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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 26 January 2010, Vol.107(4), pp.1333-7
    Description: When will least developed countries be most vulnerable to climate change, given the influence of projected socio-economic development? The question is important, not least because current levels of international assistance to support adaptation lag more than an order of magnitude below what analysts estimate to be needed, and scaling up support could take many years. In this paper, we examine this question using an empirically derived model of human losses to climate-related extreme events, as an indicator of vulnerability and the need for adaptation assistance. We develop a set of 50-year scenarios for these losses in one country, Mozambique, using high-resolution climate projections, and then extend the results to a sample of 23 least-developed countries. Our approach takes into account both potential changes in countries' exposure to climatic extreme events, and socio-economic development trends that influence countries' own adaptive capacities. Our results suggest that the effects of socio-economic development trends may begin to offset rising climate exposure in the second quarter of the century, and that it is in the period between now and then that vulnerability will rise most quickly. This implies an urgency to the need for international assistance to finance adaptation.
    Keywords: Global Warming ; Developed Countries -- Economics
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Climatic Change, Nov, 2013, Vol.121(1), p.93(10)
    Description: Byline: Anthony Patt (1,2), Stefan Pfenninger (1,3), Johan Lilliestam (1,4) Abstract: This paper reviews the potential vulnerability of solar energy systems to future extreme event risks as a consequence of climate change. We describe the three main technologies likely to be used to harness sunlight--thermal heating, photovoltaic (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP)--and identify critical climate vulnerabilities for each one. We then compare these vulnerabilities with assessments of future changes in mean conditions and extreme event risk levels. We do not identify any vulnerabilities severe enough to halt development of any of the technologies mentioned, although we do find a potential value in exploring options for making PV cells more heat-resilient and for improving the design of cooling systems for CSP. Author Affiliation: (1) International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria (2) ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland (3) Imperial College London, London, UK (4) Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 22/08/2013 Received Date: 07/08/2013 Accepted Date: 19/08/2013 Online Date: 07/09/2013 Article note: This article is part of the Special Issue on "Climate Change, Extremes, and Energy Systems".
    Keywords: Green Technology ; Solar Energy ; Infrastructure (Economics) ; Global Temperature Changes
    ISSN: 0165-0009
    E-ISSN: 15731480
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Clinical Psychology, February 2010, Vol.66(2), pp.164-174
    Description: This article describes and illustrates the ongoing development of a treatment for working with families and friends of drug users using harm reduction principles. The author was instrumental in applying harm reduction principles to substance abuse and has used these same principles to help families deal with the pessimism, pain, and grief that accompany their relationship to a person with an active substance abuse problem. The treatment involves learning decision‐making processes based on both self‐care and love for the substance abuser and is based on the values of harm reduction, caring, and incrementalism, rather than those of codependency, tough love, and abrupt behavior change. A long‐term family therapy group and two family consultations illustrate the treatment and its applications. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol: In Session 66: 1–11, 2010.
    Keywords: Harm Reduction ; Harm Reduction Therapy ; Harm Reduction Family Support
    ISSN: 0021-9762
    E-ISSN: 1097-4679
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Nature, May 2018, Vol.557(7705), pp.299-301
    Description: [...]environments with unclear or inchoate norms can depress the performance and progress of students in marginalized groups, further perpetuating notions ofwho qualifies as 'brilliant' Interventions designed to address disparities in science focus largely on changing individual attitudes1. [...]ambiguity...
    Keywords: Lab Life ; Research Management ; Mentoring -- Methods ; Prejudice -- Prevention & Control ; Research Personnel -- Education ; Science -- Education
    ISSN: 00280836
    E-ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 5
    In: PLoS ONE, 2015, Vol.10(6)
    Description: In alpine regions cows are often equipped with bells. The present study investigated the impact of wearing a bell on behaviour and heart rate variability in dairy cows. Nineteen non-lactating Brown-Swiss cows with bell experience were assigned to three different treatments. For 3 days each, cows were equipped with no bell (control), with a bell with inactivated clapper (silent bell) or with a functional bell (functional bell). The bells weighed 5.5 kg and had frequencies between 532 Hz and 2.8 kHz and amplitudes between 90 and 113 dB at a distance of 20 cm. Data were collected on either the first and third or on all 3 days of each treatment. Whereas duration of rumination was reduced with a functional bell and a silent bell compared with no bell, feeding duration was reduced with a silent bell and was intermediate with a functional bell. Head movements were reduced when wearing a silent bell compared with no bell and tended to be reduced when wearing a functional compared to no bell. With a functional bell, lying duration was reduced by almost 4 hours on the third day of treatment compared with the first day with a functional bell and compared with no bell or a silent bell. All additional behavioural measures are consistent with the hypothesis of a restriction in the behaviour of the cows wearing bells, although this pattern did not reach significance. There was no treatment effect on heart rate variability, suggesting that the bells did not affect vago-sympathetic balance. An effect of experimental day was found for only 1 out of 10 behavioural parameters, as shown by a decrease in lying with a functional bell on day 3. The results indicate behavioural changes in the cows wearing a bell over 3 days, without indication of habituation to the bell. Altogether, the behavioural changes suggest that the behaviour of the cows was disturbed by wearing a bell. If long-lasting, these effects may have implications for animal welfare.
    Keywords: Research Article
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, July 2014, Vol.43(4), pp.520-530
    Description: Health care needs of lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (LBT) women are inadequately addressed in nursing education and practice, which may contribute to heterosexism and homophobia on the part of health care providers. Nurses have an obligation to use available tools and resources to assess and positively transform health care environments to ensure high‐quality care for LBT women. The context within which care for LBT women is learned, practiced, and experienced requires radical improvement.
    Keywords: Lesbian ; Bisexual ; Transgender ; Nursing Care ; Medicine ; Nursing
    ISSN: 0884-2175
    E-ISSN: 1552-6909
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  • 7
    In: Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 2016, Vol.474(3), pp.773-775
    Description: Byline: Joshua C. Patt (1) Author Affiliation: (1) Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Levine Cancer Institute, 1025 Morehead Medical Dr. Suite 300, Charlotte, NC, 28204, USA Article History: Registration Date: 22/10/2015 Received Date: 07/10/2015 Accepted Date: 22/10/2015 Online Date: 30/10/2015 Article note: This CORR Insights[R] is a commentary on the article "Sacral Insufficiency Fractures are Common after High-dose Radiation for Sacral Chordomas Treated With or Without Surgery" by Osler and colleagues available at: DOI: 10.1007/s11999-015-4566-5. The author certifies that he, or any member of his immediate family, has no funding or commercial associations (eg, consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article. All ICMJE Conflict of Interest Forms for authors and Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research [R] editors and board members are on file with the publication and can be viewed on request. The opinions expressed are those of the writers, and do not reflect the opinion or policy of CORR [R] or The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons[R]. This CORR Insights[R] comment refers to the article available at DOI: 10.1007/s11999-015-4566-5. This comment refers to the article available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11999-015-4566-5.
    Keywords: Consulting Services ; Radiation (Physics);
    ISSN: 0009-921X
    E-ISSN: 15281132
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Applied animal behaviour science, 2012, Vol.138(1), pp.47-59
    Description: The introduction of an individual goat into an established group is likely to result in intense agonistic interactions, which may adversely affect the welfare of both the introduced goat and the resident goats. To assess this situation, we introduced eight horned and eight hornless goats one at a time over a five-day period into one of four experimental groups, two of which consisted of six horned goats and the other two of six hornless goats. Individual goats were always introduced into groups with the same horn status. Before and during the introduction period, we recorded agonistic and sniffing behaviour, the location of the introduced goat within the pen, time spent lying, duration of feeding and rumination, the occurrence of injuries, and the concentration of faecal cortisol metabolites in both the introduced goats and three resident group members. In addition, we evaluated the dominance relationships of the introduced goats in their groups of origin as well as of the goats in the four experimental groups by direct observations made during the main feeding times before the start of the experiment. Data were analysed using generalised linear mixed-effects models with the explanatory variables ‘day’ (i.e. day number of the observation period), ‘presence of horns’ and ‘rank category’. In general, group members were little affected by the introduction of a single goat. By contrast, newly introduced goats displayed considerably longer lying periods, considerably shorter feeding times, and elevated concentrations of faecal cortisol metabolites throughout the introduction period. Frequencies of agonistic interactions and sniffing behaviour directed towards the introduced goats were high only on the day of introduction, and decreased to a low and constant level throughout the remaining introduction period. Changes were more pronounced in introduced goats with horns, with the highest cortisol metabolite concentrations measured in high-ranking introduced goats with horns. In conclusion, our results indicate that the welfare of goats individually introduced into small groups is seriously adversely affected for a minimum of 5 days. ; p. 47-59.
    Keywords: Rumination ; Models ; Metabolites ; Goats ; Horns ; Cortisol
    ISSN: 0168-1591
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Energy Policy, August, 2012, Vol.47, p.254-259
    Keywords: Power Grids -- Laws, Regulations And Rules ; Stakeholders -- Beliefs, Opinions And Attitudes ; Renewable Energy -- Laws, Regulations And Rules ; Renewable Energy -- Distribution
    ISSN: 0301-4215
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Energy Policy, 2011, Vol.39(7), pp.4391-4398
    Description: Concentrating solar power (CSP) has the potential to become a leading sustainable energy technology for the European electricity system. In order to reach a substantial share in the energy mix, European investment in CSP appears most profitable in North Africa, where solar potential is significantly higher than in southern Europe. As well as sufficient solar irradiance, however, the majority of today's CSP plants also require a considerable amount of water, primarily for cooling purposes. In this paper we examine water usage associated with CSP in North Africa, and the cost penalties associated with technologies that could reduce those needs. We inspect four representative sites to compare the ecological and economical drawbacks from conventional and alternative cooling systems, depending on the local environment, and including an outlook with climate change to the mid-century. Scaling our results up to a regional level indicates that the use of wet cooling technologies would likely be unsustainable. Dry cooling systems, as well as sourcing of alternative water supplies, would allow for sustainable operation. Their cost penalty would be minor compared to the variance in CSP costs due to different average solar irradiance values. ► Scaling up CSP with wet cooling from ground water will be unsustainable in North Africa. ► Desalination and alternative cooling systems can assure a sustainable water supply. ► On large-scale, the cost penalties of alternative cooling technologies appear minor.
    Keywords: Concentrating Solar Power ; Power Plant Cooling ; Climate Change ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Economics
    ISSN: 0301-4215
    E-ISSN: 1873-6777
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