Kooperativer Bibliotheksverbund

Berlin Brandenburg

and
and

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
Language
Year
  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 06 August 2013, Vol.110(32), pp.13126-31
    Description: Human CMV (hCMV) establishes lifelong infections in most of us, causing developmental defects in human embryos and life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals. During productive infection, the viral 〉230,000-bp dsDNA genome is expressed widely and in a temporal cascade. The hCMV genome does not carry histones when encapsidated but has been proposed to form nucleosomes after release into the host cell nucleus. Here, we present hCMV genome-wide nucleosome occupancy and nascent transcript maps during infection of permissive human primary cells. We show that nucleosomes occupy nuclear viral DNA in a nonrandom and highly predictable fashion. At early times of infection, nucleosomes associate with the hCMV genome largely according to their intrinsic DNA sequence preferences, indicating that initial nucleosome formation is genetically encoded in the virus. However, as infection proceeds to the late phase, nucleosomes redistribute extensively to establish patterns mostly determined by nongenetic factors. We propose that these factors include key regulators of viral gene expression encoded at the hCMV major immediate-early (IE) locus. Indeed, mutant virus genomes deficient for IE1 expression exhibit globally increased nucleosome loads and reduced nucleosome dynamics compared with WT genomes. The temporal nucleosome occupancy differences between IE1-deficient and WT viruses correlate inversely with changes in the pattern of viral nascent and total transcript accumulation. These results provide a framework of spatial and temporal nucleosome organization across the genome of a major human pathogen and suggest that an hCMV major IE protein governs overall viral chromatin structure and function.
    Keywords: Chip-Chip ; Epigenetic Regulation ; Functional Genomics ; Herpesvirus ; Chromatin -- Genetics ; Cytomegalovirus -- Genetics ; Genome, Viral -- Genetics ; Immediate-Early Proteins -- Genetics ; Nucleosomes -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Language: English
    In: 2012, Vol.7(11), p.e48335
    Description: Methamphetamine (meth) is a highly addictive psychostimulant that is among the most widely abused illicit drugs, with an estimated over 35 million users in the world. Several lines of evidence suggest that chronic meth abuse is a major factor for increased risk of infections with human immunodeficiency virus and possibly other pathogens, due to its immunosuppressive property. Influenza A virus infections frequently cause epidemics and pandemics of respiratory diseases among human populations. However, little is known about whether meth has the ability to enhance influenza A virus replication, thus increasing severity of influenza illness in meth abusers. Herein, we investigated the effects of meth on influenza A virus replication in human lung epithelial A549 cells. The cells were exposed to meth and infected with human influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus. The viral progenies were titrated by plaque assays, and the expression of viral proteins and cellular proteins involved in interferon responses was examined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. We report the first evidence that meth significantly reduces, rather than increases, virus propagation and the susceptibility to influenza infection in the human lung epithelial cell line, consistent with a decrease in viral protein synthesis. These effects were apparently not caused by meth’s effects on enhancing virus-induced interferon responses in the host cells, reducing viral biological activities, or reducing cell viability. Our results suggest that meth might not be a great risk factor for influenza A virus infection among meth abusers. Although the underlying mechanism responsible for the action of meth on attenuating virus replication requires further investigation, these findings prompt the study to examine whether other structurally similar compounds could be used as anti-influenza agents.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Virology ; Infectious Diseases ; Public Health And Epidemiology ; Mental Health ; Pharmacology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 07 December 2004, Vol.101(49), pp.17234-9
    Description: The human cytomegalovirus 72-kDa immediate-early (IE)1 and 86-kDa IE2 proteins are expressed at the start of infection, and they are believed to exert much of their function through promiscuous transcriptional activation of viral and cellular gene expression. Here, we show that the impaired growth of an IE1-deficient mutant virus in human fibroblasts is efficiently rescued by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors of three distinct chemical classes. In the absence of IE1 expression, the viral major IE and UL44 early promoters exhibited decreased de novo acetylation of histone H4 during the early phase of infection, and the hypoacetylation correlated with reduced transcription and accumulation of the respective gene products. Consistent with these findings, IE1 interacts specifically with HDAC3 within infected cells. We also demonstrate an interaction between IE2 and HDAC3. We propose that the ability to modify chromatin is fundamental to transcriptional activation by IE1 and, likely, IE2 as well.
    Keywords: Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors ; Virus Replication ; Immediate-Early Proteins -- Physiology ; Viral Proteins -- Physiology
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 10916490
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Language: English
    In: 2012, Vol.7(11), p.e50166
    Description: The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) protein RL13 has recently been described to be present in all primary isolates but rapidly mutated in culture adapted viruses. Although these data suggest a crucial role for this gene product in HCMV primary infection, no function has so far been assigned to this protein. Working with RL13 expressed in isolation in transfected human epithelial cells, we demonstrated that recombinant RL13 from the clinical HCMV isolates TR and Merlin have selective human immunoglobulin (Ig)-binding properties towards IgG1 and IgG2 subtypes. An additional Fc binding protein, RL12, was also identified as an IgG1 and IgG2 binding protein but not further characterized. The glycoprotein RL13 trafficked to the plasma membrane where it bound and internalized exogenous IgG or its constant fragment (Fcγ). Analysis of RL13 ectodomain mutants suggested that the RL13 Ig-like domain is responsible for the Fc binding activity. Ligand-dependent internalization relied on a YxxL endocytic motif located in the C-terminal tail of RL13. Additionally, we showed that the tyrosine residue could be replaced by phenylalanine but not by alanine, indicating that the internalization signal was independent from phosphorylation events. In sum, RL13 binds human IgG and may contribute to HCMV immune evasion in the infected host, but this function does not readily explain the instability of the RL13 gene during viral propagation in cultured cells.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Immunology ; Virology ; Infectious Diseases ; Microbiology ; Cell Biology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    In: PLoS ONE, 2013, Vol.8(7)
    Description: Interleukin-26 (IL-26) belongs to the IL-10 cytokine family, is produced by activated T cells, and targets epithelial target cells for signal transduction. Here, we describe the IL-26 effects on the infection of culture cells with recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) expressing green fluorescent protein. After pre-incubation with recombinant IL-26 and at low multiplicity of infection, VSV showed strongly enhanced infection and replication rates as measured for infectivity, for transcript levels, and for protein expression. Control proteins did not affect VSV infection. The IL-26 effect was independent of the IL-26 receptor and neutralized by anti-IL-26 serum. Pre-incubation of VSV was much more efficient than pre-incubation of the target cells to enhance virus infection. IL-26 increased virus adsorption to target cells as shown by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. In contrast, the infection of IL-26-treated human fibroblasts with HCMV was inhibited and the infection by HSV-1 was not altered by IL-26. Thus, IL-26 differentially modulates the infection by different enveloped viruses.
    Keywords: Research Article
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    In: PLoS ONE, 2014, Vol.9(3)
    Description: Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) is an important innate immune sensor of bacterial pathogens. Its induction results in activation of the classic NF-κB pathway and alternative pathways including type I IFN and autophagy. Although the importance of NOD2 in recognizing RNA viruses has recently been identified, its role in sensing DNA viruses has not been studied. We report that infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) results in significant induction of NOD2 expression, beginning as early as 2 hours post infection and increasing steadily 24 hours post infection and afterwards. Infection with human herpesvirus 1 and 2 does not induce NOD2 expression. While the HCMV-encoded glycoprotein B is not required for NOD2 induction, a replication competent virion is necessary. Lentivirus-based NOD2 knockdown in human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) and U373 glioma cells leads to enhanced HCMV replication along with decreased levels of interferon beta (IFN-β) and the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL8. NOD2 induction in HCMV-infected cells activates downstream NF-κB and interferon pathways supported by reduced nuclear localization of NF-κB and pIRF3 in NOD2 knockdown HFFs. Stable overexpression of NOD2 in HFFs restricts HCMV replication in association with increased levels of IFN-β and IL8. Similarly, transient overexpression of NOD2 in U373 cells or its downstream kinase, RIPK2, results in decreased HCMV replication and enhanced cytokine responses. However, overexpression of a mutant NOD2, 3020insC, associated with severe Crohn's disease, results in enhanced HCMV replication and decreased levels of IFN-β in U373 cells. These results show for the first time that NOD2 plays a significant role in HCMV replication and may provide a model for studies of HCMV recognition by the host cell and HCMV colitis in Crohn's disease.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    In: PLoS ONE, 2017, Vol.12(2)
    Description: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a widespread pathogen and a member of the Herpesviridae family. HCMV has a large genome that encodes many genes that are non-essential for virus replication but instead play roles in manipulation of the host immune environment. One of these is the US27 gene, which encodes a protein with homology to the chemokine receptor family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The US27 protein has no known chemokine ligands but can modulate the signaling activity of host receptor CXCR4. We investigated the mechanism for enhanced CXCR4 signaling in the presence of US27 using a novel biosensor system comprised of fluorogen activating proteins (FAPs). FAP-tagged CXCR4 and US27 were used to explore receptor internalization and recovery dynamics, and the results demonstrate that significantly more CXCR4 internalization was observed in the presence of US27 compared to CXCR4 alone upon stimulation with CXCL12. While ligand-induced endocytosis rates were higher, steady state internalization of CXCR4 was not affected by US27. Additionally, US27 underwent rapid endocytosis at a rate that was independent of either CXCR4 expression or CXCL12 stimulation. These results demonstrate that one mechanism by which US27 can enhance CXCR4 signaling is to alter receptor internalization dynamics, which could ultimately have the effect of promoting virus dissemination by increasing trafficking of HCMV-infected cells to tissues where CXCL12 is highly expressed.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    In: PLoS ONE, 2017, Vol.12(3)
    Description: Mammalian cell culture is indispensable for most aspects of current biomedical research. Immortalized cell lines are very convenient, but transforming principles (e.g. oncogenic viruses or their oncogenes) can heavily influence the experimental outcome. Primary cells do not share this apparent disadvantage but are more laborious to generate. Certain viruses (e.g. mouse cytomegalovirus) do not replicate efficiently in most transformed cell lines. In the past, such viruses have been routinely propagated on primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) established around day 17 (d17) of gestation. According to new regulations of the European Union, experiments using gravid mammals and/or their embryos in the last trimester (〉d14 in the case of mice) of gestation do require explicit permission of the local authorities responsible for animal care and use. Applying for such permission is time-consuming and often inflexible. Embryonic fibroblasts could also be produced at earlier time points of pregnancy from younger and smaller embryos. Obviously, this approach consumes more pregnant mice and embryos. Newborn mice are larger thus yielding more cells per sacrificed animal and the new Directive (2010/63/EU) excludes the killing of animals solely for the use of their organs or tissues. We established a convenient protocol to generate adherent mouse newborn cells (MNC). A direct comparison of MNC with MEF revealed that MNC fully recapitulate all tested aspects of a broad panel of virological parameters (plaque size, final titers, viral replication kinetics, viral gene expression, drug and interferon susceptibility as well as species specificity). The herein described approach allows researchers the legal use of primary cells and contributes to the 3R (replace, reduce, refine) guiding principles—especially the ‘reduce’ aspect—for the use of animals in scientific research. Additionally, it offers the option to directly compare in vitro and in vivo experiments when MNC are generated from littermates of animals included in the in vivo experiments.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    In: PLoS ONE, 2013, Vol.8(7)
    Description: A transition from a parallel to an antiparallel dimer configuration of the transcription factor s ignal t ransducer and a ctivator of t ranscription 1 (STAT1) is required for interferon (IFN)-mediated signal transduction. However, the precise molecular mechanisms linking conformational changes to target gene activation by STAT1 are still largely unknown. In the present study, we have characterized, in more detail than before, two disease-associated point mutants with amino acid substitutions at both sites of the dimer interface (F172W and T385A). First, we confirmed that IFNγ-stimulation of transfected cells led to enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of mutant STAT1 as compared to the wild-type protein, which consequently resulted in its prolonged nuclear accumulation. Using an in vitro dephosphorylation assay, we demonstrated that, in contrast to wild-type STAT1 and similar to the F172W mutant, also T385A resisted enzymatic inactivation by the nuclear phosphatase Tc45. Transcriptional activation of IFNγ-driven endogenous target genes differed between wild-type and mutant STAT1. While expression of genes containing a single classical gamma-activated site (GAS), such as irf1 , gpb1 , and mig1 , was virtually unaffected by the presence of either of two amino acid exchanges, induction of the c xcl10 and mcp1 gene was significantly enhanced. The latter two genes both contain an additional TTC/GAA binding motif separated by 10 bp from the palindromic GAS sequence. The transcriptional superiority of the mutants on these genes was reflected by their increased binding affinity to DNA fragments containing the identified “one-and-a-half-GAS” motif. In summary, our data demonstrate that two clinically relevant interface mutants of STAT1 exhibit gene-specific effects and point to the rather complex role of the assumed conformational shift between two different dimer configurations for efficient transcriptional regulation.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    In: PLoS ONE, 2013, Vol.8(11)
    Description: Adenovirus encodes for the pVII protein, which interacts and modulates virus DNA structure in the infected cells. The pVII protein is synthesized as the precursor protein and undergoes proteolytic processing by viral proteinase Avp, leading to release of a propeptide sequence and accumulation of the mature VII protein. Here we elucidate the molecular functions of the propeptide sequence present in the precursor pVII protein. The results show that the propeptide is the destabilizing element targeting the precursor pVII protein for proteasomal degradation. Our data further indicate that the propeptide sequence and the lysine residues K26 and K27 regulate the precursor pVII protein stability in a co-dependent manner. We also provide evidence that the Cullin-3 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex alters the precursor pVII protein stability by association with the propeptide sequence. In addition, we show that inactivation of the Cullin-3 protein activity reduces adenovirus E1A gene expression during early phase of virus infection. Collectively, our results indicate a novel function of the adenovirus propeptide sequence and involvement of Cullin-3 in adenovirus gene expression.
    Keywords: Research Article
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
    Library Location Call Number Volume/Issue/Year Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. Further information can be found on the KOBV privacy pages