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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    In: Journal of Neurosurgery, 04/2012, Vol.116(4), pp.799-800
    Keywords: Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted ; Imaging, Three-Dimensional ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging ; Tumor Burden ; Neuroma, Acoustic -- Pathology;
    ISSN: 0022-3085
    E-ISSN: 1933-0693
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, May 1, 2012, Vol.109(18), p.6963(6)
    Description: Astrocytes are the most abundant cell of the CNS and demonstrate contact inhibition in which a nonproliferative, nonmotile cellular state is achieved once stable intercellular contacts are formed between mature cells. Cellular injury disrupts these intercellular contacts, causing a loss of contact inhibition and the rapid initiation of healing. Dysregulation of the molecular pathways involved in this process is thought to lead to an aggressive cellular state associated with neoplasia. We investigated whether a comparable correlation exists between the response of astrocytes to injury and the malignant phenotype of astrocytomas. We discovered that the loss of contact inhibition plays a critical role in the initiation and regulation of reactive astrocytes in the healing of wounds. In particular, injury of the astrocytes interrupts and destabilizes the cadherin-catenin complexes at the cell membrane leading to nuclear translocation of beta -catenin and characteristic changes associated with the activation of astrocytes. Similar signaling pathways are found to be active-but dysregulated-in astrocytomas. Inhibition of beta -catenin signaling diminished both the response of astrocytes to injury and induction of the malignant phenotype of astrocytomas. The findings shed light on a unique mechanism associated with the pathogenesis of astrocytomas and provide a model for the loss of contact inhibition that may broadly apply to understanding the mechanisms of tissue repair and tumorigenesis in the brain.
    Keywords: Astrocytes -- Physiological Aspects ; Astrocytes -- Health Aspects ; Astrocytomas -- Physiological Aspects ; Astrocytomas -- Development And Progression ; Proteins -- Physiological Aspects ; Proteins -- Health Aspects ; Pathological Physiology -- Research
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Research, 07/01/2017, Vol.77(13 Supplement), pp.2128-2128
    ISSN: 0008-5472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: 2012, Vol.7(12), p.e51630
    Description: The adult hippocampus is involved in learning and memory. As a consequence, it is a brain region of remarkable plasticity. This plasticity exhibits itself both as cellular changes and neurogenesis. For neurogenesis to occur, a population of local stem cells and progenitor cells is maintained in the adult brain and these are able to proliferate and differentiate into neurons which contribute to the hippocampal circuitry. There is much interest in understanding the role of immature cells in the hippocampus, in relation to learning and memory. Methods and mechanisms that increase the numbers of these cells will be valuable in this research field. We show here that single injections of soluble factors into the lateral ventricle of adult rats and mice induces the rapid (within one week) increase in the number of putative stem cells/progenitor cells in the hippocampus. The established progenitor marker Sox2 together with the more recently established marker Hes3, were used to quantify the manipulation of the Sox2/Hes3 double-positive cell population. We report that in both adult rodent species, Sox2+/Hes3+ cell numbers can be increased within one week. The most prominent increase was observed in the hilus of the dentate gyrus. This study presents a fast, pharmacological method to manipulate the numbers of endogenous putative stem cells/progenitor cells. This method may be easily modified to alter the degree of activation (e.g. by the use of osmotic pumps for delivery, or by repeat injections through implanted cannulas), in order to be best adapted to different paradigms of research (neurodegenerative disease, neuroprotection, learning, memory, plasticity, etc).
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Cell Biology ; Neuroscience ; Developmental Biology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Research, 07/01/2017, Vol.77(13 Supplement), pp.3962-3962
    ISSN: 0008-5472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 6
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Journal of neurosurgery, April 2012, Vol.116(4), pp.799-800; discussion 800
    Keywords: Disease Models, Animal ; Neoplasm Transplantation ; Transplantation, Heterologous ; Chordoma -- Pathology ; Spinal Cord Neoplasms -- Pathology
    ISSN: 00223085
    E-ISSN: 1933-0693
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 7
    In: PLoS ONE, 2013, Vol.8(11)
    Description: Background Craniopharyngiomas (CP) are locally invasive and frequently recurring neoplasms often resulting in neurological and endocrinological dysfunction in children. In addition, social-behavioral impairment is commonly reported following treatment for childhood CP, yet remains to be fully understood. The authors aimed to further characterize the prevalence of neurobehavioral, social, and emotional dysfunction in survivors of childhood craniopharyngiomas. Materials and Methods A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed to identify studies formally assessing neurobehavioral, social, and emotional outcomes in patients treated for CP prior to 18 years of age. Studies published between the years 1990-2012 that reported the primary outcome (prevalence of neurobehavioral, social, emotional/affective dysfunction, and/or impaired quality of life (QoL)) in ≥10 patients were included. Results Of the 471 studies screened, 11 met inclusion criteria. Overall neurobehavioral dysfunction was reported in 51 of 90 patients (57%) with available data. Social impairment (i.e. withdrawal, internalizing behavior) was reported in 91 of 222 cases (41%). School dysfunction was reported in 48 of 136 patients (35%). Emotional/affective dysfunction was reported in 58 of 146 patients (40%), primarily consisting of depressive symptoms. Health related quality of life was affected in 49 of 95 patients (52%). Common descriptors of behavior in affected children included irritability, impulsivity, aggressiveness, and emotional outbursts. Conclusions Neurobehavioral, social, and emotional impairment is highly prevalent in survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma, and often affects quality of life. Thorough neurobehavioral/emotional screening and appropriate counseling is recommended in this population. Additional research is warranted to identify risk factors and treatment strategies for these disorders.
    Keywords: Research Article
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 01 May 2012, Vol.109(18), pp.6963-8
    Description: Astrocytes are the most abundant cell of the CNS and demonstrate contact inhibition in which a nonproliferative, nonmotile cellular state is achieved once stable intercellular contacts are formed between mature cells. Cellular injury disrupts these intercellular contacts, causing a loss of contact inhibition and the rapid initiation of healing. Dysregulation of the molecular pathways involved in this process is thought to lead to an aggressive cellular state associated with neoplasia. We investigated whether a comparable correlation exists between the response of astrocytes to injury and the malignant phenotype of astrocytomas. We discovered that the loss of contact inhibition plays a critical role in the initiation and regulation of reactive astrocytes in the healing of wounds. In particular, injury of the astrocytes interrupts and destabilizes the cadherin-catenin complexes at the cell membrane leading to nuclear translocation of β-catenin and characteristic changes associated with the activation of astrocytes. Similar signaling pathways are found to be active--but dysregulated--in astrocytomas. Inhibition of β-catenin signaling diminished both the response of astrocytes to injury and induction of the malignant phenotype of astrocytomas. The findings shed light on a unique mechanism associated with the pathogenesis of astrocytomas and provide a model for the loss of contact inhibition that may broadly apply to understanding the mechanisms of tissue repair and tumorigenesis in the brain.
    Keywords: Astrocytes -- Metabolism ; Astrocytoma -- Etiology ; Beta Catenin -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Research, 07/01/2017, Vol.77(13 Supplement), pp.3998-3998
    ISSN: 0008-5472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Research, 07/01/2017, Vol.77(13 Supplement), pp.569-569
    ISSN: 0008-5472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
    Source: CrossRef
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