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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, August 15, 2013, Vol.176, p.24(15)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2013.05.016 Byline: Irina Kistner, Gregor Ollesch, Ralph Meissner, Michael Rode Abstract: acents We coupled the process based 1D phosphorus soil model ANIMO with the hydrological WaSim-ETH model. acents We carried out a sampling scheme for P compounds testing the spatially distributed ANIMO model. acents A close correlation between P compounds and C.sub.org was found. acents Spatial variability of water soluble phosphorus (WSP) was highly affected by topography, microclimate and soil water balance. acents The coupled model successfully reproduced the spatial and seasonal variation of WSP. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Aquatic Ecosystem Analysis and Management, UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Brueckstrasse 3a, 39114 Magdeburg, Germany (b) Flussgebietsgemeinschaft Elbe, Geschaftsstelle Magdeburg, Otto-v.-Guericke-Stra[sz]e 5, 39104 Magdeburg, Germany (c) Department of Soil Physics, UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Lysimeterstation Falkenberg Dorfstra[sz]e 55, 39615 Falkenberg, Germany Article History: Received 10 October 2012; Revised 15 May 2013; Accepted 16 May 2013
    Keywords: Water Balance (Hydrology) -- Analysis ; Soil Moisture -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, ecosystems & environment, 2013, Vol.176, pp.24-38
    Description: High availability of phosphorus in agricultural soils leads to increased phosphorus (P) losses from land to water and contributes to the eutrophication of surface water. The most important variable for the transport of soluble P via surface runoff is the labile P content in the top soil. Until now, a detailed understanding and quantitative estimates of the seasonal and spatial dynamics of labile P in the top soil layer at the catchment scale have been lacking. The objective of this paper is to analyze the spatial and temporal variability of labile P and to quantify concentrations in the top soil by coupling the process-based one dimensional P soil model ANIMO with a hydrological model (WaSim-ETH). For testing the spatially distributed ANIMO model, a sampling scheme for soil P compounds was carried out. The scheme comprised of 80 sampling points in a 150m grid in the 1.44km² study catchment Schäfertal, Germany. For a period of 2 years water soluble P (WSP), total phosphorus (TP), oxalate extractable P/Fe+Al, pH value and Cₒᵣg were analyzed. Close correlations with a high level of significance were observed between P compounds (from 0.733 to 0.737) and between P compounds and Cₒᵣg (from 0.508 and 0.527). It was found that, in addition to crop rotation and management practice, spatial variability of WSP was controlled by topography affected microclimate and soil water balance. The combined modeling approach was successfully calibrated for WSP in the top soil with a R² of 0.94. Although the accuracy of simulation results for the validation period was lower, the model reasonably reproduced the spatial and seasonal variation of WSP. The simulations identified areas of high WSP concentrations and revealed a spring depression with low WSP concentrations in the top soil. The new modeling approach can be used to better understand WSP availability and P yield at the catchment scale. ; p. 24-38.
    Keywords: Topsoil ; Seasonal Variation ; Soil Water Balance ; Agricultural Soils ; Surface Water ; Crop Management ; Watersheds ; Microclimate ; Phosphorus ; Hydrologic Models ; Spring ; Soil Sampling ; Mountains ; Topography ; Runoff ; Eutrophication ; Ph
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 15 August 2013, Vol.176, pp.24-38
    Description: High availability of phosphorus in agricultural soils leads to increased phosphorus (P) losses from land to water and contributes to the eutrophication of surface water. The most important variable for the transport of soluble P via surface runoff is the labile P content in the top soil. Until now, a detailed understanding and quantitative estimates of the seasonal and spatial dynamics of labile P in the top soil layer at the catchment scale have been lacking. The objective of this paper is to analyze the spatial and temporal variability of labile P and to quantify concentrations in the top soil by coupling the process-based one dimensional P soil model ANIMO with a hydrological model (WaSim-ETH). For testing the spatially distributed ANIMO model, a sampling scheme for soil P compounds was carried out. The scheme comprised of 80 sampling points in a 150 m grid in the 1.44 km study catchment Schäfertal, Germany. For a period of 2 years water soluble P (WSP), total phosphorus (TP), oxalate extractable P/Fe + Al, pH value and were analyzed. Close correlations with a high level of significance were observed between P compounds (from 0.733 to 0.737) and between P compounds and (from 0.508 and 0.527). It was found that, in addition to crop rotation and management practice, spatial variability of WSP was controlled by topography affected microclimate and soil water balance. The combined modeling approach was successfully calibrated for WSP in the top soil with a of 0.94. Although the accuracy of simulation results for the validation period was lower, the model reasonably reproduced the spatial and seasonal variation of WSP. The simulations identified areas of high WSP concentrations and revealed a spring depression with low WSP concentrations in the top soil. The new modeling approach can be used to better understand WSP availability and P yield at the catchment scale.
    Keywords: P Loss ; Water-Soluble P ; Animo ; Wasim-Eth ; Eutrophication ; Catchment Hydrology ; Surface Runoff ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    E-ISSN: 1873-2305
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 4
    Language: German
    In: Wasser und Abfall, 11/2017, Vol.19(11), pp.51-54
    Description: Die FGG Elbe hat ein Fachgespräch "Phosphor" am 17. und 18. Mai 2017 in Lenzen an der Elbe durchgeführt. Neben thematisch übergreifenden Fachvorträgen wurden zu den Maßnahmenebenen Ackerschlag und Betrieb, Punktquellen sowie Ökologie und Landschaft Impulsvorträge gehalten, an die sich Kurzbeiträge der Teilnehmer und eine Diskussion anschlossen. Zur Phosphor-Reduktion ist ein gut gefüllter "Werkzeugkasten" vorhanden, der noch weiter ausgebaut werden kann. Ohne eine Verringerung der Stickstoff- und Phosphoreinträge wird es nicht möglich sein, die Ziele der WRRL im Elbe-Einzugsgebiet zu erreichen. Das Optimierungspotenzial bei Punktquellen ist hoch. Flächenbezogenen Maßnahmen und Stoffrückhalt in der Landwirtschaft sind notwendig, Im Bereich Landwirtscha. ist festzustellen, dass in den nordwestlichen Bundesländern im Elbe-Einzugsgebiet, die Düngeempfehlungen der Landwirtschaftskammern weit über den Empfehlungen der Kammern für die östlichen Bundesländer liegen. Die Fachexperten empfehlen daher, in allen Bundesländern die Phosphordüngung bedarfsgerecht durchzuführen, die Empfehlungen der Landwirtschaftskammern für die Bewertung der P-Versorgungsklassen bundesweit anzugleichen und dort, wo hohe bis sehr hohe Versorgungsklassen vorherrschen, die Phosphordüngung zu begrenzen. In Regionen, in denen die Böden geringe P-Versorgungsklassen aufweisen, sollte auf eine ausreichende P-Versorgung der Kulturarten geachtet werden. In allen Regionen sollten organische wie mineralische Phosphordünger sorgsam angewendet und Einträge in Gewässer durch Einhaltung der Abstandsauflagen vermieden werden. In reliefreichen Regionen bilden breite, mit Gehölz bestandene Gewässerrandstreifen eine effektive physikalische Barriere, um direkte Phosphoreinträge zu vermindern. Die landwirtschaftliche Beratung leistet einen wichtigen Beitrag bei der Etablierung einer umweltgerechten Landwirtschaft. Dabei liegt der Fokus vor allem auf einer bedarfsgerechten Düngung, einer erosionsmindernden Fruchtfolgengestaltung und der Etablierung von Barrieren wie Gewässerrandstreifen. Im Bereich Abwasser ist zwischen urbanen und ländlichen Räumen zu differenzieren. Während im urbanen Bereich Berlins bereits auf den wenigen großen Kläranlagen eine vierte Reinigungsstufe etabliert wird, wurde festgestellt, dass im ländlichen Bereich durch eine optimierte Betriebsweise die Reinigungsleistung am einfachsten verbessert werden kann. Wenn auch die großen Kläranlagen den höchsten Anteil an den punktuellen P-Immissionen in die Gewässer haben, können kleinere Kläranlagen für das lokale Gewässersystem mit ihren Immissionen für einen nicht guten ökologischen Zustand verantwortlich sein. Da die Mehrzahl der Kläranlagen aller Größenklassenbereiche die Anforderungen der Abwasserverordnung deutlich unterschreitet, ist festzustellen, dass sich der Stand der Technik weiterentwickelt hat. Aus Sicht der Fachexperten ist es dringend geboten, die gesetzlichen Anforderungen an die Kläranlagen fortzuschreiben und an den Stand der Technik anzupassen. Insbesondere bei kleineren Kläranlagen sollten zudem gesetzliche Anforderungen für Phosphoreinleitungen formuliert werden. Insgesamt bestehen im urbanen Bereich durch Etablierung der vierten Reinigungsstufe und einer optimierten Niederschlagswasserbewirtschaftung sowie im ländlichen Bereich durch Betriebsoptimierung der Kläranlagen sowie einer Ausstattung kleiner Kläranlagen mit P-Fällungen weitere Potenziale den P-Eintrag in die Oberflächengewässer deutlich zu vermindern. Da in einzelnen Regionen eine Minderung der P-Einträge aus punktuellen und diffusen Quellen nicht ausreichen wird, um die P-Einträge auf das notwendige Maß abzusenken, sind darüber hinaus auch Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung der Stoffrückhaltung notwendig. Hier sind zwei Ansätze erfolgversprechend. In reliefreichen Regionen sind ausreichend breite Randstreifen oder begrünte Abflussbahnen wirkungsvoll, um P-Einträge über Oberflächenabfluss zurückzuhalten. In flacheren Regionen bieten sich Maßnahmen zum Stoffrückhalt durch Dränteiche, Feuchtgebiete oder intelligente Randstreifen an. Die Effizienz dieser Maßnahmen ist zwar durch internationale Studien belegt, allerdings fehlen für die Umsetzung dieser Maßnahmen in Elbe-Einzugsgebiet Empfehlungen zu deren Effizienz und Bemessung. Daher sollten solche Maßnahmen mit speziellen Monitoringprogrammen begleitet werden und Empfehlungen für deren Bemessung erarbeitet werden. Weiterhin ist zu klären, wer diese "Anlagen" unterhält und die damit verbundenen Kosten trägt. In der Diskussion wurde festgestellt, dass die stofflichen Umsatzprozesse in technischen Anlagen und in ökologischen Ansätzen (Dränteiche, Feuchtgebiete, etc.) ähnlich sind, ein Austausch zwischen diesen beiden Disziplinen aber in der Praxis nur selten vorkommt. Durch die Initiierung eines solchen Austausches könnte die Effizienz von ökohydrologischen Ansätzen zur Minderung der N- und P-Einträge verbessert werden.
    Keywords: Landwirtschaft ; Einzugsgebiet ; Landschaft ; Ökologie ; Phosphor ; Werkzeugkasten ; Kläranlage ; Gewässer ; Immission ; Gehölz ; Abwasser ; Reinigungsleistung ; Betriebsweise ; Feuchtgebiet ; Stand Der Technik ; Austausch;
    ISSN: 1436-9095
    E-ISSN: 2192-8754
    Source: Springer (via CrossRef)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Biogeochemistry, 2013, Vol.115(1), pp.53-63
    Description: Riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) supports the production of estuaries and coastal ecosystems, constituting one of the most actively recycled pools of the global carbon cycle. A substantial proportion of DOC entering oceans is highly aged, but its origins remain unclear. Significant fluxes of old DOC have never been observed in temperate headwaters where terrestrial imports take place. Here, we studied the radiocarbon age of DOC in three streams draining forested headwater catchments of the river Mulde (Ore Mountains, Germany). In a 4 week summer precipitation event DOC aged at between 160 and 270 years was delivered into the watershed. In one stream, the DOC was modern but depleted in radiocarbon compared to other hydrological conditions. The yield was substantial and corresponded to 20–52 % of the annual DOC yields in wet and dry years, respectively. The analysis of long-term data suggested that the DOC export in extreme precipitation events added to the annual yield and was not compensated for by lower exports in remaining periods. We conclude that climate change, along with additional processes associated with human activities, channels old soil carbon into more rapidly cycled carbon pools of the hydrosphere.
    Keywords: DOC ; DIC ; Radiocarbon ; 14C ; Catchment ; Reservoir
    ISSN: 0168-2563
    E-ISSN: 1573-515X
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  • 6
    Language: German
    In: WASSERWIRTSCHAFT, 10/2014, Vol.104(10), pp.23-28
    Keywords: Klimaänderung ; Wasserhaushalt;
    ISSN: 0043-0978
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Limnologica, 2010, Vol.40(2), pp.156-160
    Description: Several pressure sensors were deployed in a small lake to determine its storage change. It could be shown that a deep enough deployment and an averaging over a time interval of 1 hour and 5 measuring points allowed for a measurement of 1 or 2 kg/m (i.e. 2 mm of water column) of changes in the storage on the scale of the lake size. This accuracy for the lake storage could not be achieved by other methods, especially if conditions were difficult, e.g. snowfall, or in cases when precipitation was small. Finally, the pressure measurement – originally intended to roughly determine the water level – turned out to be a direct measurement of water mass in the lake, which was the proper magnitude for exchanges between atmosphere and lake. Hence the measurement of lake storage could become an interesting approach even for meteorological measurements, such as precipitation and evaporation on a water surface.
    Keywords: Limnology ; Precipitation ; Evaporation ; Lake ; Water Storage ; Mining Lake 111 ; Oceanography ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0075-9511
    E-ISSN: 1873-5851
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  • 8
    In: Land Degradation & Development, February 2017, Vol.28(2), pp.553-565
    Description: The short‐term impact of coppice‐with‐standards management on soil in a Mediterranean holm oak forest was assessed to contribute to address appropriate recommendations to minimize possible negative effects of the silvicultural practices. For this purpose, soil surface features and topsoil properties were investigated in two representative areas located in a public forest in southwest Sardinia (Italy) and coppiced in the periods November 2012–March 2013 and November 2011–March 2012, respectively. Regardless of differences in soils and slope gradient, the same management, in terms of final density of trees standing after the clear‐cut and accumulation of brushwood in strips along the maximum slope gradient, was applied in both areas. Field observations and laboratory data highlighted the disturbances caused to the soil by the silvicultural practices in the stands when compared with the undisturbed stands. These disturbances involved the almost complete removal of organic horizons, with consequent negative impact on organic carbon content, and the activation of erosion processes, mostly related to rainsplash erosion. Although soil mobilization locally largely exceeded the tolerable erosion rates, no extreme rainfall events occurred after the coppicing to produce critical situations at the catchment level. The adjustment of the final density of trees standing after the clear‐cut in relation to soil properties, slope gradient and the possibility of extreme rainfall events, a different brushwood management and the restriction to the passage of wild animals would have strongly reduced the negative impacts on soils. © 2016 The Authors. published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Keywords: Coppice‐With‐Standards Cws ; Mediterranean Holm Oak Forests ; Soil ; Organic Horizons ; Soil Erosion
    ISSN: 1085-3278
    E-ISSN: 1099-145X
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  • 9
    In: Geoarchaeology, July 2015, Vol.30(4), pp.369-378
    Description: Roman cisterns served as rainwater storage devices for centuries and are densely distributed in parts of northern Jordan. A major earthquake hit the region . A.D. 750 and in a short time many settlements were abandoned. As a consequence, most cisterns were not maintained, and they filled with sediments that today provide a postabandonment depositional record. In two field surveys, we mapped the locations of more than 100 cisterns in the Wadi Al‐Arab basin and selected two for detailed stratigraphic analysis that included C and optically stimulated luminescence dating. Catchment basin area for each cistern was determined by differential GPS. Both cisterns filled with sediments after the great earthquake and consequent abandonment of the region. Calculated sediment volumes are translated to long‐term average sediment export rates of 2.6–6.6 t haa, which are comparable to erosion and sediment yield rates from other studies within the Mediterranean region. Our pilot study suggests that this approach can be applied elsewhere to calculate long‐term sediment export rates on hill slopes containing relict cisterns.
    Keywords: Quaternary Geology ; Sedimentary Petrology ; Arid Environment ; Asia ; Cenozoic ; Chronostratigraphy ; Clay Minerals ; Climate Change ; Climatic Controls ; Dates ; Depositional Environment ; Desertification ; Drainage Basins ; Erodibility ; Erosion ; Erosion Rates ; Holocene ; Human Activity ; Human Ecology ; Hydrology ; Jordan ; Jordan River ; Land Use ; Mediterranean Region ; Middle Ages ; Middle East ; Optically Stimulated Luminescence ; Paleogeography ; Permeability ; Quaternary ; Rainfall ; Reconstruction ; Roman Period ; Sediment Yield ; Sedimentation ; Sheet Silicates ; Silicates ; Soil Erosion ; Stratigraphy ; Terrestrial Environment ; Upper Holocene ; Urban Environment ; Wadi Al-Arab ; Water Resources;
    ISSN: 0883-6353
    E-ISSN: 1520-6548
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Biogeochemistry, 1 January 2013, Vol.115, pp.53-63
    Description: Riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) supports the production of estuaries and coastal ecosystems, constituting one of the most actively recycled pools of the global carbon cycle. A substantial proportion of DOC entering oceans is highly aged, but its origins remain unclear. Significant fluxes of old DOC have never been observed in temperate headwaters where terrestrial imports take place. Here, we studied the radiocarbon age of DOC in three streams draining forested headwater catchments of the river Mulde (Ore Mountains, Germany). In a 4 week summer precipitation event DOC aged at between 160 and 270 years was delivered into the watershed. In one stream, the DOC was modern but depleted in radiocarbon compared to other hydrological conditions. The yield was substantial and corresponded to 20–52 % of the annual DOC yields in wet and dry years, respectively. The analysis of long-term data suggested that the DOC export in extreme precipitation events added to the annual yield and was not compensated for by lower exports in remaining periods. We conclude that climate change, along with additional processes associated with human activities, channels old soil carbon into more rapidly cycled carbon pools of the hydrosphere.
    Keywords: BIOGEOCHEMISTRY LETTERS
    ISSN: 01682563
    E-ISSN: 1573515X
    Source: JSTOR Sustainability
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