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  • 1
    In: Archivalische Zeitschrift, 2011, Vol.92(1), pp.351-374
    ISSN: 0003-9497
    E-ISSN: 2194-3826
    Source: Walter de Gruyter GmbH
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  • 2
    In: Geschichte in Köln, 2013, Vol.60(1), pp.7-40
    ISSN: 0720-3659
    E-ISSN: 2198-0667
    Source: Walter de Gruyter GmbH
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  • 3
    In: Geschichte in Köln, 01/1/2016, Vol.63(1)
    ISSN: 0720-3659
    E-ISSN: 2198-0667
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2014, Vol.9(9), p.e106244
    Description: Neolithic and Bronze Age topsoil relicts revealed enhanced extractable phosphorus (P) and plant available inorganic P fractions, thus raising the question whether there was targeted soil amelioration in prehistoric times. This study aimed (i) at assessing the overall nutrient status and the...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
  • 6
  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, February 2013, Vol.57, pp.1003-1022
    Description: In arable farming systems, the term ‘subsoil’ refers to the soil beneath the tilled or formerly tilled soil horizon whereas the latter one is denoted as ‘topsoil’. To date, most agronomic and plant nutrition studies have widely neglected subsoil processes involved in nutrient acquisition by crop roots. Based on our current knowledge it can be assumed that subsoil properties such as comparatively high bulk density, low air permeability, and poverty of organic matter, nutrients and microbial biomass are obviously adverse for nutrient acquisition, and sometimes subsoils provide as little as less than 10% of annual nutrient uptake in fertilised arable fields. Nevertheless, there is also strong evidence indicating that subsoil can contribute to more than two-thirds of the plant nutrition of N, P and K, especially when the topsoil is dry or nutrient-depleted. Based on the existing literature, nutrient acquisition from arable subsoils may be conceptualised into three major process components: (I) mobilisation from the subsoil, (II) translocation to the shoot and long-term accumulation in the Ap horizon and (III) re-allocation to the subsoil. The quantitative estimation of nutrient acquisition from the subsoil requires the linking of field experiments with mathematical modelling approaches on different spatial scales including Process Based Models for the field scale and Functional–Structural Plant Models for the plant scale. Possibilities to modify subsoil properties by means of agronomic management are limited, but ‘subsoiling’ – i.e. deep mechanical loosening – as well as the promotion of biopore formation are two potential strategies for increasing access to subsoil resources for crop roots in arable soils. The quantitative role of biopores in the nutrient acquisition from the subsoil is still unclear, and more research is needed to determine the bioaccessibility of nutrients in subsoil horizons. ► Subsoil is relevant for nutrient acquisition by plants especially in the long term. ► Biopores in the subsoil can be hot spots for nutrient acquisition. ► A conceptual model of nutrient acquisition from the subsoil is presented.
    Keywords: Structure Dynamics ; Biopore Formation ; Root Growth ; Drilosphere ; Rhizodeposition ; Microbial Activity ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Soil biology & biochemistry, 2013, Vol.57, pp.1003-1022
    Description: In arable farming systems, the term ‘subsoil’ refers to the soil beneath the tilled or formerly tilled soil horizon whereas the latter one is denoted as ‘topsoil’. To date, most agronomic and plant nutrition studies have widely neglected subsoil processes involved in nutrient acquisition by crop roots. Based on our current knowledge it can be assumed that subsoil properties such as comparatively high bulk density, low air permeability, and poverty of organic matter, nutrients and microbial biomass are obviously adverse for nutrient acquisition, and sometimes subsoils provide as little as less than 10% of annual nutrient uptake in fertilised arable fields. Nevertheless, there is also strong evidence indicating that subsoil can contribute to more than two-thirds of the plant nutrition of N, P and K, especially when the topsoil is dry or nutrient-depleted. Based on the existing literature, nutrient acquisition from arable subsoils may be conceptualised into three major process components: (I) mobilisation from the subsoil, (II) translocation to the shoot and long-term accumulation in the Ap horizon and (III) re-allocation to the subsoil. The quantitative estimation of nutrient acquisition from the subsoil requires the linking of field experiments with mathematical modelling approaches on different spatial scales including Process Based Models for the field scale and Functional–Structural Plant Models for the plant scale. Possibilities to modify subsoil properties by means of agronomic management are limited, but ‘subsoiling’ – i.e. deep mechanical loosening – as well as the promotion of biopore formation are two potential strategies for increasing access to subsoil resources for crop roots in arable soils. The quantitative role of biopores in the nutrient acquisition from the subsoil is still unclear, and more research is needed to determine the bioaccessibility of nutrients in subsoil horizons. ; p. 1003-1022.
    Keywords: Topsoil ; Bulk Density ; Roots ; Bioavailability ; Mathematical Models ; Field Experimentation ; Microbial Biomass ; Organic Matter ; Farming Systems ; Subsoiling ; Nutrients ; Poverty ; Nutrient Uptake ; Shoots ; Air ; Arable Soils ; Permeability ; Plant Nutrition
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, December 2013, Vol.176(6), pp.910-920
    Description: Declining global P reserves require a better understanding of P cycling in soil and related plant uptake. On managed grasslands, application of lime and fertilizer affects not only soil nutrient status, but also plant‐species composition of the sward. We examined the P fractionation in the Rengen Grassland Experiment (RGE) on a naturally acid Stagnic Cambisol in the Eifel Mts. (Germany) 69 y after the setup of the experiment. A modified sequential Hedley fractionation was carried out for samples from 30 plots at 0–10 cm depth. Application of inorganic phosphorus fertilizer had diverse effects on inorganic (P) and organic P (P) fractions. Resin‐P, NaHCO‐P, NaHCO‐P, NaOH‐P, HCl‐P, HCl‐P, and HCl‐P contents increased, while NaOH‐P significantly decreased and residual‐P remained unaffected. Strongest enrichment occurred in the HCl‐P fraction, probably due to the chemical nature of the basic Thomas slag applied as P fertilizer. Without P fertilization, all fractions except residual‐P were more or less depleted. Strong P limitation of the vegetation in the limed treatments without P led to lowered contents also for NaOH‐P and NaOH‐P. However, NaOH‐P was largest in the Control and even exceeded the respective content in the treatments with P. It remained unclear why species adapted to a low soil P status did not access this P fraction though being P‐limited. Published theory on the availability of Hedley P fractions does neither match P exploitation nor P nutritional status of the vegetation in the RGE. Regarding NaOH‐P as stable and HCl‐P as moderately labile led to a more realistic evaluation of plant P uptake. Evaluation of P availability on the basis of chemical extractions alone is questionable for conditions like in the RGE. On long‐term grassland, plant‐species composition has to be taken into account to estimate access of plants to soil P.
    Keywords: Long‐Term Experiment ; Hedley Sequential Fractionation ; P Balance ; P Exploitation ; Plant‐Available P ; Nutrient Deficiency ; Thomas Slag
    ISSN: 1436-8730
    E-ISSN: 1522-2624
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, April 2012, Vol.175-176, pp.21-28
    Description: A detailed knowledge on the heterogeneity of the soil organic carbon (SOC) content in agricultural soils is required to support applications such as precision agriculture and soil C monitoring. Imaging spectroscopy in the visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) region has proven to be highly sensitive to organic soil components and can efficiently provide data with high spatial resolution. The objectives of our study were (i) to test the suitability of airborne hyperspectral imaging for the characterisation of the spatial heterogeneity of the SOC content at the field-scale, (ii) to investigate the impact of various soil surface conditions (roughness, vegetation) on SOC prediction and (iii) to produce SOC maps for arable fields on a pixel-wise basis. The soil reflectance was recorded by the aircraft-mounted hyperspectral sensor HyMap (450–2500 nm) on test sites with the following varying soil surface conditions: bare soil, fine seed-bed; ploughed, bare soil; volunteer crops; straw residues. A partial least squares regression (PLSR) was performed for data analysis. Our results reveal an accurate prediction of the SOC content at a comparatively small concentration range (8.3 to 18.5 g SOC kg ) on long-term uniformly cultivated fields. Site-specific characteristics influenced the calibration models; highest prediction accuracy was performed over a bare, fine soil (RMSEP = 0.76 g SOC kg ; RPD = 2.08). A generated pixel-wise map (8 m × 8 m) allows the detection of small-scale spatial variability of SOC content and comparatively more realistic than an interpolated map. Thus, airborne hyperspectral imaging constitutes a substantial progress compared to point observations and facilitates well-directed applications in precision agriculture. ► Soil organic carbon (SOC) is heterogeneously distributed within agricultural fields. ► Accurate SOC prediction was done with airborne hyperspectral imaging at field-scale. ► A pixel-wise map of SOC content is more realistic than an interpolated map. ► Imaging spectroscopy is a useful tool for precision agriculture and soil C monitoring.
    Keywords: Imaging Spectroscopy ; Spatial Variability ; Near-Infrared (Nir) Spectroscopy ; Partial Least Squares Regression ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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