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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of nutrition, 01 April 2011, Vol.141(4), pp.639-44
    Description: Health-promoting effects of the Mediterranean diet have been in focus for decades, whereas less interest has been given to existing healthy dietary habits within other Western cultures. The aim of the study was to develop a food index based on traditional Nordic food items with expected health-promoting effects and relate this to all-cause mortality in a cohort of Danes. Detailed information about diet, lifestyle, and anthropometry was provided by 57,053 Danes aged 50-64 y. During 12 y of follow-up, 4126 of the cohort participants died. A healthy Nordic food index, consisting of traditional Nordic food items with expected health-promoting effects (fish, cabbages, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, and root vegetables), was extracted and associated with mortality by Cox proportional hazard models. Mortality rate ratios (MRR) with 95% CI were used to associate the index to mortality. In an adjusted model, a 1-point higher index score was associated with a significantly lower MRR for both men [0.96 (0.92-0.99)] and women [0.96 (0.92-1.00)] (P = 0.03). When the index components were evaluated separately, whole grain rye bread intake was the factor most consistently associated with lower mortality in men. In conclusion, an index based on traditional healthy Nordic foods was found to be related to lower mortality among middle-aged Danes, in particular among men. This study indicates that traditional, healthy food items should be considered before public recommendations for major dietary changes are made.
    Keywords: Feeding Behavior ; Health Promotion ; Mortality
    ISSN: 00223166
    E-ISSN: 1541-6100
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2015, Vol.10(3), p.e0120199
    Description: Few studies have investigated the association between objectively measured traffic noise and health-related quality of life. However, as traffic noise has been associated with both cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and health-issues including...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The American journal of clinical nutrition, July 2013, Vol.98(1), pp.209-16
    Description: Epidemiologic studies have suggested that a higher intake of flavonoids may be associated with lower risk of ischemic heart disease. However, the traditional estimation of flavonoid intake by using dietary assessment methods is affected by subjective measures. We examined whether the objective measurement of dietary flavonoids excreted in urine is associated with lower risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). A case-control study was nested in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study. Cases were identified in participants who had received a first-time ACS diagnosis in the Danish National Patient Registry after the time of enrollment into the Diet, Cancer and Health study. The excretion of 10 flavonoids, which represent 5 subclasses, was measured in spot urine samples by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 393 eligible cases with ACS were identified and matched to 393 noncases by using incidence density sampling. For kaempferol, most of the individual ORs were statistically significant and from 42% to 61% lower when the higher 4 quintiles were compared with the lowest quintile. The P-trend was not significant. For daidzein, individual ORs were 5-38% lower. None of the individual ORs were significant, but the P-trend was 0.041. For the remaining flavonoids, there were no significant relations between urinary excretion and risk of ACS. Except for kaempferol and daidzein, there were no significant associations between the urinary excretion of flavonoids and risk of ACS. A lack of relations may be a result of the use of short-term exposure measures.
    Keywords: Acute Coronary Syndrome -- Prevention & Control ; Flavonoids -- Administration & Dosage
    ISSN: 00029165
    E-ISSN: 1938-3207
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  • 4
    In: International Journal of Cancer, 01 June 2014, Vol.134(11), pp.2691-2698
    Description: Exposure to traffic noise may result in stress and sleep disturbances. Studies on self‐reported sleep duration and breast cancer risk have found inconsistent results. In a population‐based Danish cohort of 29,875 women aged 50–64 years at enrolment in 1993–1997, we identified 1219 incident, postmenopausal breast cancer cases during follow‐up through 2010. Mean follow‐up time was 12.3 years. Road traffic and railway noise was calculated for all present and historical residential addresses from 1987 to 2010. We used Cox proportional hazard model for analyses and adjusted for hormone replacement therapy use, parity, alcohol consumption and other potential confounders. We found no overall association between residential road traffic or railway noise and breast cancer risk. Among women with estrogen receptor negative breast cancer, a 10‐dB higher level of road traffic noise (continuous scale) during the previous 1, 5 and 10 years were associated with 28% (95% CI: 1.04–1.56), 23% (95% CI: 1.00–1.51) and 20% (95% CI: 0.97–1.48) higher risks of estrogen receptor negative breast cancer, respectively, in fully adjusted models. Similarly, a 10‐dB increase in railway noise (1‐year mean at diagnosis address) increased risk for estrogen receptor negative breast cancer by 38% (95% CI: 1.01–1.89). There was no association between road traffic or railway noise and estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. In conclusion, these results suggest that residential road traffic and railway noise may increase risk of estrogen receptor negative breast cancer. As the first study on traffic noise and breast cancer results should be treated with caution. What's new? Urbanization is linked to increased traffic noise, exposure to which is associated with stress and sleep disturbances. However, the impact of sleep duration and traffic noise exposure on breast cancer risk remains unclear. The present study suggests that residential exposure to road traffic and railway noise is associated with a dose‐dependent increase in risk for estrogen receptor negative breast cancer. Exposure to road traffic and railway noise is considerable in many parts of the world, including the European Union, where more than 30% of the population is exposed to road traffic noise at levels exceeding WHO guideline values.
    Keywords: Breast Cancer ; Cohort ; Epidemiology ; Traffic Noise
    ISSN: 0020-7136
    E-ISSN: 1097-0215
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  • 5
    In: Circulation, 2011, Vol.124(11), pp.1232-1238
    Description: BACKGROUND—: Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may reduce coronary mortality. Previous data in relation to nonfatal coronary disease, however, have been inconsistent, which may be explained by the use of heterogeneous methods to assess the intake of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. We investigated the hypothesis that the content of total and individual marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue is negatively associated with the incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), including both fatal and nonfatal coronary disease. METHODS AND RESULTS—: In the Diet, Cancer and Health, a Danish cohort study, 57 053 subjects were enrolled and had an adipose tissue biopsy taken at inclusion. During a mean follow-up period of 7.6 years, we identified and verified all cases (n=1012) with an incident acute coronary syndrome diagnosis, and a random sample of the cohort (n=1630) had their fatty acid composition in adipose tissue determined by gas chromatography. We found negative dose-response associations between the content of total marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and individual n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue and the risk of acute coronary syndrome. Comparing men in the highest and lowest quintiles gave a hazard ratio of 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.45 to 0.95) for total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and 0.51 (95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.73) for docosahexaenoic acid. Nonfatal cases constituted 〉86% of cases, and the association was driven primarily by a reduction in the risk of nonfatal acute coronary syndrome. No consistent associations were found among women. CONCLUSION—: Intake of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may protect against acute coronary syndrome in men.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology;
    ISSN: 0009-7322
    E-ISSN: 15244539
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Environmental health perspectives, January 2012, Vol.120(1), pp.105-11
    Description: Exposure to organochlorines has been examined as a potential risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), with inconsistent results that may be related to limited statistical power or to imprecise exposure measurements. Our purpose was to examine associations between organochlorine concentrations in prediagnostic adipose tissue samples and the risk of NHL. We conducted a case–cohort study using a prospective Danish cohort of 57,053 persons enrolled between 1993 and 1997. Within the cohort we identified 256 persons diagnosed with NHL in the population-based nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and randomly selected 256 subcohort persons. We measured concentrations of 8 pesticides and 10 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in adipose tissue collected upon enrollment. Associations between the 18 organochlorines and NHL were analyzed in Cox regression models, adjusting for body mass index. Incidence rate ratios and confidence intervals (CIs) for interquartile range increases in concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichlorethane (DDT), cis-nonachlor, and oxychlordane were 1.35 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.66), 1.13 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.36), and 1.11 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.38), respectively, with monotonic dose–response trends for DDT and cis-nonachlor based on categorical models. The relative risk estimates were higher for men than for women. In contrast, no clear association was found between NHL and PCBs. We found a higher risk of NHL in association with higher adipose tissue levels of DDT, cis-nonachlor, and oxychlordane, but no association with PCBs. This is the first study of organochlorines and NHL using prediagnostic adipose tissue samples in the exposure assessment and provides new environmental health evidence that these organochlorines contribute to NHL risk.
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue -- Metabolism ; Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated -- Metabolism ; Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin -- Epidemiology
    ISSN: 00916765
    E-ISSN: 1552-9924
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Health Perspectives, Feb, 2013, Vol.121(2), p.217(8)
    Keywords: Glucocorticoids ; Cardiovascular Diseases ; Diabetes Mellitus
    ISSN: 0091-6765
    E-ISSN: 15529924
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  • 8
    In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2018, Vol.50(7), pp.1413-1421
    Description: PURPOSE: Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of several noncommunicable diseases and are a growing public health issue. The primary purpose of the current study was to investigate incidence of overweight and obesity according to 5-yr cycling habits. The secondary purpose was to investigate incidence of remission from overweight and obesity according to 5-yr cycling habits. METHODS: We analyzed 9014 men and 8661 women without chronic disease who between 1993 and 2003 completed two assessments approximately 5 yr apart. At both assessments, participants reported habitual cycling habits. Also, body weight and waist circumference were measured by a laboratory technician at baseline and self-assessed at second examination. We computed multivariable adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for development of and remission from abdominal and general overweight and obesity, according to 5-yr cycling habits. RESULTS: Continued cycling was associated with lower odds for incidence of abdominal (men, 〉102 cm; women, 〉88 cm) and incidence of general (body mass index ≥30 kg·m) obesity; compared with no cycling, OR (95% CI) values were 0.82 (0.74–0.91) and 0.74 (0.60–0.92) for abdominal and general obesity, respectively. Also, those who initiated cycling had lower odds for incidence of abdominal obesity; OR (95% CI) was 0.85 (0.73–1.00) relative to no cycling. Although we found no evidence of remission from abdominal and general overweight and obesity according to 5-yr cycling habits, those who continued cycling had significantly larger decreases in waist circumference relative to noncyclists (β coefficient (95% CI), −0.95 cm (−1.56 to −0.33 cm)). CONCLUSIONS: Continued cycling compared with no cycling was associated with lower odds for abdominal and general obesity. Also, late-in-life initiation of cycling was associated with lower odds for abdominal obesity relative to no cycling.
    Keywords: Obesity -- Complications And Side Effects ; Obesity -- Diagnosis ; Public Health -- Analysis ; Cycling -- Health Aspects;
    ISSN: 0195-9131
    E-ISSN: 15300315
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of nutrition, April 2013, Vol.143(4), pp.464-72
    Description: Cancer prevention guidelines recommend limiting intake of red meat and avoiding processed meat; however, few studies have been conducted on the effects of specific red meat subtypes on colon cancer or rectal cancer risk. The study aim was to evaluate associations between intake of red meat and its subtypes, processed meat, fish, and poultry and risk for colon cancer or rectal cancer in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study. We also evaluated whether fish or poultry should replace red meat intake to prevent colon cancer or rectal cancer. During follow-up (13.4 y), 644 cases of colon cancer and 345 cases of rectal cancer occurred among 53,988 participants. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute incidence rate ratio (IRRs) and 95% CIs. No associations were found between intake of red meat, processed meat, fish, or poultry and risk for colon cancer or rectal cancer. The risk associated with specific red meat subtypes depended on the animal of origin and cancer subsite; thus, the risk for colon cancer was significantly elevated for higher intake of lamb [IRR(per 5g/d) = 1.07 (95% CI: 1.02-1.13)], whereas the risk for rectal cancer was elevated for higher intake of pork [IRR(per 25g/d) = 1.18 (95% CI: 1.02-1.36)]. Substitution of fish for red meat was associated with a significantly lower risk for colon cancer [IRR(per 25g/d) = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80-0.99)] but not rectal cancer. Substitution of poultry for red meat did not reduce either risk. This study suggests that the risks for colon cancer and potentially for rectal cancer differ according to the specific red meat subtype consumed.
    Keywords: Colonic Neoplasms -- Epidemiology ; Meat -- Adverse Effects ; Rectal Neoplasms -- Epidemiology
    ISSN: 00223166
    E-ISSN: 1541-6100
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2014, Vol. 9(7), p. e101134
    Description: Background/Objectives: Physiological evidence indicates that high-protein diets reduce caloric intake and increase thermogenic response, which may prevent weight gain and regain after weight loss. Clinical trials have shown such effects, whereas observational cohort studies suggest an association between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of studies the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This study investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals into clinical trials. Subjects/Methods: Data were available from the European Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) post-weight-loss weight-maintenance trial and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health (DCH) cohort. Participants of the DCH cohort were matched with participants from the DiOGenes trial on gender, diet, and body characteristics. Different subsets of the DCH-participants, comparable with the trial participants, were analyzed for weight maintenance according to the randomization status (high or low protein) of the matched trial participants. Results: Trial participants were generally heavier, had larger waist circumference and larger fat mass than the participants in the entire DCH cohort. A better weight maintenance in the high-protein group compared to the low protein group was observed in the subgroups of the DCH cohort matching body characteristics of the trial participants. Conclusion: This modified observational study, minimized the differences between the RCT and observational data with regard to dietary intake, participant characteristics and statistical analysis. Compared with low protein diet the high protein diet was associated with better weight maintenance when individuals with greater body mass index and waist circumference were analyzed. Selecting subsets of large-scale observational cohort studies with similar characteristics as participants in clinical trials may reconcile the otherwise conflicting results.
    Keywords: Medical And Health Sciences ; Health Sciences ; Nutrition And Dietetics ; Medicin Och Hälsovetenskap ; Hälsovetenskaper ; Näringslära
    ISSN: 1932-6203
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