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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Energy Policy, 2016, Vol.93, pp.8-22
    Keywords: System Dynamics – Analysis ; Energy Security – Analysis ; Renewable Energy – Research
    ISSN: 0301-4215
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Energy Policy, June 2016, Vol.93, pp.8-22
    Description: Liberalisation and the ever larger share of variable renewable energies (VRES), e.g. photovoltaic (PV) and wind energy, affect security of supply (SoS). We develop a system dynamics model to analyse the impact of VRES on the investment decision process and to understand how SoS is affected. We focus on the Swiss electricity market, which is currently undergoing a liberalisation process, and simultaneously faces the encouragement of VRES and a nuclear phase out. Our results show that nuclear production is replaced mainly by PV and imports; the country becomes a net importer. This evolution points to a problem of capacity adequacy. The resulting price rise, together with the subsidies needed to support VRES, lead to a rise in tariffs. In the presence of a high share of hydro, the de-rated margin may give a misleading picture of the capacity adequacy. We thus propose a new metric, the annual energy margin, which considers the energy available from all sources, while acknowledging that hydro-storage can function as a battery. This measure shows a much less reassuring picture of the country’s capacity adequacy.
    Keywords: Swiss Electricity Market ; System Dynamics ; Renewable Energies ; Security of Supply ; Capacity Adequacy ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Economics
    ISSN: 0301-4215
    E-ISSN: 1873-6777
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Energy Policy, August 2018, Vol.119, pp.696-703
    Description: The 2008 financial crisis has drawn attention to the concept of “too big to fail” companies, more recently relabelled "system-critical" institutions, referring to situations where the actual or near-bankruptcy of a company threatens the future of a service essential to the functioning of society. But such instances are not limited to the financial sector. We argue that if policymakers and regulators are not vigilant, a similar situation could occur in the electricity sector. So far this industry has only experienced occasional problems, but we can observe several precursory signals indicating that these problems might become more frequent. These include a tendency to globalisation in the absence of a supra-national regulator and the disruption caused by large amounts of renewable energies, resulting in companies being stranded with loss-making thermal generators. Still, these units are essential for the electricity supply security. We discuss several cases illustrating these trends. We conclude with a discussion of how electricity regulators and policymakers should approach the “too big to fail” problem, focussing both on preventive measures that can be taken to keep such a situation from occurring and on proactive actions aimed at avoiding a crisis once a system-critical company seems at risk of collapsing.
    Keywords: Electricity ; “too Big to Fail” ; Market Concentration ; Energy Security ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Economics
    ISSN: 0301-4215
    E-ISSN: 1873-6777
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 4
    Language: Spanish
    In: Relaciones Internacionales, 01 February 2018, Issue 37
    Keywords: Integración Regional ; América Latina ; Unasur ; Alianza Del Pacífico ; International Relations
    E-ISSN: 1699-3950
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Energy, 15 September 2017, Vol.135, pp.598-609
    Description: The analysis of security of electricity supply (SoES) is particularly complex due to, among others, the liberalisation process and the increasing penetration of renewable energies. Larsen et al. [1] propose a framework based on twelve dimensions to evaluate SoES for a single jurisdiction. However, actions aimed at improving one dimension might impact others negatively, adversely affecting the overall system. Understanding how these dimensions are interrelated is thus a prerequisite for appropriate planning and resource allocation. We apply a Cross Impact Analysis (CIA) to these dimensions to determine the degree to which the different dimensions depend on each other. From this we derive an influence diagram to visualise the interdependencies and a scatter plot to categorise the dimensions as independent, driver, connector or outcome. Actions targeting the drivers or connectors are potentially the more effective ones a regulator can take, as the consequences will gradually ripple through the system. Having an integral view of the dimensions' interdependencies provides a better understanding of the higher-order changes an intervention may cause. This enables policymakers and regulators to identifying where in the system to intervene to achieve the desired effect with the least amount of resources and with as few undesirable side-effects as possible.
    Keywords: Security of Supply ; Electricity ; Energy Security ; Cross-Impact Factor Analysis ; Environmental Sciences ; Economics
    ISSN: 0360-5442
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Les Cahiers de Framespa, 01 June 2018, Vol.27
    Description: The present (this) article envisions the democratisation process in Chile through the prism of one essential but little-examined factor in transition studies: trade-unionism. Whilst questioning the real import of the "pact-driven transition"...
    Keywords: Chile - Trade-Unionism - Democratic Transition - Neoliberalism
    E-ISSN: 1760-4761
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Bacteriology, 2010, Vol. 192(23), p.6230
    Description: In this work we characterize the function of the flagellar protein FliL in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Our results show that FliL is essential for motility in this bacterium and that in its absence flagellar rotation is highly impaired. A green fluorescent protein (GFP)-FliL fusion forms polar and lateral fluorescent foci that show different spatial dynamics. The presence of these foci is dependent on the expression of the flagellar genes controlled by the master regulator FleQ, suggesting that additional components of the flagellar regulon are required for the proper localization of GFP-FliL. Eight independent pseudorevertants were isolated from the fliL mutant strain. In each of these strains a single nucleotide change in motB was identified. The eight mutations affected only three residues located on the periplasmic side of MotB. Swimming of the suppressor mutants was not affected by the presence of the wild-type fliL allele. Pulldown and yeast two-hybrid assays showed that that the periplasmic domain of FliL is able to interact with itself but not with the periplasmic domain of MotB. From these results we propose that FliL could participate in the coupling of MotB with the flagellar rotor in an indirect fashion. doi: 10.1128/JB.00655-10
    Keywords: Bacterial Motility -- Research ; Bacterial Proteins -- Physiological Aspects ; Flagella -- Chemical Properties ; Photosynthetic Bacteria -- Physiological Aspects;
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 10985530
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 December 2015, Vol.537, pp.129-138
    Description: Chile is the second largest producer of salmonids worldwide. The first step in the production of salmonids takes place in land-based aquacultures. However, the effects of the discharge from these aquacultures on stream dissolved organic matter (DOM) content, molecular composition and degradability are unknown. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the inputs of anthropogenic DOM from land-based aquaculture to the predominantly pristine river systems of North Patagonia. We hypothesized, that i) DOM exported from land-based aquaculture mainly consists of protein-like fluorescence (tyrosine and tryptophan) released from fish feces and food remains, and that ii) this DOM is highly degradable and therefore rapidly turned-over within the receiving streams. In the North Patagonian region we conducted a screening of ten land-based aquacultures and an intensive sampling campaign for one aquaculture. This was combined with longitudinal transects and a degradation experiment in order to couple the composition of DOM exported from land-based aquacultures to its degradability in streams. We measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration by high-temperature catalytic oxidation and DOM composition by fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis. In the effluent of the ten screened aquacultures and in the repeated sampling of one aquaculture, we consistently found an increase of DOC concentrations and a dominance of protein-like fluorescence. The protein-like fluorescence rapidly disappeared downstream of the aquacultures, and in the degradation experiment. 21% of the DOC export from the repeatedly sampled aquaculture resulted from food addition and 76% from fish production. We conclude that large amounts of degradable DOM are exported from land-based aquacultures. This probably has strong effects on the ecological structure and function of North Patagonian streams, and similarly affected streams worldwide.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Organic Contamination ; Dissolved Organic Matter ; Fluorescence Spectroscopy ; Fish Farms ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: SSRN Electronic Journal, 2016
    ISSN: SSRN Electronic Journal
    E-ISSN: 1556-5068
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 10
    In: Derecho y Humanidades, 06/02/2012, Vol.0(18)
    ISSN: 0716-9825
    E-ISSN: 0719-2517
    Source: CrossRef
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