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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Current Genetics, 2016, Vol.62(4), pp.753-757
    Description: Bacteriophages (phage) that infect pathogenic bacteria often attach to surface receptors that are coincidentally required for virulence. Receptor loss or modification through mutation renders mutants both attenuated and phage resistant. Such attenuated mutants frequently have no apparent laboratory growth defects, but in the host, they fail to exhibit properties needed to produce disease such as mucosal colonization or survival within professional phagocytic cells. The connection between attenuation and phage resistance has been exploited in experimental demonstrations of phage therapy. In such experiments, phage resistant mutants that arise naturally during therapy are inconsequential because of their attenuated status. A more contemporary approach to exploiting this connection involves identifying small effector molecules, identified in high-throughput screens, that inhibit one or more of the steps needed to produce a functioning phage receptor. Since such biosynthetic steps are unique to bacteria, inhibitors can be utilized therapeutically, in lieu of antibiotics. Also, since the inhibitor is specific to a particular bacterium or group of bacteria, no off-target resistance is generated in the host’s commensal bacterial population. This brief review covers examples of how mutations that confer phage resistance produce attenuation, and how this coincidental relationship can be exploited in the search for the next generation of therapeutic agents for bacterial diseases.
    Keywords: Bacteriophage ; Phage ; Receptor ; Attenuation ; Therapy ; Antibiotic ; Alternative ; Antivirulence factor
    ISSN: 0172-8083
    E-ISSN: 1432-0983
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, 30 September 2009, Vol.131(38), pp.13646-50
    Description: A hallmark of cell-surface processes involving glycans is their multivalent interaction with glycan binding proteins (GBPs). Such a multivalent interaction depends critically on the mobility and density of signaling molecules on the membrane surface. While glycan microarrays have been used in exploring multivalent interactions, the lack of mobility and the difficulty in controlling surface density both limit their quantitative applications. Here we apply a fluidic glycan microarray, with glycan density varying for orders of magnitude, to profile cell surface interaction using a model system, the adhesion of Escherichia coli to mannose. We show the quantitative determination of monovalent and multivalent adhesion channels; the latter can be inhibited by nanopartices presenting a high density of mannosyl groups. These results reveal a new E. coli adhesion mechanism: the switching in the FimH adhesion protein avidity from monovalent to multivalent as the density of mobile mannosyl groups increases; such avidity switching enhances binding affinity and triggers multiple fimbriae anchoring. Affinity enhancement toward FimH has only been observed before for oligo-mannose due to the turn on of secondary interactions outside the mannose binding pocket. We suggest that the new mechanism revealed by the fluidic microarray is of general significance to cell surface interactions: the dynamic clustering of simple sugar groups (homogeneous or heterogeneous) on the fluidic membrane surface may simulate the functions of complex glycan molecules.
    Keywords: Bacterial Adhesion ; Cell Membrane -- Chemistry ; Glycomics -- Methods ; Microarray Analysis -- Methods ; Polysaccharides -- Analysis
    ISSN: 00027863
    E-ISSN: 1520-5126
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2010, Vol.5(9), p.e13000
    Description: Gravid mammals are more prone to listeriosis than their nongravid counterparts. However, many features of the disease in gravid animals are not well defined. We determined, in mice, that increased susceptibility to lethal infection following oral inoculation begins surprisingly early in pregnancy and extends through embryonic development. Pregnancy did not demonstrably increase the spread of listeriae from the intestine to the liver and spleen in the initial 96 h period post inoculation. Consequently, it appeared that gravid animals were competent to contain an enteric infection, but in those instances where escape did occur, a lethal outcome was more likely. Interestingly, colonic colonization level and prevalence, measured 96 h post inoculation, was significantly higher in gravid individuals. In terms of human risk factors for listeriosis, our results suggest that the window of listeriosis susceptibility afforded by pregnancy may be open longer than previously appreciated. Our results also suggest that while gravid animals are competent to contain an enteric infection, enteric carriage rate may be more of a factor in defining disease incidence than previously considered.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Microbiology -- Cellular Microbiology And Pathogenesis ; Microbiology -- Immunity To Infections ; Infectious Diseases -- Bacterial Infections ; Obstetrics -- Pregnancy ; Public Health And Epidemiology -- Infectious Diseases
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2011, Vol. 79(12), p.5001
    Description: A Listeria monocytogenes glcV mutation precludes the binding of certain listerial phages and produces a profound attenuation characterized by the absence of detectable mutants in the livers and spleens of orally inoculated mice. In vitro, we found that the mutant formed plaques on mouse enterocyte monolayers as efficiently as the parent but the plaques formed were smaller. Intracellular growth rate determinations and examination of infected enterocytes by light and fluorescence microscopy established that the mutant was impaired not in intracellular growth rate but in cell-to-cell spreading. Because this property is shared by other immunogenic mutants (e.g., actA mutants), our glcV mutant was tested for vaccine efficacy. Oral immunization with the mutant and subsequent oral challenge (22 days postvaccination) with the parent revealed a ca. 10,000-fold increase in protection afforded by the mutant compared to sham-vaccinated controls. The glcV mutant did not stimulate innate immunity under the dose and route employed for vaccination, and an infectivity index time course experiment revealed pronounced mutant persistence in Peyer's patches. The immunogenicity of the glcV mutant compared to an isogenic actA mutant reference strain was next tested in an experiment with a challenge given 52 days postvaccination. Both mutant strains showed scant vital organ infectivity and high levels of protection similar to those seen using the glcV mutant in the 22-day postvaccination challenge. Our results indicate that oral administration of a profoundly attenuated listerial mutant can safely elicit solid protective immunity.
    Keywords: Bacterial Vaccines -- Standards ; Bacteriophages -- Physiology ; Listeria Monocytogenes -- Genetics ; Listeriosis -- Prevention & Control;
    ISSN: 1098-5522
    ISSN: 10985522
    ISSN: 00199567
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2013, Vol.8(8), p.e72601
    Description: Gravid mice and other rodents inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes typically fail to clear an intrauterine infection and either succumb or expel their intrauterine contents. We took advantage of this property to investigate the effects of an extrauterine infection on parameters of pregnancy success. Pregnant mice were selected for our study if they showed no clinical signs of listeriosis following oral inoculation at 7.5 gestational days (gd), and had no detectable intrauterine colony forming units (cfu) at near term (18.5 gd). The range of oral doses employed was 10⁶-10⁸ cfu per mouse for two listerial serotype strains (4nonb and 1/2a). At all doses, inoculation resulted in a decrease in average near-term (18.5 gd) fetal weight per litter compared to sham inoculated controls. Additionally, embryonic death (indicated by intrauterine resorptions) was exhibited by some inoculated mice but was absent in all sham inoculated animals. In parallel experiments designed to detect possible loss of placental function, gravid uteruses were examined histopathologically and microbiologically 96 h after oral inoculation. Placental lesions were associated with high (〉 10⁶), but not low (〈 10²) or absent intrauterine cfu. In vitro, mouse embryonic trophoblasts were indistinguishable from mouse enterocytes in terms of their sensitivity to listerial exposure. A model consistent with our observations is one in which products (host or bacterial) generated during an acute infection enter embryos transplacentally and influences embryonic survival and slows normal growth in utero.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    In: Infection and Immunity, 2010, Vol. 78(6), p.2370
    Description: Bordetella avium causes bordetellosis in birds, a disease similar to whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis in children. B. avium agglutinates guinea pig erythrocytes via an unknown mechanism. Loss of hemagglutination ability results in attenuation. We report the use of transposon mutagenesis to identify two genes required for hemagglutination. The genes (hagA and hagB) were adjacent and divergently oriented and had no orthologs in the genomes of other Bordetella species. Construction of in-frame, unmarked mutations in each gene allowed examination of the role of each in conferring erythrocyte agglutination, explanted tracheal cell adherence, and turkey poult tracheal colonization. In all of the in vitro and in vivo assays, the requirement for the trans-acting products of hagA and hagB (HagA and HagB) was readily shown. Western blotting, using antibodies to purified HagA and HagB, revealed proteins of the predicted sizes of HagA and HagB in an outer membrane-enriched fraction. Antiserum to HagB, but not HagA, blocked B. avium erythrocyte agglutination and explanted turkey tracheal ring binding. Bioinformatic analysis indicated the similarity of HagA and HagB to several two-component secretory apparatuses in which one product facilitates the exposition of the other. HagB has the potential to serve as a useful immunogen to protect turkeys against colonization and subsequent disease.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0019-9567
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 10985522
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Biomaterials and Biomechanics in Bioengineering, 09/25/2015, Vol.2(3), pp.127-141
    Description: Silver-based systems activated by low intensity direct current continue to be investigated as an alternative antimicrobial for infection prophylaxis and treatment. However there has been limited research on the quantitative characterization of the antimicrobial efficacy of such...
    Keywords: Bacteria ; Mathematical Models ; Surgical Implants ; Fatigue (Materials) ; Activated ; Correlation ; Antiinfectives and Antibacterials ; Effectiveness ; Miscellaneous Sciences (So) ; Design Principles (Mt) ; (An) ; Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model ; Antimicrobial Efficacy ; Orthopaedic Implants ; Silver Oligodynamic Iontophoresis ; Low Intensity Direct Current ; Parameter Characterization ; Time-Kill Curves;
    ISSN: 2465-9835
    ISSN: 22883738
    E-ISSN: 22883746
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity, August 2011, Vol.79(8), pp.3168-77
    Description: Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, has an obligate requirement for heme. Heme is acquired by H. ducreyi from its human host via TonB-dependent transporters expressed at its bacterial surface. Of 3 TonB-dependent transporters encoded in the genome of H. ducreyi, only the hemoglobin receptor, HgbA, is required to establish infection during the early stages of the experimental human model of chancroid. Active immunization with a native preparation of HgbA (nHgbA) confers complete protection in the experimental swine model of chancroid, using either Freund's or monophosphoryl lipid A as adjuvants. To determine if transfer of anti-nHgbA serum is sufficient to confer protection, a passive immunization experiment using pooled nHgbA antiserum was conducted in the experimental swine model of chancroid. Pigs receiving this pooled nHgbA antiserum were protected from a homologous, but not a heterologous, challenge. Passively transferred polyclonal antibodies elicited to nHgbA bound the surface of H. ducreyi and partially blocked hemoglobin binding by nHgbA, but were not bactericidal. Taken together, these data suggest that the humoral immune response to the HgbA vaccine is protective against an H. ducreyi infection, possibly by preventing acquisition of the essential nutrient heme.
    Keywords: Antibodies, Bacterial -- Administration & Dosage ; Bacterial Proteins -- Immunology ; Carrier Proteins -- Immunology ; Chancroid -- Prevention & Control ; Haemophilus Ducreyi -- Pathogenicity ; Immune Sera -- Administration & Dosage ; Immunization, Passive -- Methods
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 1098-5522
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 2013, Vol.24(3), pp.755-760
    Description: The costs associated with the treatment of medical device and surgical site infections are a major cause of concern in the global healthcare system. To prevent transmission of such infections, a prophylactic surface system that provides protracted release of antibacterial silver ions using low intensity direct electric current (LIDC; 28 μA system current at 6 V) activation has been recently developed. To ensure the safety for future in vivo studies and potential clinical applications, this study assessed the biocompatibility of the LIDC-activated interdigitated silver electrodes-based surface system; in vitro toxicity to human epidermal keratinocytes, human dermal fibroblasts, and normal human osteoblasts, and antibacterial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was evaluated. The study concluded that the technological applications of the surface system for medical devices and surgical tools, which contact human tissues for less than 1.5 h, are expected to be self-sterilizing without causing toxicity in vivo.
    Keywords: Antibacterial Agents -- Technology Application ; Medical Equipment -- Technology Application ; Biomedical Engineering -- Technology Application;
    ISSN: 0957-4530
    E-ISSN: 1573-4838
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  • 10
    In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2010, Vol. 76(14), p.4655
    Description: Although mice associated with a single bacterial species have been used to provide a simple model for analysis of host-bacteria relationships, bacteria have been shown to display adaptability when grown in a variety of novel environments. In this study, changes associated with the host-bacterium relationship in mice monoassociated with Escherichia coli K-12 over a period of 1,031 days were evaluated. After 80 days, phenotypic diversification of E. coli was observed, with the colonizing bacteria having a broader distribution of growth rates in the laboratory than the parent E. coli. After 1,031 days, which included three generations of mice and an estimated 20,000 generations of E. coli, the initially homogeneous bacteria colonizing the mice had evolved to have widely different growth rates on agar, a potential decrease in tendency for spontaneous lysis in vivo, and an increased tendency for spontaneous lysis in vitro. Importantly, mice at the end of the experiment were colonized at an average density of bacteria that was more than 3-fold greater than mice colonized on day 80. Evaluation of selected isolates on day 1,031 revealed unique restriction endonuclease patterns and differences between isolates in expression of more than 10% of the proteins identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis, suggesting complex changes underlying the evolution of diversity during the experiment. These results suggest that monoassociated mice might be used as a tool for characterizing niches occupied by the intestinal flora and potentially as a method of targeting the evolution of bacteria for applications in biotechnology.
    Keywords: Escherichia Coli K12 -- Growth & Development; Gastrointestinal Tract -- Microbiology;
    ISSN: 0099-2240
    ISSN: 00992240
    E-ISSN: 10985336
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