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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Nov, 2013, Vol.66, p.69(9)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.07.001 Byline: Aurore Kaisermann, Adelaide Roguet, Naoise Nunan, Pierre-Alain Maron, Nicholas Ostle, Jean-Christophe Lata Abstract: Soil microorganisms are responsible for organic matter decomposition processes that regulate soil carbon storage and mineralisation to CO.sub.2. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency of drought events, with uncertain consequences for soil microbial communities. In this study we tested the hypothesis that agricultural management used to enhance soil carbon stocks would increase the stability of microbial community structure and activity in response to water-stress. Soil was sampled from a long-term field trial with three soil carbon management systems and was used in a laboratory study of the effect of a dry-wet cycle on organic C mineralisation and microbial community structure. After a drying-rewetting event, soil microcosms were maintained wet and microbial community structure and abundance as well as microbial respiration were measured for four weeks. The results showed that the NO-TILL management system, with the highest soil organic matter content and respiration rate, had a distinct bacterial community structure relative to the conventional and the TILL without fertiliser systems. In all management systems, the rewetting event clearly modified microbial community structure and activity. Both returned to their pre-drought state after 28 days. However, the magnitude of variation of C mineralisation was lower (i.e. the resistance to stress was higher) in the NO-TILL system. The genetic structure of the NO-TILL bacterial communities was most modified by water-stress and exhibited a slower recovery rate. This suggests that land use management can increase microbial functional resistance to drought stress via the establishment of bacterial communities with particular metabolic capacities. Nevertheless, the resilience rates of C mineralisation were similar among management regimes, suggesting that similar mechanisms occur, maybe due to a common soil microbial community legacy. Author Affiliation: (a) Laboratoire Bioemco, CNRS/UPMC, 46 rue d'Ulm, 75230 Paris Cedex 5, France (b) Laboratoire Bioemco, CNRS/UPMC, Batiment EGER Campus AgroParisTech, F-78850 Thiverval Grignon, France (c) UMR 1347 Agroecology INRA - AgroSup Dijon - University of Burgundy, 17, rue Sully, B.V. 86510, 21065 Dijon Cedex, France (d) Platform GenoSol, UMR Agroecology INRA - AgroSup Dijon - University of Burgundy, 17, rue Sully, B.V. 86510, 21065 Dijon Cedex, France (e) Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP, UK Article History: Received 14 May 2013; Accepted 1 July 2013
    Keywords: Global Temperature Changes ; No-tillage ; Soil Carbon
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    In: Global Change Biology, June 2014, Vol.20(6), pp.1699-1706
    Description: Global energy demand is increasing as greenhouse gas driven climate change progresses, making renewable energy sources critical to future sustainable power provision. Land‐based wind and solar electricity generation technologies are rapidly expanding, yet our understanding of their operational effects on biological carbon cycling in hosting ecosystems is limited. Wind turbines and photovoltaic panels can significantly change local ground‐level climate by a magnitude that could affect the fundamental plant–soil processes that govern carbon dynamics. We believe that understanding the possible effects of changes in ground‐level microclimates on these phenomena is crucial to reducing uncertainty of the true renewable energy carbon cost and to maximize beneficial effects. In this Opinions article, we examine the potential for the microclimatic effects of these land‐based renewable energy sources to alter plant–soil carbon cycling, hypothesize likely effects and identify critical knowledge gaps for future carbon research.
    Keywords: Greenhouse Gases ; Land Use Change ; Microclimate ; Solar Parks ; Wind Farms
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 3
    In: Ecology Letters, October 2013, Vol.16(10), pp.1285-1293
    Description: Understanding the effects of warming on greenhouse gas feedbacks to climate change represents a major global challenge. Most research has focused on direct effects of warming, without considering how concurrent changes in plant communities may alter such effects. Here, we combined vegetation manipulations with warming to investigate their interactive effects on greenhouse gas emissions from peatland. We found that although warming consistently increased respiration, the effect on net ecosystem exchange depended on vegetation composition. The greatest increase in sink strength after warming was when shrubs were present, and the greatest decrease when graminoids were present. was more strongly controlled by vegetation composition than by warming, with largest emissions from graminoid communities. Our results show that plant community composition is a significant modulator of greenhouse gas emissions and their response to warming, and suggest that vegetation change could alter peatland carbon sink strength under future climate change.
    Keywords: Carbon Cycle ; Ch 4 ; Co 2 ; Greenhouse Gas ; No ; Peatland ; Plant Community Composition ; Plant Functional Group ; Warming
    ISSN: 1461-023X
    E-ISSN: 1461-0248
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Oecologia, 2015, Vol.178(1), pp.141-151
    Description: There is growing recognition that changes in vegetation composition can strongly influence peatland carbon cycling, with potential feedbacks to future climate. Nevertheless, despite accelerated climate and vegetation change in this ecosystem, the growth responses of peatland plant species to combined warming and vegetation change are unknown. Here, we used a field warming and vegetation removal experiment to test the hypothesis that dominant species from the three plant functional types present (dwarf-shrubs: Calluna vulgaris ; graminoids: Eriophorum vaginatum ; bryophytes: Sphagnum capillifolium ) contrast in their growth responses to warming and the presence or absence of other plant functional types. Warming was accomplished using open top chambers, which raised air temperature by approximately 0.35 °C, and we measured air and soil microclimate as potential mechanisms through which both experimental factors could influence growth. We found that only Calluna growth increased with experimental warming (by 20 %), whereas the presence of dwarf-shrubs and bryophytes increased growth of Sphagnum (46 %) and Eriophorum (20 %), respectively. Sphagnum growth was also negatively related to soil temperature, which was lower when dwarf-shrubs were present. Dwarf-shrubs may therefore promote Sphagnum growth by cooling the peat surface. Conversely, the effect of bryophyte presence on Eriophorum growth was not related to any change in microclimate, suggesting other factors play a role. In conclusion, our findings reveal contrasting abiotic and biotic controls over dominant peatland plant growth, suggesting that community composition and carbon cycling could be modified by simultaneous climate and vegetation change.
    Keywords: Calluna vulgaris ; Competition ; Eriophorum vaginatum ; Facilitation ; Microclimate ; Open top chambers ; Peatlands ; Sphagnum
    ISSN: 0029-8549
    E-ISSN: 1432-1939
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Oecologia, 2018, Vol.186(3), pp.611-620
    Description: Multiple plant species invasions and increases in nutrient availability are pervasive drivers of global environmental change that often co-occur. Many plant invasion studies, however, focus on single-species or single-mechanism invasions, risking an oversimplification of a multifaceted process. Here, we test how biogeographic differences in soil biota, such as belowground enemy release, interact with increases in nutrient availability to influence invasive plant growth. We conducted a greenhouse experiment using three co-occurring invasive grasses and one native grass. We grew species in live and sterilized soil from the invader’s native (United Kingdom) and introduced (New Zealand) ranges with a nutrient addition treatment. We found no evidence for belowground enemy release. However, species’ responses to nutrients varied, and this depended on soil origin and sterilization. In live soil from the introduced range, the invasive species Lolium perenne L. responded more positively to nutrient addition than co-occurring invasive and native species. In contrast, in live soil from the native range and in sterilized soils, there were no differences in species’ responses to nutrients. This suggests that the presence of soil biota from the introduced range allowed L. perenne to capture additional nutrients better than co-occurring species. Considering the globally widespread nature of anthropogenic nutrient additions to ecosystems, this effect could be contributing to a global homogenization of flora and the associated losses in native species diversity.
    Keywords: Belowground ; Enemy release ; Invasive species ; Nutrient availability ; Soil biota
    ISSN: 0029-8549
    E-ISSN: 1432-1939
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  • 6
    In: Ecology, January 2015, Vol.96(1), pp.113-123
    Description: Historically, slow decomposition rates have resulted in the accumulation of large amounts of carbon in northern peatlands. Both climate warming and vegetation change can alter rates of decomposition, and hence affect rates of atmospheric CO exchange, with consequences for climate change feedbacks. Although warming and vegetation change are happening concurrently, little is known about their relative and interactive effects on decomposition processes. To test the effects of warming and vegetation change on decomposition rates, we placed litter of three dominant species (, , ) into a peatland field experiment that combined warming with plant functional group removals, and measured mass loss over two years. To identify potential mechanisms behind effects, we also measured nutrient cycling and soil biota. We found that plant functional group removals exerted a stronger control over short‐term litter decomposition than did ~1°C warming, and that the plant removal effect depended on litter species identity. Specifically, rates of litter decomposition were faster when shrubs were removed from the plant community, and these effects were strongest for graminoid and bryophyte litter. Plant functional group removals also had strong effects on soil biota and nutrient cycling associated with decomposition, whereby shrub removal had cascading effects on soil fungal community composition, increased enchytraeid abundance, and increased rates of N mineralization. Our findings demonstrate that, in addition to litter quality, changes in vegetation composition play a significant role in regulating short‐term litter decomposition and belowground communities in peatland, and that these impacts can be greater than moderate warming effects. Our findings, albeit from a relatively short‐term study, highlight the need to consider both vegetation change and its impacts below ground alongside climatic effects when predicting future decomposition rates and carbon storage in peatlands.
    Keywords: Belowground Communities ; Enchytraeids ; Litter Decomposition ; Moor House National Nature Reserve ; Northern England ; Open-Top Chambers ; Peatland ; Plant–Climate Interactions ; Plant Removal ; Soil Invertebrates ; Soil Microbes ; Vegetation Composition ; Warming
    ISSN: 0012-9658
    E-ISSN: 1939-9170
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Oecologia, 2018, Vol.186(2), pp.577-587
    Description: Plant invasions and eutrophication are pervasive drivers of global change that cause biodiversity loss. Yet, how invasive plant impacts on native species, and the mechanisms underpinning these impacts, vary in relation to increasing nitrogen (N) availability remains unclear. Competition is often invoked as a likely mechanism, but the relative importance of the above and belowground components of this is poorly understood, particularly under differing levels of N availability. To help resolve these issues, we quantified the impact of a globally invasive grass species, Agrostis capillaris , on two co-occurring native New Zealand grasses, and vice versa. We explicitly separated above- and belowground interactions amongst these species experimentally and incorporated an N addition treatment. We found that competition with the invader had large negative impacts on native species growth (biomass decreased by half), resource capture (total N content decreased by up to 75%) and even nutrient stoichiometry (native species tissue C:N ratios increased). Surprisingly, these impacts were driven directly and indirectly by belowground competition, regardless of N availability. Higher root biomass likely enhanced the invasive grass’s competitive superiority belowground, indicating that root traits may be useful tools for understanding invasive plant impacts. Our study shows that belowground competition can be more important in driving invasive plant impacts than aboveground competition in both low and high fertility ecosystems, including those experiencing N enrichment due to global change. This can help to improve predictions of how two key drivers of global change, plant species invasions and eutrophication, impact native species diversity.
    Keywords: Global change ; Grassland ; Mechanism ; Non-native ; Nutrient availability
    ISSN: 0029-8549
    E-ISSN: 1432-1939
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  • 8
    In: Journal of Ecology, July 2014, Vol.102(4), pp.1058-1071
    Description: The Andes are predicted to warm by 3–5 °C this century with the potential to alter the processes regulating carbon (C) cycling in these tropical forest soils. This rapid warming is expected to stimulate soil microbial respiration and change plant species distributions, thereby affecting the quantity and quality of C inputs to the soil and influencing the quantity of soil‐derived CO2 released to the atmosphere. We studied tropical lowland, premontane and montane forest soils taken from along a 3200‐m elevation gradient located in south‐east Andean Peru. We determined how soil microbial communities and abiotic soil properties differed with elevation. We then examined how these differences in microbial composition and soil abiotic properties affected soil C‐cycling processes, by amending soils with C substrates varying in complexity and measuring soil heterotrophic respiration (RH). Our results show that there were consistent patterns of change in soil biotic and abiotic properties with elevation. Microbial biomass and the abundance of fungi relative to bacteria increased significantly with elevation, and these differences in microbial community composition were strongly correlated with greater soil C content and C:N (nitrogen) ratios. We also found that RH increased with added C substrate quality and quantity and was positively related to microbial biomass and fungal abundance. Statistical modelling revealed that RH responses to changing C inputs were best predicted by soil pH and microbial community composition, with the abundance of fungi relative to bacteria, and abundance of gram‐positive relative to gram‐negative bacteria explaining much of the model variance. Synthesis. Our results show that the relative abundance of microbial functional groups is an important determinant of RH responses to changing C inputs along an extensive tropical elevation gradient in Andean Peru. Although we do not make an experimental test of the effects of climate change on soil, these results challenge the assumption that different soil microbial communities will be ‘functionally equivalent’ as climate change progresses, and they emphasize the need for better ecological metrics of soil microbial communities to help predict C cycle responses to climate change in tropical biomes. Using a 3200‐m tropical forest elevation gradient in south‐east ndean eru, we demonstrated that the relative abundance of microbial functional groups is an important determinant of heterotrophic respiration responses to changing above‐ground carbon inputs. These findings emphasize that better ecological metrics of soil microbial communities are needed to help predict carbon cycle responses to climate change in tropical biomes.
    Keywords: Bacterial ; Carbon Substrates ; Decomposition ; Ecosystem Function ; Fungal ; Microbial Community Composition ; Montane Cloud Forest ; Plant–Soil Below‐Ground Interactions
    ISSN: 0022-0477
    E-ISSN: 1365-2745
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  • 9
    In: Global Change Biology, September 2014, Vol.20(9), pp.2971-2982
    Description: Partially decomposed plant and animal remains have been accumulating in organic soils (i.e. 〉40% C content) for millennia, making them the largest terrestrial carbon store. There is growing concern that, in a warming world, soil biotic processing will accelerate and release greenhouse gases that further exacerbate climate change. However, the magnitude of this response remains uncertain as the constraints are abiotic, biotic and interactive. Here, we examined the influence of resource quality and biological activity on the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration under different soil moisture regimes. Organic soils were sampled from 13 boreal and peatland ecosystems located in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Spain, Finland and Sweden, representing a natural resource quality range of C, N and P. They were incubated at four temperatures (4, 10, 15 and 20 °C) at either 60% or 100% water holding capacity (). Our results showed that chemical and biological properties play an important role in determining soil respiration responses to temperature and moisture changes. High soil C : P and C : N ratios were symptomatic of slow C turnover and long‐term C accumulation. In boreal soils, low bacterial to fungal ratios were related to greater temperature sensitivity of respiration, which was amplified in drier conditions. This contrasted with peatland soils which were dominated by bacterial communities and enchytraeid grazing, resulting in a more rapid C turnover under warmer and wetter conditions. The unexpected acceleration of C mineralization under high moisture contents was possibly linked to the primarily role of fermented organic matter, instead of oxygen, in mediating microbial decomposition. We conclude that to improve C model simulations of soil respiration, a better resolution of the interactions occurring between climate, resource quality and the decomposer community will be required.
    Keywords: Boreal Forest ; C : n : p Ratios ; Climate Change ; Enchytraeids ; Peatlands ; Soil Fauna ; Soil Respiration
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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  • 10
    In: Global Change Biology, May 2016, Vol.22(5), pp.1880-1889
    Description: Northern peatlands have accumulated one third of the Earth's soil carbon stock since the last Ice Age. Rapid warming across northern biomes threatens to accelerate rates of peatland ecosystem respiration. Despite compensatory increases in net primary production, greater ecosystem respiration could signal the release of ancient, century‐ to millennia‐old carbon from the peatland organic matter stock. Warming has already been shown to promote ancient peatland carbon release, but, despite the key role of vegetation in carbon dynamics, little is known about how plants influence the source of peatland ecosystem respiration. Here, we address this issue using C measurements of ecosystem respiration on an established peatland warming and vegetation manipulation experiment. Results show that warming of approximately 1 °C promotes respiration of ancient peatland carbon (up to 2100 years old) when dwarf‐shrubs or graminoids are present, an effect not observed when only bryophytes are present. We demonstrate that warming likely promotes ancient peatland carbon release its control over organic inputs from vascular plants. Our findings suggest that dwarf‐shrubs and graminoids prime microbial decomposition of previously ‘locked‐up’ organic matter from potentially deep in the peat profile, facilitating liberation of ancient carbon as CO. Furthermore, such plant‐induced peat respiration could contribute up to 40% of ecosystem CO emissions. If consistent across other subarctic and arctic ecosystems, this represents a considerable fraction of ecosystem respiration that is currently not acknowledged by global carbon cycle models. Ultimately, greater contribution of ancient carbon to ecosystem respiration may signal the loss of a previously stable peatland carbon pool, creating potential feedbacks to future climate change.
    Keywords: Climate Warming ; Dwarf‐Shrubs ; Ecosystem Respiration ; Graminoids ; Peatlands ; Priming ; Radiocarbon ; Vegetation Change
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    E-ISSN: 1365-2486
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