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  • 1
    Language: German
    In: Kirchliche Zeitgeschichte, 1 January 2011, Vol.24(2), pp.496-530
    Description: Zur Vorbereitung des Zweiten Weltkriegs hatte Hitler schon 1934 einen „Vierjahresplan“ der Kriegswirtschaft erstellen lassen. Verantwortlich war Reichsmarschall Göring. Ihm wurde das „Reichsamt für Wirtschaftsaufbau“ (RWA) und der „Generalbevollmächtigte für die chemische Erzeugung (Gebechem)“ zugeordnet. Die Leitung beider Stäbe wurde Prof. Dr. Carl Krauch, Vorstand der IG Farben, übertragen. Die IG Farben hatte wegweisende Verfahren für die Herstellung von Treibstoffen, Stickstoff für die Waffenproduktion, Buna und Aluminium durch Hydrierung von Braunkohle und Steinkohle entwickelt. Das Ziel des Gebechem war die deutsche „Rohstoff-Freiheit“. Etwa 400.000 zusätzliche Arbeitskräfte (davon ca. 80 Prozent Fremdarbeiter und KZ-Häftlinge) standen der chemischen Industrie durch den Gebechem zur Verfügung. Als die Bombardements der Alliierten auch Berlin erreichten, suchte der Gebechem für seine Zentrale in der Reichshauptstadt eine „Ausweichstelle“ und fand sie ab August 1943 bei den Diakonissen im ehemaligen Kloster Lehnin. Der Gebechem besetzte vorhandene Gebäude und errichtete sieben Baracken für seine Mitarbeiter. Im März 1945 entstand in den aufgegebenen Baracken des Gebechem und in den Klostergebäuden ein Evangelisches Krankenhaus. Schließlich sammelten sich hier im März 1945 die Führungsstäbe des Gebechem, um sich in die von der US Army kontrollierten Gebiete jenseits der Elbe abzusetzen. Bis zum September 1945 konnten sich allerdings die restlichen Mitarbeiter des Gebechem in Lehnin verstecken, ohne von der Roten Armee und dem sowjetischen Geheimdienst identifiziert zu werden. In 1934 Hitler had already had a four year plan drawn up for the Second World War, providing autonomy for the arms industry. Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring would be in charge, with the National Ministry for Economic Development (in German abbreviated ‘RWA’) and the General Authority for the Chemical Industry (abbreviated ‘Gebechem') answerable to him. Prof. Dr. Carl Krauch, chairman of IG Farben, the world's largest chemical company, would be the Authority's chief executive officer. IG Farben had pioneered processes for the synthetic production of petrol, diesel fuel and rubber from coal, and for deriving nitrogen from air for the manufacture of explosives. The Gebechem's objective was to achieve German self sufficiency in raw materials in a Pan-European context. Some 400.000 workers, of whom 80 percent comprised immigrant labour and concentration camp detainees, were available to the chemical industry and to the Gebechem. When Allied bombing reached as far as Berlin, the Gebechem sought a refuge and found it in August 1943 in the idyllic setting of the Monastery at Lehnin, 70 km from Berlin, where deaconesses of the Protestant Church were working, caring for children and the elderly. The Gebechem took over existing buildings and erected seven huts for its employees. When its Berlin offices were destroyed in April 1944, the Gebechem continued overseeing wartime chemical production largely from the Monastery at Lehnin. In March 1945 the Gebechem left its hiding place, and the Protestant Church's hospital, run by the Luise-Henrietten-Foundation, was established in the vacated huts and the monastery. The management of the Gebechem was moved from there to the American Zone beyond the Elbe, an area coadministered by the US Army. From then until September 1945 some 100 employees of the Gebechem were able to remain hidden in Lehnin, without the Red Army or the Soviet secret service finding them.
    Keywords: Religion;
    ISSN: 09329951
    E-ISSN: 2196808X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 2010, Vol.341(1), pp.235-244
    Description: Neurohumoral stimulation of Gq-coupled receptors has been proposed as a central mechanism in the pathogenesis of diabetic heart disease. The resulting contractile dysfunction is closely related to abnormal intracellular Ca 2+ handling with functional defects of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). The present study was therefore designed to determine the role of G q -protein signaling via Gα 11 and Gα q in diabetes for the induction of functional and structural changes in the Ca 2+ release complex of the SR. An experimental type 1-diabetes was induced in wild type, Gα 11 knockout, and Gα 11/q -knockout mice by injection of streptozotocin. Cardiac morphology and function was assessed in vivo by echocardiography. SR Ca 2+ leak was tested in vitro based on a 45 Ca 2+ assay and protein densities as well as gene expression of ryanodine receptor (RyR2), FKBP12.6, sorcin, and annexin A7 were analyzed by immunoblot and RT-PCR. In wild type animals 8 weeks of diabetes resulted in cardiac hypertrophy and SR Ca 2+ leak was increased. In addition, diabetic wild type animals showed reduced protein levels of FKBP12.6 and annexin A7. In Gα 11 - and Gα 11/q -knockout animals, however, SR Ca 2+ release and cardiac phenotype remained unchanged upon induction of diabetes. Densities of the proteins that we presently analyzed were also unaltered in Gα 11 -knockout mice. Gα 11/q -knockout animals even showed increased expression of sorcin and annexin A7. Thus, based on the present study we suggest a signaling pathway via the G q -proteins, Gα 11 and Gα q , that could link increased neurohumoral stimulation in diabetes with defective RyR2 channel function by regulating protein expression of FKBP12.6, annexin A7, and sorcin.
    Keywords: Ryanodine receptor ; Type 1-diabetes ; Knockout mice ; Sorcin ; Annexin A7
    ISSN: 0300-8177
    E-ISSN: 1573-4919
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  • 3
    Language: German
    In: Versicherungsmedizin, 01 March 2012, Vol.64(1), pp.25-7
    Description: A philosophical and scientific analysis of how the concept of equality has developed from biological, political, sociological, social, economic and--not least--cultural points of view. The focus here is on the German chronic shortage of educational facilities continuing for decades, a cultural revolution without any foreseeable end. These reflections encompass a period of around two and a half millennia, beginning with the Ancient Greek state philosophy, reaching into our epoch of advanced globalisation with momentous changes in Western social welfare states. In consideration of a biochemical and intrinsic individuality based on genetic and epi-genetic factors, equal opportunities are an unlikely prerequisite in evolution. With regard to free education, equality can only be a starting point since, due to individual differences, egalitarian aims of education within a "group university" can never open up equally good chances to everybody. Because of a misunderstanding of equality, the student revolt in 1968 brought forth an egalitarian remodeling of school and university careers accompanied by a leveling, among other things a "university of education for the masses". Instead of "educational knowledge" based on scientific nature, an education towards vocational knowledge and regulation of studies took place. At present, a socialistic reversal of the school system aimed at learning together in ,community schools" until the 10th grade is in progress. The unity of (pure) research and teaching no longer exists. The change in the system supported by a welfare state will have consequences in worldwide competition. The final point of the Cultural Revolution, following historical examples, could be the emergence of a degenerate form of democracy: Ochlocracy.
    Keywords: Cultural Evolution ; Internationality ; Mass Behavior ; Philosophy ; Politics ; Socioeconomic Factors ; Education -- Trends ; Social Welfare -- Trends
    ISSN: 0933-4548
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 4
    Language: German
    In: Versicherungsmedizin, 01 March 2013, Vol.65(1), pp.29-32
    Keywords: Christianity -- History ; Religious Philosophies -- History
    ISSN: 0933-4548
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 5
    Language: German
    In: Versicherungsmedizin, 01 June 2012, Vol.64(2), pp.78-81
    Keywords: Educational Status ; Individuality ; Personality Development ; Politics ; Social Values ; Education -- Trends ; Universities -- Trends
    ISSN: 0933-4548
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 6
    In: Prace Naukowe Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wrocławiu, 2014, Issue 344
    ISSN: 18993192
    E-ISSN: 23920041
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Cardiovascular Diabetology, Dec 29, 2010, Vol.9, p.93
    Description: Background Diabetes mellitus counts as a major risk factor for developing atherosclerosis. The activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is commonly known to take a pivotal part in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, though the influence of specific PKC isozymes remains unclear. There is evidence from large clinical trials suggesting excessive neurohumoral stimulation, amongst other pathways leading to PKC activation, as a central mechanism in the pathogenesis of diabetic heart disease. The present study was therefore designed to determine the role of G.sub.q -protein signalling via G[alpha].sub.11 in diabetes for the expression of PKC isozymes in the coronary vessels. Methods The role of G[alpha].sub.11 in diabetes was examined in knockout mice with global deletion of G[alpha].sub.11 compared to wildtype controls. An experimental type 1-diabetes was induced in both groups by injection of streptozotocin. Expression and localization of the PKC isozymes [alpha], [beta]II, [delta], [epsilon], and ? was examined by quantitative immunohistochemistry. Results 8 weeks after induction of diabetes a diminished expression of PKC [epsilon] was observed in wildtype animals. This alteration was not seen in G[alpha].sub.11 knockout animals, however, these mice showed a diminished expression of PKC?. Direct comparison of wildtype and knockout control animals revealed a diminished expression of PKC [delta] and [epsilon] in G[alpha].sub.11 knockout animals. Conclusion The present study shows that expression of the nPKCs [delta] and [epsilon] in coronary vessels is under control of the g-protein G[alpha].sub.11 . The reduced expression of PKC ? that we observed in coronary arteries from G[alpha].sub.11 -knockout mice compared to wildtype controls upon induction of diabetes could reduce apoptosis and promote plaque stability. These findings suggest a mechanism that may in part underlie the therapeutic benefit of RAS inhibition on cardiovascular endpoints in diabetic patients.
    Keywords: Immunohistochemistry -- Usage ; Coronary Heart Disease -- Risk Factors ; Coronary Heart Disease -- Research ; Diabetes Mellitus -- Complications And Side Effects ; Diabetes Mellitus -- Research ; Protein Kinases -- Physiological Aspects ; Protein Kinases -- Research
    ISSN: 1475-2840
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Cardiovascular Diabetology, Dec 29, 2010, Vol.9, p.93
    Description: Background Diabetes mellitus counts as a major risk factor for developing atherosclerosis. The activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is commonly known to take a pivotal part in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, though the influence of specific PKC isozymes remains unclear. There is evidence from large clinical trials suggesting excessive neurohumoral stimulation, amongst other pathways leading to PKC activation, as a central mechanism in the pathogenesis of diabetic heart disease. The present study was therefore designed to determine the role of G.sub.q -protein signalling via G[alpha].sub.11 in diabetes for the expression of PKC isozymes in the coronary vessels. Methods The role of G[alpha].sub.11 in diabetes was examined in knockout mice with global deletion of G[alpha].sub.11 compared to wildtype controls. An experimental type 1-diabetes was induced in both groups by injection of streptozotocin. Expression and localization of the PKC isozymes [alpha], [beta]II, [delta], [epsilon], and ? was examined by quantitative immunohistochemistry. Results 8 weeks after induction of diabetes a diminished expression of PKC [epsilon] was observed in wildtype animals. This alteration was not seen in G[alpha].sub.11 knockout animals, however, these mice showed a diminished expression of PKC?. Direct comparison of wildtype and knockout control animals revealed a diminished expression of PKC [delta] and [epsilon] in G[alpha].sub.11 knockout animals. Conclusion The present study shows that expression of the nPKCs [delta] and [epsilon] in coronary vessels is under control of the g-protein G[alpha].sub.11 . The reduced expression of PKC ? that we observed in coronary arteries from G[alpha].sub.11 -knockout mice compared to wildtype controls upon induction of diabetes could reduce apoptosis and promote plaque stability. These findings suggest a mechanism that may in part underlie the therapeutic benefit of RAS inhibition on cardiovascular endpoints in diabetic patients.
    Keywords: Immunohistochemistry -- Usage ; Coronary Heart Disease -- Risk Factors ; Coronary Heart Disease -- Research ; Diabetes Mellitus -- Complications And Side Effects ; Diabetes Mellitus -- Research ; Protein Kinases -- Physiological Aspects ; Protein Kinases -- Research
    ISSN: 1475-2840
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, September 2013, Vol.115(9), pp.1826-1830
    Description: In a previous polysomnographic cross-sectional study we found a significant relationship between sleep disorders and multiple sclerosis (MS) related fatigue. The purpose of this open follow-up observation was to compare the impact of treatment of sleep disorders on MS related fatigue measured with the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS). Non-randomized follow-up observation: treated versus untreated patients, subgroups according to compliance with sleep medical treatment recommendations (univariate, multivariate analysis, multiple logistic regression). 66 MS patients were followed after polysomnography, 49 patients with relevant sleep disorders and 17 without. Mean MFIS scores decreased from 41.2 to 26.2 ( = 0.025) in patients with good compliance (GC; = 18), from 42.4 to 32.1 ( = 0.12) in patients with moderate compliance (MC; = 12), and from 41.6 to 35.5 ( = 0.17) in non-compliant patients (NC; = 17). Mean MFIS values increased in patients without sleep disorders from 22.9 to 25.4 (NSD; = 12, = 0.56). In multiple logistic regression, treatment of sleep disorders predicted decrease of MFIS-values (GC versus NSD odds ratio 13.4; = 0.015; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7–107.2, MC versus NSD odds ratio 13.8; = 0.028; 95% CI 1.3–143.3). Sleep medical treatment may improve MS related fatigue when patients adhere to treatment recommendations.
    Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis ; Fatigue ; Polysomnography ; Sleep Disorders ; Modified Fatigue Impact Scale ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0303-8467
    E-ISSN: 1872-6968
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 01 May 2004, Vol.95(9), pp.5075-5080
    Description: Iron tracer diffusion was studied in soft-magnetic nanocrystalline Fe 90 Zr 7 B 3 without any influence of porosity, relaxation, or grain growth. The interfacial diffusion characteristics differ substantially from grain boundaries in metals due to the presence of an intergranular amorphous phase. The reduced diffusivity in thin amorphous layers compared to in the initial amorphous phase indicates the effect of confinement. The indication of a second, fast interfacial diffusion path is found and quantitatively analyzed within the framework of a two interface-type model.
    Keywords: Nanoscale Science And Design
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
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