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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 2016, Vol.43(12), pp.741-749
    Description: BACKGROUND: Sexual transmission rates of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) cannot be measured directly; however, the study of concordance of Ct infection in sexual partnerships (dyads) can help to illuminate factors influencing Ct transmission. METHODS: Heterosexual men and women with Ct infection and their sex partners were enrolled and partner-specific coital and behavioral data collected for the prior 30 days. Microbiological data included Ct culture, and nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), quantitative Ct polymerase chain reaction, and ompA genotyping. We measured Ct concordance in dyads and factors (correlates) associated with concordance. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-one women and 125 men formed 128 dyads. Overall, 72.9% of male partners of NAAT-positive women and 68.6% of female partners of NAAT-positive men were Ct-infected. Concordance was more common in dyads with culture-positive members (78.6% of male partners, 77% of female partners). Partners of women and men who were NAAT-positive only had lower concordance (33.3%, 46.4%, respectively). Women in concordant dyads had significantly higher median endocervical quantitative Ct polymerase chain reaction values (3,032) compared with CT-infected women in discordant dyads (1013 inclusion forming units DNA equivalents per mL; P 〈 0.01). Among 54 Ct-concordant dyads with ompA genotype data for both members, 96.2% had identical genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Higher organism load appears associated with concordance among women. Same-genotype chlamydial concordance was high in sexual partnerships. No behavioral factors were sufficiently discriminating to guide partner services activities. Findings may help model coitus-specific transmission probabilities.
    Keywords: Chlamydia Infections -- Genetic Aspects ; Chlamydia Infections -- Development And Progression ; Virulence (Microbiology) -- Genetic Aspects ; Genotypes -- Health Aspects ; Disease Susceptibility -- Genetic Aspects;
    ISSN: 0148-5717
    E-ISSN: 15374521
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Adolescent Health, January 2011, Vol.48(1), pp.87-93
    Description: Little is known about how adolescent sexual behaviors develop and the influence of personal or perceived social attitudes. We sought to describe how personal, perceived peer, and perceived family attitudes toward adolescent sexual activity influence sexual behaviors of adolescent females' over time. Between the years of 1999 and 2006, 358 English-speaking female adolescents, aged 14–17 years, were recruited from three urban adolescent clinics. Participants completed quarterly and annual questionnaires over a span of 4 years. Primary outcomes included engagement in any of the following eight sexual behaviors: kissing, having breasts touched, having genitals touched, touching partners' genitals, oral giving, oral receiving, anal, or vaginal sex. Three attitudinal scales assessed personal importance of abstinence, perceived peer beliefs about when to have sex, and perceived family beliefs that adolescent sex is negative. We used generalized estimating equations to identify predictors of each sexual behavior and compared whether personal, perceived peer, or perceived family attitudes predicted sexual behaviors over time. The odds of reporting each sexual behavior increased with age but were lower among those whose personal or perceived family attitudes were less positive. Participants' personal attitudes toward adolescent sex were the strongest predictor of engagement in all eight sexual behaviors even after controlling for perceived peer and perceived family attitudes. Female adolescent's personal attitudes toward abstinence appear to be the strongest predictor of engagement in a variety of sexual behaviors. Efforts to influence adolescent attitudes toward abstinence may be an important approach to reducing sexual behaviors that increase the risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections.
    Keywords: Adolescents ; Adolescent Sexual Behavior ; Attitudes ; Peer Group ; Family ; Medicine ; Social Welfare & Social Work
    ISSN: 1054-139X
    E-ISSN: 1879-1972
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Intensive Care Medicine, 2012, Vol.38(2), pp.300-307
    Description: Byline: Nelson H. Burbano (1), Andrea V. Otero (1), Donald E. Berry (2), Richard A. Orr (1), Ricardo A. Munoz (1) Keywords: Dexmedetomidine; Hypnotics and sedatives; Substance withdrawal syndrome; Intensive care; Cardiac surgical procedures; Congenital heart defects Abstract: Purpose To describe changes in hemodynamic variables, sedation, and pain score after discontinuation of prolonged infusions of dexmedetomidine in a pediatric population of critically ill cardiac patients. Methods Retrospective case series of patients who received continuous infusions of dexmedetomidine for longer than 3 days in a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit from 2008 to 2010. Results Sixty-two patients, age 5.2 months (range 0.3 months--17 years) and weight 5.1 kg (range 2.2--84 kg), were included. Thirty-nine patients (63%) were younger than 1 year of age. Median duration of dexmedetomidine infusion was 5.8 days (range 4--26 days) and median infusion dose was 0.71 ug/kg/h (range 0.2--2.1 ug/kg/h). Median weaning time and dose at discontinuation were 43 h (range 0--189 h) and 0.2 ug/kg/h (range 0.1--1.3 ug/kg/h). Tachycardia, transient hypertension and agitation were observed in 27, 35 and 27% of patients. Episodes of tachycardia were more frequent in children older than 1 year of age (61 vs. 8%, p 〈 0.001), patients who received dexmedetomidine for 4 days when compared to those who received 5 days or longer (48 vs. 17%, p = 0.011), and patients whose infusion was discontinued abruptly (42 vs. 14%, p = 0.045). Tachyarrhythmias were seen in nine patients (15%) after discontinuation of the dexmedetomidine infusion. Adequate sedation and analgesia scores at the moment of infusion discontinuation were seen in 90 and 88% of patients, respectively. Conclusions Our study suggests that tachycardia, transient hypertension, and agitation are frequently observed in pediatric cardiac intensive care unit patients after discontinuing prolonged dexmedetomidine infusions. Author Affiliation: (1) Division of Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care, Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Room 4552, Department of Critical Care Medicine, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, One Children's Hospital Drive, 4401 Penn Ave., Pittsburgh, PA, 15224, USA (2) Department of Pharmacy, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Article History: Registration Date: 22/11/2011 Received Date: 30/11/2010 Accepted Date: 16/11/2011 Online Date: 13/12/2011
    Keywords: Dexmedetomidine ; Hypnotics and sedatives ; Substance withdrawal syndrome ; Intensive care ; Cardiac surgical procedures ; Congenital heart defects
    ISSN: 0342-4642
    E-ISSN: 1432-1238
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  • 4
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science, January 2012, Vol.200(1), pp.81; author reply 82
    Description: [...]medico-legal provisions of treatment are unfortunately driven by public reactions to failures in the mental health system. [...]the rates of coercion cannot categorically be said to be increasing, as opined by Zigmond. 6 Becker T, Kilian R. Psychiatric services for people with severe mental illness...
    Keywords: Coercion ; Patient Compliance ; Community Mental Health Services -- Statistics & Numerical Data ; Mental Disorders -- Therapy
    ISSN: 00071250
    E-ISSN: 1472-1465
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Adolescent Health, March 2010, Vol.46(3), pp.232-237
    Description: To examine the distribution of and factors associated with event-level heterosexual anal sex and of event-level condom use during anal sex among adolescent women. Adolescent women (N = 387; age 14–17 years at enrollment) were recruited from primary care clinics for a longitudinal cohort study of sexually transmitted infections and sexual behavior. Data were taken from daily sexual diaries; generalized estimating equation logistic regression assessed the likelihood of anal sex or condom use during anal sex on a given day. Heterosexual anal intercourse is a small but nonrandom event-level component in adolescent women's sexual behavior. About 30% of anal sex events were condom protected. Mood, partner, and situational factors predicted anal sex, but not condom use during anal sex; within-day and recent behavior factors were the strongest influences on both outcomes. Our findings suggest the importance of providers' screening adolescent women patients during office visits about anal sex and about condom use during anal sex, as well as asking questions about the context of these behaviors to appropriately tailor risk reduction counseling.
    Keywords: Anal Sex ; Condoms ; Adolescent Women ; Diary Data ; Medicine ; Social Welfare & Social Work
    ISSN: 1054-139X
    E-ISSN: 1879-1972
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  • 6
    In: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 2005, Vol.32(4), pp.260-264
    Description: BACKGROUND:: Treatment of sex partners by patient-delivered partner therapy (PDPT) may prove to be an effective strategy in reducing reinfection and preventing the sequelae of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, limited data exists regarding STIs within sexual partnerships (dyads). OBJECTIVE:: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) in sexual dyads to estimate the potential yield and limitations of PDPT. METHODS:: Male and female STI clinic attendees were invited to participate. Index subjects and partners were interviewed and tested for CT, GC, and TV. All partners were sought regardless of infection status of the index subject. RESULTS:: Of 210 dyads, the prevalence in index subjects was CT, 46%; GC, 18%; and TV, 14%. Considering the partners of 72 CT-only-infected index subjects, 57% had CT, 6% had GC, and 11% had TV. Considering the partners of 35 index subjects with GC or GC–CT coinfection, 57% had GC and/or CT; however, in 20% of partners, unsuspected TV was present. Among 74 dyads with uninfected index subjects, 26% of partners had an STI. Among the partners of 19 index subjects with TV only, 11% had CT, 5% had GC, and 37% had TV. CONCLUSION:: In our clinic population, a substantial number of partners had infections different from or in addition to those infections in the index. Many of these infected partners would not be diagnosed and treated using PDPT. Partners of index attendees without detected infection were at high risk (26%) for STI, mostly CT.
    Keywords: Sexually Transmitted Diseases ; STD ; Personal Relationships ; Disease Transmission;
    ISSN: 0148-5717
    E-ISSN: 15374521
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  • 7
    Article
    Article
    In: Synthesis, 1984, Vol.1984(07), pp.618-619
    ISSN: 0039-7881
    E-ISSN: 1437210X
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Adolescent Health, March, 2006, Vol.38(3), p.305(2)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2005.03.018 Byline: Stacey E. Woodrome (a)(b), Gregory D. Zimet (b), Donald P. Orr (b), J. Dennis Fortenberry (b) Keywords: Adolescent; Adolescent behavior; Condoms; Interpersonal Relations; Alcohol drinking Abstract: We examined alcohol use concordance (respondent and partner alcohol use) and relationship quality as predictors of condom non-use among adolescent women. Both variables were significant independent predictors of condom non-use. These results suggest that both the individual's and her partner's behaviors should be taken into consideration in research and clinical practice. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Psychology, Purdue University School of Science, Indiana University Purdue University, Indianapolis, Indiana (b) Section of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana Article History: Received 6 January 2005; Accepted 21 March 2005 Article Note: (footnote) This research was supported by grants from the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCJ T71 MC00008) and the National Institue of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (U19 A143924).
    Keywords: Teenage Girls -- Alcohol Use ; Medical Schools ; Juvenile Drinking ; Condoms ; Drinking (Alcoholic beverages) ; Child Health
    ISSN: 1054-139X
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Adolescent Health, 2006, Vol.38(3), pp.275-281
    Description: Our objective was to describe familial, intrapersonal, and partner-related factors associated with time of day of sexual activity among adolescent women. Annual questionnaires and daily diaries were collected from 106 adolescents. Participants contributed up to 3 questionnaires and 5 12-week diary periods over 27 months. Predictor variables included type of day (weekend, school day, vacation day); partner variables (argument with partner, partner emotional support, time spent with partner); parent/family variables such as supervision, monitoring, and attitudes about adolescent sexual behavior; and mood and behavior variables such as negative mood, positive mood, and sexual interest. The outcome variable for each diary day was no coitus, coitus between noon and 6 , or coitus after 6 . Coitus occurred on 12.0% of the diary days. Coital events were more than twice as likely to occur after 6 (8.5% of days) than in the afternoon (3.5% of days). Afternoon sex was least likely to occur on school days whereas evening sex occurred most often on weekends. An argument with a partner, partner emotional support, time spent with partner, sexual interest, and coital frequency were associated with increased likelihood of afternoon sex, whereas parental supervision and negative mood were associated with decreased likelihood of afternoon sex. For school days, skipping school was associated with increased likelihood of afternoon sex. Evening/night sexual activity was not associated with any parent/family variables. Afternoon sex on school days is relatively uncommon. Direct parental supervision may decrease afternoon sexual activity but relationship and intrapersonal factors also are important factors in the timing of sexual activity on any given day.
    Keywords: Sexuality ; Parents ; Sexual Behavior ; Medicine ; Social Welfare & Social Work
    ISSN: 1054-139X
    E-ISSN: 1879-1972
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Australasian Psychiatry, April 2013, Vol.21(2), pp.191-191
    ISSN: 1039-8562
    E-ISSN: 1440-1665
    Source: Sage Journals (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Clinical Medicine (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Health Sciences (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE STM (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Neurology (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Mental Health (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Psychology (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Communication and Media Studies (Sage Publications)
    Source: SAGE Journals (Sage Publications)
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