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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: 신학과 실천, 30 November 2012, Vol.33, pp.227-257
    Description: The cultural diverse in Korean society has impacted many social communities including Korean Christianity. Particularly in this postmodern ear, cultural trend and influence play a significant role to reform a content and frame of those communities. In this stream, the Korean Protestant churches started to pay attention to new worship patterns including praise and worship, seeker's service, and emerging worship, etc. However, before approaching those new trends, the Korean Protestant Church is genuinely asked who we are as a Korean. This paper tries to demonstrate an answer for the question not only from liturgical understanding but also from pastoral aspect. The Korean Protestant Church is asked “self-reformation.” The Korean Protestant Church is urgently claiming its openness toward Christian’s and non-Christian’s living context and culture. Thus, in this paper, I examine the current situation of the Korean Protestant Church in terms of a process of to-chak-wha (indigenization/inculturation), and look for an adequate possibility of to-chak-wha for the Korean Protestant Church. I describe several terminologies regarding of encountering local culture and Christian faith, such as adaptation, indigenization, contextulization, incarnation, and inculturation. Furthermore, I present the current address of Korean Church in terms of inculturation and look for the future possibility for the inculturated Korean Church; the ancestoral worship and church music. Ancestor worship has embraced a beautiful Korean tradition. Because Korean Protestant church observes Chu-do-sik to be in memory of the ancestors, I believe that a Korean Protestant church also, like a Korean Catholic Church, provides a Christian liturgy. Instead of a Confucian one, the Korean Protestant church should present a liturgy in terms which Christians can make ancestor worship into a Christian family worship together with ancestral souls. The church music needs to rediscover its criteria based on the context of Korean worship community. It is not right to treat Korean traditional music as simply a part of the products of pagan culture, but the heritage in which emotion of Koreaness is evoked. Rather by rediscovering the value and function of Korean traditional music in Christian culture, the Korean church can provide various and rich worship service in which Korean people constantly experience encounter with God. It is inculturation. I strongly believe that Jesus was the one who had a strong desire to inculturate the Gospel.
    Keywords: Inculturation ; Indigenization ; Culture ; Ancestoral Worship ; Memorial Service
    ISSN: 1229-7917
    Source: e-article (학술교육원 (HakSulgyoyukwon))
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(6), p.e39921
    Description: The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A virus (IAV) enables the virus to disarm the host cell type 1 IFN defense system. Mutation or deletion of the NS1 gene leads to attenuation of the virus and enhances host antiviral response making such live-attenuated influenza viruses attractive vaccine candidates. Sublingual (SL) immunization with live influenza virus has been found to be safe and effective for inducing protective immune responses in mucosal and systemic compartments. Here we demonstrate that SL immunization with NS1 deleted IAV (DeltaNS1 H1N1 or DeltaNS1 H5N1) induced protection against challenge with homologous as well as heterosubtypic influenza viruses. Protection was comparable with that induced by intranasal (IN) immunization and was associated with high levels of virus-specific antibodies (Abs). SL immunization with DeltaNS1 virus induced broad Ab responses in mucosal and systemic compartments and stimulated immune cells in mucosa-associated and systemic lymphoid organs. Thus, SL immunization with DeltaNS1 offers a novel potential vaccination strategy for the control of influenza outbreaks including pandemics.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Immunology ; Virology ; Infectious Diseases ; Microbiology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    In: Theology and Praxis, 07/30/2015, Vol.45(0), pp.47-74
    ISSN: 12297917
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: 신학과 실천, 30 July 2015, Vol.45, pp.47-74
    Description: The veneration of the saints is related to the cult of the dead. It initially took the form of praise and imitation of the deceased holy one, and involved as well, gatherings of celebration and prayer at the place of burial. The cult of the saints began in the early church with the commemoration(memoria) of the victims of persecution. So the primitive Christians linked witness to the centrality of the cross in which human was able to partake the passion of Christ. Already at the death of the first martyr in the New Testament, Stephen, the martyr’s prayer for his persecutors echoes the prayer of Jesus on the cross for those who knew not what they were about. In the primitive believers had a strong conviction that saints could intercede with Christ for them. In the ancient world, in which Christianity began, tombs were places of contact between humans and the gods. The tomb represented a home for the dead, a place to be visited by survivors. Libations were poured out upon the tomb, and funerary feasts (refrigerium) were celebrated near it, especially on the birthday of the deceased. Among the Jews it was customary to give special honor to the tombs of the patriarchs; among the pagans, to the tombs of dead heroes. In like manner, the early Christians held the tomb to be the privileged place of the saint. And like the Greek hero, the saint was considered to be an intercessor who functioned as an intermediary between this world and the next. The Korean Protestant Churches, however, strongly resist to bring the cult of the saints in their sanctoral cycle. Why not? The cult of saints, on behalf of perspective of the Korean Protestant churches, seems to be involved with the issue of ancestor worship which causes significant conflicts between Korean Catholic Church and Protestant Church, and even among non-believers. The first thing the Korean pastors and scholars discussed was idolatry which for Christians has been the main obstacle to the practice of ancestor worship. In terms of the Judeo-Christian perspective and belief, ancestor worship or idol worship is contrary to the first and second commandments of God. Because the Korean Christians believe in monotheism, they cannot accept the idol worship. Ancestor worship is a part of cultural heritage that is a precious gift of God to the Korean people. However, as a Korean Protestant Christian, it is not easy to say that traditional way of observing ancestor worship can be an acceptable and applicable practice from a Korean Christian perspective. As an inculturated practice of veneration of the saint, the Korean Protestant Church employed its own way of observing veneration of the ancestors, named Chumo-Shik.
    Keywords: All Saints Service ; Chumo-Shik ; Inculturation ; Liturgy for the Dead ; Veneration
    ISSN: 1229-7917
    Source: e-article (학술교육원 (HakSulgyoyukwon))
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  • 5
    In: Theology and praxis, 07/30/2014, Vol.40(0), pp.27-50
    ISSN: 12297917
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Theology and the World, 03/31/2016, Vol.85, p.9
    ISSN: 1598-8848
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: 신학과 실천, 30 July 2014, Vol.40, pp.27-50
    Description: Based on these different understandings of death, Korean funeral has been developed as a combined one. In a Korean Christian funeral, it is not hard to find other religious and cultural elements. From the beginning, it is not easy to articulate how the Korean Protestant Church comprehends funeral rites. There is very little information about this topic, and materials about funeral practices and rites in the Korean Protestant Church. Liturgically and systematically, the Korean Protestant church neither examined theoretically nor engaged in research regarding the funeral practices and rites. Directly speaking, it seems to me that the Korean Protestant Church does not even articulate a basic outline of its funeral services. In general, a Korean Protestant church is based on evangelical and reformation tradition. In the worship book of the main Korean Protestant Churches, Korean traditional elements are easily found in their service orders for funerals. However, a Korean Protestant church has not yet articulated why these elements are deeply practiced in the worship service nor how the Korean Protestant Church understands these traditional elements that are prohibited in the name of pagan culture. Therefore, I do not think that the Korean Protestant church has successfully adapted Korean traditional cultures into the worship services for the dead in the Korean Protestant churches. Without recognizing what the traditional and cultural elements are and what they mean, the Korean Protestant church just accepts the funeral services in its worship book according to its denomination. In the Korean Protestant church, the funeral services mostly consist of a concept of logos. From the beginning of the service to the end of it, the written statements are constantly repeated as prayers, hymns, scripture readings, and the sermons by the pastor. There is only one communication channel that glides away from the pastor to the participants in the service. There is no bodily movement. It is not inclusively allowing the participants to involve in the funeral service but just passively sitting on the chair. The Korean Protestant church deleted all the liturgies in traditional funeral practice, but snatched some of meanings from the traditional funeral practice and reformed it in the church worship setting.
    Keywords: Death ; Funeral ; Filial Piety ; Ritual ; Ancestor Worship
    ISSN: 1229-7917
    Source: e-article (학술교육원 (HakSulgyoyukwon))
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  • 8
    In: Études de Langue et Littérature Françaises, 06/15/2018, Vol.114, pp.133-173
    Description: Cet article a pour but d’analyser les allégories politiques des Vaincus, oeuvre poétique non publiée de Verlaine. Les poèmes de cette oeuvre sont dispersés dans le recueil Jadis et Naguère (1884) ou en divers endroits dans la Pléiade, et ils...
    Keywords: 프랑스어와문학;
    ISSN: 12264350
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Korean Dance, 03/2016, Vol.34(1), pp.79-103
    ISSN: 1975-8502
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Power Sources, Feb 15, 2014, Vol.248, p.1156(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.10.055 Byline: Ju Hae Jung, Hyang Jin Park, Junbom Kim, Seung Hyun Hur Abstract: We report a highly durable hybrid catalyst composed of Pt/graphene oxide (GO) and Pt/C catalyst for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The accelerated durability tests in half-cell and full cell systems shows that the addition of small amount of Pt/GO catalyst significantly enhances the durability of commercial Pt/C catalyst without sacrificing initial electrochemical active surface area (ECSA). The XRD and TEM analysis reveal that the GO not only exhibits the high resistance to Pt agglomeration but also prevents the Pt agglomeration in Pt/C catalyst by providing the anchoring sites of eluted metal ions. We believe that this simple and effective approach can open a new way to fabricate highly durable electrocatalyst for the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles. Author Affiliation: School of Chemical Engineering, University of Ulsan, Daehak-ro 93, Nam-gu, Ulsan 680-749, Republic of Korea Article History: Received 26 August 2013; Revised 10 October 2013; Accepted 14 October 2013
    Keywords: Polymers -- Analysis ; Polymer Industry -- Analysis ; Fuel Cell Industry -- Analysis ; Fuel Cells -- Analysis ; Electrolytes -- Analysis ; Fuel Cell Vehicles -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0378-7753
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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