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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of personality, February 2011, Vol.79(1), pp.101-34
    Description: Are highly heritable attitudes more or less complex than less heritable attitudes? Over 2,000 participant responses on topics varying in heritability were coded for overall integrative complexity and its 2 subcomponents (dialectical complexity and elaborative complexity). Across different heritability sets drawn from 2 separate prior twin research programs, the present results yielded a consistent pattern: Heritability was always significantly positively correlated with integrative complexity. Further analyses of the subcomponents suggested that the manner in which complexity was expressed differed by topic type: For societal topics, heritable attitudes were more likely to be expressed in dialectically complex terms, whereas for personally involving topics, heritable attitudes were more likely to be expressed in elaboratively complex terms. Most of these relationships remained significant even when controlling for measurements of attitude strength. The authors discuss the genetic roots of complex versus simple attitudes, implications for understanding attitude development more broadly, and the contribution of these results to previous work on both heritability and complexity.
    Keywords: Attitude ; Social Environment ; Thinking
    ISSN: 00223506
    E-ISSN: 1467-6494
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2011, Vol.101(5), pp.955-973
    Description: Several lines of research have provided evidence for a relation between personal relative deprivation and gambling. Despite this knowledge, little is known about possible psychological mechanisms through which personal relative deprivation exerts its influence on gambling. The authors of this research sought to examine one such mechanism: the desire for immediate rewards. Using complementary approaches to studying psychological mechanisms, they tested in four studies the general hypothesis that personal relative deprivation translates into gambling urges and behavior in part via increased desires for immediate, even if smaller, rewards. Study 1 showed that an experimental manipulation of personal relative deprivation increased participants' preferences for smaller-sooner over larger-later rewards during a delay-discounting task. Studies 2 and 3 showed that a decreased willingness to delay gratification led to increased gambling behavior. Study 4 showed that preferences for smaller-sooner over larger-later rewards statistically mediated the relation between self-reported personal relative deprivation and gambling urges among a community sample of gamblers. The implications and potential applications of these findings are discussed.
    Keywords: Personal Relative Deprivation ; Delay Discounting ; Gambling ; Justice Motivation ; Delay Of Gratification
    ISSN: 0022-3514
    E-ISSN: 1939-1315
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  • 3
    In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, October 2011, Vol.41(10), pp.2457-2478
    Description: Two studies examined the relations between regulatory focus and collective action. In Study 1, undergraduate women expressed stronger action intentions when they were primed to consider prevention (ought‐self) self‐discrepancies than promotion (ideal‐self) self‐discrepancies, suggesting that collective action is more likely to occur when individuals are prevention‐ rather than promotion‐focused. In Study 2, however, prevention‐focused women expressed stronger action intentions in response to security framing, whereas promotion‐focused women expressed stronger action intentions in response to achievement framing. This suggests that the relative disinterest in collective action among promotion‐focused individuals can be overcome with the appropriate promotion‐focused framing. Implications for analyses of both collective action and regulatory focus are discussed.
    ISSN: 0021-9029
    E-ISSN: 1559-1816
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  • 4
    In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, January 2013, Vol.43(1), pp.195-200
    Description: The present research extended previous work on the third‐party (un)forgiveness effect—the tendency to be more forgiving for transgressions committed against the self than a close other—by testing how subjective temporal distance of first‐ and third‐party transgressions might influence the forgiveness process. Participants recalled a time in which they or a close other was harmed by another person, and was then made to feel either distant from or close to the transgression. As predicted, third‐party (un)forgiveness was observed when transgressions felt distant, but not when transgressions felt recent. Implications for restoring and maintaining positive relationships are discussed.
    Keywords: Forgiveness ; Social Psychology;
    ISSN: 0021-9029
    E-ISSN: 1559-1816
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, November 2012, Vol.48(6), pp.1343-1349
    Description: Drawing on just-world theory and research showing that older persons are generally assigned a devalued status in society, we examined the impact of an innocent victim's age on observer perceptions of injustice and punishment reactions. In three experiments, we demonstrated that observers perceived the suffering of an older (vs. younger) person as less unfair, which, in turn, reduced their willingness to punish the harm doer. In Study 1, participants rated a car accident as less unfair and consequently punished the harm doer less when the victim was older. In Study 2, participants recommended punishing a harm doer less when the victim was older (vs. younger) when the need to believe in a just world was threatened (i.e., only when the victim was innocent). In Study 3, only participants higher in ageism perceived the suffering of an older (vs. younger) victim as less unfair and, consequently, recommended less punishment for the harm doer. ► The suffering of an older (vs. younger) person is perceived as less unfair. ► Observers punished a harm doer less when an innocent victim was older (vs. younger). ► Victim age affects unfairness and punishment more for people higher in ageism.
    Keywords: Ageism ; Justice Motivation ; Punishment Judgments ; Perceived Injustice ; Sociology & Social History ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0022-1031
    E-ISSN: 1096-0465
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Addictive Behaviors, June 2015, Vol.45, pp.146-149
    Description: One psychosocial factor that has been identified to motivate gambling is personal relative deprivation (PRD), which refers to resentment stemming from the belief that one is deprived of a desired and deserved outcome compared to some referent. Although several lines of evidence point to a positive association between PRD and the urge to gamble, the factors that might moderate this relation have yet to be investigated. Through a quantitative research synthesis, we sought to test (a) the overall relation between PRD and gambling urges among people reporting recent gambling experience, and (b) whether this relation is moderated by problem gambling severity. Meta-analysis revealed that, overall, higher self-reported PRD was associated with stronger urges to gamble ( = .26). A meta-regression revealed that, across studies, the strength of this relation depended on problem gambling severity, such that the relation between PRD and gambling urges was stronger among samples higher in average problem gambling severity. This pattern was corroborated by an analysis of the aggregated individual participant data ( = 857), such that PRD predicted gambling urges only among participants higher in problem gambling severity. The potential practical implications and limitations of these results are discussed.
    Keywords: Personal Relative Deprivation ; Gambling ; Problem Gambling ; Gambling Urges ; Meta-Analysis ; Meta-Regression ; Social Welfare & Social Work
    ISSN: 0306-4603
    E-ISSN: 1873-6327
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Research, 04/15/2012, Vol.72(8 Supplement), pp.1431-1431
    ISSN: 0008-5472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Research, 08/01/2015, Vol.75(15 Supplement), pp.2443-2443
    ISSN: 0008-5472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2012, Vol.109(20), pp.7859-7864
    Description: The Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathway drives a subset of medulloblastomas, a malignant neuroectodermal brain cancer, and other cancers. Small-molecule Shh pathway inhibitors have induced tumor regression in mice and patients with medulloblastoma; however, drug resistance rapidly emerges, in some cases via de novo mutation of the drug target. Here we assess the response and resistance mechanisms to the natural product derivative saridegib in an aggressive Shh-driven mouse medulloblastoma model. In this model, saridegib treatment induced tumor reduction and significantly prolonged survival. Furthermore, the effect of saridegib on tumor-initiating capacity was demonstrated by reduced tumor incidence, slower growth, and spontaneous tumor regression that occurred in allografts generated from previously treated autochthonous medulloblastomas compared with those from untreated donors. Saridegib, a known P-glycoprotein (Pgp) substrate, induced Pgp activity in treated tumors, which likely contributed to emergence of drug resistance. Unlike other Smoothened (Smo) inhibitors, the drug resistance was neither mutation-dependent nor Gli2 amplification-dependent, and saridegib was found to be active in cells with the D473H point mutation that rendered them resistant to another Smo inhibitor, GDC-0449. The fivefold increase in lifespan in mice treated with saridegib as a single agent compares favorably with both targeted and cytotoxic therapies. The absence of genetic mutations that confer resistance distinguishes saridegib from other Smo inhibitors. ; p. 7859-7864.
    Keywords: Models ; Mice ; Patients ; Drugs ; Neoplasms ; Drug Resistance ; Resistance Mechanisms ; Longevity ; Allografting ; Brain ; Remission ; Point Mutation
    ISSN: 0027-8424
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Research, 07/01/2017, Vol.77(13 Supplement), pp.5141-5141
    ISSN: 0008-5472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
    Source: CrossRef
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