-income countries. We also characterise whether a country is part of a fixed-exchange rate regime, showing that this limits electoral pressure on the monetary policy variable. We examine the competitiveness of elections by whether they are multiparty or single-party elections and by whether there is an incumbent candidate running for re-election. When we examine the feed-on effects on inflation, there is little indication that the election pressures on either fiscal or monetary variables become inflationary. There is evidence, however, of money growth and budget deficits being directly inflationary, particularly in the low-income countries.
    Keywords: Budget Deficit Monetisation ; Inflation ; Political Business Cycles ; Political Budget Cycles ; Political Monetary Cycles ; E32 ; E62 ; O23 ; N17 ; P16 ; E63
    ISSN: 0963-8024
    E-ISSN: 1464-3723
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  • 7
    In: Journal of Globalization and Development, 2018, Vol.8(2)
    Description: Migrant networks are an important catalyst for promoting FDI flows between countries. Migrants also send increasingly large remittances to their home countries. This paper considers how these two capital flows are related, specifically examining how remittance flows respond to the amount of FDI inflows to a country. Using a panel of 118 countries over 1980–2010, we estimate a random effects model and find a positive and significant effect of FDI flows on remittances, while controlling for other standard determinants of remittance flows. We account for the potential endogeneity of FDI to remittances by utilizing a two-stage Instrumental Variables approach. These findings suggest that FDI complements remittances, rather than crowding out emigrant investment to the home countries. We find the relationship is strongest for low income countries, highlighting the importance of remittances as a source of investment capital in these countries.
    Keywords: Fdi Flows ; Migrant Networks ; Openness ; Remittances ; F21 ; F23 ; F24 ; F35 ; F63
    ISSN: 21946353
    E-ISSN: 1948-1837
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: European Economic Review, 2012, Vol.56(1), pp.72-83
    Description: We examine the impacts of both domestic and international financial market development on R&D intensities in 22 manufacturing industries in 18 OECD countries for the period 1990–2003. We take account of such industry characteristics as the need for external financing and the amount of tangible assets. Multiple forms of domestic financial development are important determinants of R&D intensity but only foreign direct investment is significant among alternative measures of international financial development. We find the strongest effects for private bond-market capitalization, while FDI, private credit by banks, and stock-market capitalization have similar effects in terms of magnitude. ► We examine the impacts of both domestic and international financial market development on R&D intensities in OECD manufacturing industries. ► We take account of such industry characteristics as the need for external financing and the amount of tangible assets. ► Many forms of domestic financial development are important determinants of R&D intensity, with a particularly strong effect of bond-market capitalization. ► Only foreign direct investment is significant among alternative measures of international financial development. ► We relate these results to theories of investment monitoring with uncertain outcomes.
    Keywords: R&D ; Financial Systems ; Financial Development ; International Financial Integration ; Economics
    ISSN: 0014-2921
    E-ISSN: 1873-572X
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  • 9
    In: PLoS ONE, 2013, Vol.8(11)
    Description: Background Epidemiological data have shown long-term health adversity in low birth weight subjects, especially concerning the metabolic syndrome and ‘diabesity’ risk. Alterations in adult food intake have been suggested to be causally involved. Responsible mechanisms remain unclear. Methods and Findings By rearing in normal (NL) vs. small litters (SL), small-for-gestational-age (SGA) rats were neonatally exposed to either normal (SGA-in-NL) or over-feeding (SGA-in-SL), and followed up into late adult age as compared to normally reared appropriate-for-gestational-age control rats (AGA-in-NL). SGA-in-SL rats displayed rapid neonatal weight gain within one week after birth, while SGA-in-NL growth caught up only at juvenile age (day 60), as compared to AGA-in-NL controls. In adulthood, an increase in lipids, leptin, insulin, insulin/glucose-ratio (all p 〈0.05), and hyperphagia under normal chow as well as high-energy/high-fat diet, modelling modern ‘westernized’ lifestyle, were observed only in SGA-in-SL as compared to both SGA-in-NL and AGA-in-NL rats ( p 〈0.05). Lasercapture microdissection (LMD)-based neuropeptide expression analyses in single neuron pools of the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (ARC) revealed a significant shift towards down-regulation of the anorexigenic melanocortinergic system ( proopiomelanocortin , Pomc ) in SGA-in-SL rats ( p 〈0.05). Neuropeptide expression within the orexigenic system ( neuropeptide Y ( Npy ), agouti-related-peptide ( Agrp ) and galanin ( Gal )) was not significantly altered. In essence, the ‘orexigenic index’, proposed here as a neuroendocrine ‘net-indicator’, was increased in SGA-in-SL regarding Npy/Pomc expression ( p 〈0.01), correlated to food intake ( p 〈0.05). Conclusion Adult SGA rats developed increased ‘diabesity’ risk only if exposed to neonatal overfeeding. Hypothalamic malprogramming towards decreased anorexigenic activity was involved into the pathophysiology of this neonatally acquired adverse phenotype. Neonatal overfeeding appears to be a critical long-term risk factor in ‘small-for-gestational-age babies’.
    Keywords: Research Article
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Environmental pollution, 2013, Vol.179, pp.210-217
    Description: Experiments were conducted to analyze processes impacting arsenic transport in irrigation water flowing over bare rice-field soils in Bangladesh. Dissolved concentrations of As, Fe, P, and Si varied over space and time, according to whether irrigation water was flowing or static. Initially, under flowing conditions, arsenic concentrations in irrigation water were below well-water levels and showed little spatial variability across fields. As flowing-water levels rose, arsenic concentrations were elevated at field inlets and decreased with distance across fields, but under subsequent static conditions, concentrations dropped and were less variable. Laboratory experiments revealed that over half of the initial well-water arsenic was removed from solution by oxidative interaction with other water-column components. Introduction of small quantities of soil further decreased arsenic concentrations in solution. At higher soil-solution ratios, however, soil contributed arsenic to solution via abiotic and biotic desorption. Collectively, these results suggest careful design is required for land-based arsenic-removal schemes. ; p. 210-217.
    Keywords: Desorption ; Space And Time ; Soil Solution ; Arsenic ; Laboratory Experimentation ; Silicon ; Iron ; Soil ; Irrigation Water
    ISSN: 0269-7491
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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