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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: FOCUS, 10/2018, Vol.16(4), pp.5s-5s
    ISSN: 1541-4094
    E-ISSN: 1541-4108
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Psychiatry, 2015, Vol.172(2), p.139(15)
    Description: Objective: The authors sought to demonstrate that schizophrenia is a heterogeneous group of heritable disorders caused by different genotypic networks that cause distinct clinical syndromes. Method: In a large genome-wide association study of cases with schizophrenia and controls, the authors first identified sets of interacting single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that cluster within particular individuals (SNP sets) regardless of clinical status. Second, they examined the risk of schizophrenia for each SNP set and tested replicability in two independent samples. Third, they identified genotypic networks composed of SNP sets sharing SNPs or subjects. Fourth, they identified sets of distinct clinical features that cluster in particular cases (phenotypic sets or clinical syndromes) without regard for their genetic background. Fifth, they tested whether SNP sets were associated with distinct phenotypic sets in a replicable manner across the three studies. Results: The authors identified 42 SNP sets associated with a 70% or greater risk of schizophrenia, and confirmed 34 (81%) or more with similar high risk of schizophrenia in two independent samples. Seventeen networks of SNP sets did not share any SNP or subject. These disjoint genotypic networks were associated with distinct gene products and clinical syndromes (i.e., the schizophrenias) varying in symptoms and severity. Associations between genotypic networks and clinical syndromes were complex, showing multifinality and equifinality. The interactive networks explained the risk of schizophrenia more than the average effects of all SNPs (24%). Conclusions: Schizophrenia is a group of heritable disorders caused by a moderate number of separate genotypic networks associated with several distinct clinical syndromes. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.14040455
    Keywords: Schizophrenia – Genetic Aspects ; Genome-Wide Association Studies – Methods ; Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms – Identification and Classification
    ISSN: 0002-953X
    ISSN: 13674811
    E-ISSN: 13674811
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Academic Psychiatry, 2011, Vol.35(4), pp.241-244
    Description: Objective: Residency programs compete for applicants and commit extensive resources to the recruitment process. After failing to fill in the match for 5 years (1999-2004), this program decided to make changes in its recruitment process. The authors describe one program's experience in improving recruitment outcomes. Methods: The new training director surveyed other program directors, reviewed medical student feedback, and evaluated previous recruitment processes, developing and implementing a new plan. Tracked outcome measures included USMLE scores, COMLEX scores, match results, and American graduate ratios. Results: After implementation of the new process in 2004-2005, the program has filled all six positions every year. Average median COMLEX 1 and 2 scores increased from 35.0 to 77.5 (p less than 0.012). The American graduate-to-International medical graduate ratio (AMG/IMG ratio) for the program changed from 7/16 in 1999 to 19/5 for Years 2006-2009. Conclusion: Changes in the recruitment process can favorably alter match outcomes.
    Keywords: Medical Student ; Academic Psychiatry ; Recruitment Process ; Psychiatry Clerkship ; Core Rotation
    ISSN: 1042-9670
    E-ISSN: 1545-7230
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Archives of General Psychiatry, June, 2013, Vol.70(6), p.573(9)
    Keywords: Schizophrenia -- Genetic Aspects ; Schizophrenia -- Drug Therapy ; Genetic Susceptibility -- Research ; Dna Replication -- Research
    ISSN: 0003-990X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Biological Psychiatry, 15 November 2017, Vol.82(10), pp.709-715
    Description: There are high levels of comorbidity between schizophrenia and substance use disorder, but little is known about the genetic etiology of this comorbidity. We tested the hypothesis that shared genetic liability contributes to the high rates of comorbidity between schizophrenia and substance use disorder. To do this, polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia derived from a large meta-analysis by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium were computed in three substance use disorder datasets: the Collaborative Genetic Study of Nicotine Dependence (ascertained for tobacco use disorder;  = 918 cases; 988 control subjects), the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (ascertained for alcohol use disorder;  = 643 cases; 384 control subjects), and the Family Study of Cocaine Dependence (ascertained for cocaine use disorder;  = 210 cases; 317 control subjects). Phenotypes were harmonized across the three datasets and standardized analyses were performed. Genome-wide genotypes were imputed to the 1000 Genomes reference panel. In each individual dataset and in the mega-analysis, strong associations were observed between any substance use disorder diagnosis and the polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (mega-analysis pseudo- range 0.8–3.7%; minimum  = 4 × 10 ). These results suggest that comorbidity between schizophrenia and substance use disorder is partially attributable to shared polygenic liability. This shared liability is most consistent with a general risk for substance use disorder rather than specific risks for individual substance use disorders and adds to increasing evidence of a blurred boundary between schizophrenia and substance use disorder.
    Keywords: Genetics ; Polygenic Risk Score ; Schizophrenia ; Substance Dependence ; Substance Use Disorder ; Medicine ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0006-3223
    E-ISSN: 1873-2402
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Schizophrenia Research, April 2018, Vol.194, pp.86-90
    Description: Nicotine dependence is highly comorbid with schizophrenia, and the etiology of the comorbidity is unknown. To determine whether there is a genetic correlation of smoking behavior with schizophrenia, genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis results from five smoking phenotypes (ever/never smoker (N = 74,035), age of onset of smoking (N = 28,647), cigarettes smoked per day (CPD, N = 38,860), nicotine dependence (N = 10,666), and current/former smoker (N = 40,562)) were compared to GWAS meta-analysis results from schizophrenia (N = 79,845) using linkage disequilibrium (LD) score regression. First, the SNP heritability ( ) of each of the smoking phenotypes was computed using LD score regression (ever/never smoker = 0.08, age of onset of smoking = 0.06, CPD = 0.06, nicotine dependence = 0.15, current/former smoker = 0.07, p 〈 0.001 for all phenotypes). The SNP heritability for nicotine dependence was statistically higher than the SNP heritability for the other smoking phenotypes (p 〈 0.0005 for all two-way comparisons). Next, a statistically significant (p 〈 0.05) genetic correlation was observed between schizophrenia and three of the five smoking phenotypes (nicotine dependence = 0.14, CPD = 0.12, and ever/never smoking = 0.10). These results suggest that there is a component of common genetic variation that is shared between smoking behaviors and schizophrenia.
    Keywords: Genetic Correlation ; Schizophrenia ; Nicotine Dependence
    ISSN: 0920-9964
    E-ISSN: 1573-2509
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: FOCUS, 01/2010, Vol.8(3), pp.305-305
    ISSN: 1541-4094
    E-ISSN: 1541-4108
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: FOCUS, 10/2017, Vol.15(4), pp.8s-8s
    ISSN: 1541-4094
    E-ISSN: 1541-4108
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: FOCUS, 04/2015, Vol.13(2), pp.129-141
    Description: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been given increased attention in DSM-5, receiving its own chapter. In this article, the authors discuss changes to the diagnostic criteria and symptoms differentiating OCD from other disorders. Two new specifiers, which have relevance in regard to treatment selection, appear in DSM-5: level of insight and presence of tic disorder. The epidemiology of OCD remains under investigation and may be modified based on the new DSM-5 criteria. Current data regarding age of onset and social and occupational functioning of patients with OCD are presented. The structural and functional neuroanatomy of OCD has been an area of increased research attention, and the authors summarize the research in this area. Treatment of OCD remains difficult, involving a combination of pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavorial therapy, with a large percentage of nonresponders to initial treatment. The authors review pharmacotherapy recommendations from the APA practice guidelines and discuss evidence for pharmaceutical options. Surgical treatment is a promising option, and the authors review evidence for various procedures.
    ISSN: 1541-4094
    E-ISSN: 1541-4108
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, November 2011, Vol.111(11), pp.610-4
    Description: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a clinically important neuropsychiatric developmental disorder that affects children, adolescents, and adults. The disorder is characterized by core symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, distractibility, impulsivity, and impaired executive functioning. It is estimated that 2% to 5% of the adult population in the United States has ADHD. Adults with ADHD are at an increased risk for experiencing comorbid psychiatric disorders, including mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders. The authors provide a brief clinical overview of ADHD and the treatment of adults with this disorder.
    Keywords: Attention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity -- Therapy ; Behavior Therapy -- Methods ; Psychotropic Drugs -- Therapeutic Use
    ISSN: 00986151
    E-ISSN: 1945-1997
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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