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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 2013, Vol.67(1), pp.61-68
    Description: Keeping track of social interactions among conspecifics is a driving force for the evolution of social cognition. How social cognition, such as social knowledge, ties in with a species' social organization is, however, largely unexplored. We investigated the social knowledge of wild Guinea baboons ( Papio papio ) ranging in Senegal, a species that lives in a fluid multilevel society with overlapping habitat use. Using playback experiments, we tested how adult males differentiate between subjects from their own vs. a neighboring or a stranger social unit (“gang”) and assessed ranging patterns with Global Positioning System (GPS) data. While territorial species usually differentiate between group and nongroup members and often respond more strongly to strangers than neighbors (the “dear enemy” effect), subjects in this highly tolerant species should largely ignore other unit members and mainly attend to subjects from their own unit. Males responded strongly after playback of calls recorded from members of their own gang, while they attended only briefly to neighbor or stranger calls. Apparently, males benefit from monitoring the social maneuvers in their own social unit, while it remains to be resolved whether they are unmotivated or unable to keep track of the identities and actions of individuals outside their own gang. The study highlights how the allocation of social attention is tuned to the specifics of a species' social organization, while a complex social organization does not necessarily translate into the need for more elaborate social knowledge.
    Keywords: Guinea baboon ; Multilevel societies ; Papio papio ; Social attention ; Social interactions
    ISSN: 0340-5443
    E-ISSN: 1432-0762
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(8), p.e23015
    Description: Acoustic analyses have become a staple method in field studies of animal vocal communication, with nearly all investigations using computer-based approaches to extract specific features from sounds. Various algorithms can be used to extract acoustic variables that may then be related to variables such as individual identity, context or reproductive state. Habitat structure and recording conditions, however, have strong effects on the acoustic structure of sound signals. The purpose of this study was to identify which acoustic parameters reliably describe features of propagated sounds. We conducted broadcast experiments and examined the influence of habitat type, transmission height, and re-recording distance on the validity (deviation from the original sound) and reliability (variation within identical recording conditions) of acoustic features of different primate call types. Validity and reliability varied independently of each other in relation to habitat, transmission height, and re-recording distance, and depended strongly on the call type. The smallest deviations from the original sounds were obtained by a visually-controlled calculation of the fundamental frequency. Start- and end parameters of a sound were most susceptible to degradation in the environment. Because the recording conditions can have appreciable effects on acoustic parameters, it is advisable to validate the extraction method of acoustic variables from recordings over longer distances before using them in acoustic analyses.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Engineering ; Neuroscience
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2017, Vol.162(1), p.15(17)
    Description: Primate social systems are remarkably diverse, and thus play a central role in understanding social evolution, including the biological origin of human societies. Although baboons have been prominently featured in this context, historically little was known about the westernmost member of the genus, the Guinea baboon (〈em〉Papio papio〈/em〉). Material and Methods Here, we summarize the findings from the first years of observations at the field site CRP Simenti in the Niokolo Koba National Park in Senegal. Results Guinea baboons reveal a nested multi-level social organization, with reproductive units comprising one oprimaryo male, one to several females, young, and occasionally osecondaryo males at the base of the society. Three to five units form oparties,o which team up with other parties to form a ogang.o Different gangs have largely overlapping home ranges and agonistic interactions between different parties or gangs are rare. Some but not all strongly socially bonded males are highly related, and population genetic and behavioral evidence indicate female-biased dispersal. Females play an important role in intersexual bond formation and maintenance, and female tenure length varies between a few weeks to several years. Discussion While the social organization resembles that of hamadryas baboons (〈em〉P. hamadryas〈/em〉), the social structure differs considerably, specifically in terms of low male aggressiveness and female freedom. Despite substantial differences in social organization and social structure, the acoustic structure of Guinea baboon vocalizations does not differ substantially from that of other baboon taxa. With its multi-level organization, stable bonds between males and females, as well as a high-degree of male-male cooperation and tolerance, Guinea baboons constitute an intriguing model for reconstructing human social evolution.
    Keywords: Guinea Baboon – Research ; Guinea Baboon – Genetic Aspects ; Primates – Research ; Evolution (Biology) – Research
    ISSN: 0002-9483
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    In: American Journal of Physical Anthropology, January 2017, Vol.162, pp.15-31
    Description: Abstract Objectives Primate social systems are remarkably diverse, and thus play a central role in understanding social evolution, including the biological origin of human societies. Although baboons have been prominently featured in this context, historically little was known about the westernmost member of the genus, the Guinea baboon ( Papio papio ). Material and Methods Here, we summarize the findings from the first years of observations at the field site CRP Simenti in the Niokolo Koba National Park in Senegal. Results Guinea baboons reveal a nested multi‐level social organization, with reproductive units comprising one “primary” male, one to several females, young, and occasionally “secondary” males at the base of the society. Three to five units form “parties,” which team up with other parties to form a “gang.” Different gangs have largely overlapping home ranges and agonistic interactions between different parties or gangs are rare. Some but not all strongly socially bonded males are highly related, and population genetic and behavioral evidence indicate female‐biased dispersal. Females play an important role in intersexual bond formation and maintenance, and female tenure length varies between a few weeks to several years. Discussion While the social organization resembles that of hamadryas baboons ( P. hamadryas ), the social structure differs considerably, specifically in terms of low male aggressiveness and female freedom. Despite substantial differences in social organization and social structure, the acoustic structure of Guinea baboon vocalizations does not differ substantially from that of other baboon taxa. With its multi‐level organization, stable bonds between males and females, as well as a high‐degree of male‐male cooperation and tolerance, Guinea baboons constitute an intriguing model for reconstructing human social evolution.
    Keywords: Female Dispersal ; Guinea Baboons ; Human Evolution ; Nested Multi‐Level Society ; Papio Papio ; Primate Evolution ; Social System
    ISSN: 0002-9483
    E-ISSN: 1096-8644
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in zoology, 23 September 2013, Vol.10(1), pp.58
    Description: To understand the evolution of acoustic communication in animals, it is important to distinguish between the structure and the usage of vocal signals, since both aspects are subject to different constraints. In terrestrial mammals, the structure of calls is largely innate, while individuals have a greater ability to actively initiate or withhold calls. In closely related taxa, one would therefore predict a higher flexibility in call usage compared to call structure. In the present study, we investigated the vocal repertoire of free living Guinea baboons (Papio papio) and examined the structure and usage of the animals' vocal signals. Guinea baboons live in a complex multi-level social organization and exhibit a largely tolerant and affiliative social style, contrary to most other baboon taxa. To classify the vocal repertoire of male and female Guinea baboons, cluster analyses were used and focal observations were conducted to assess the usage of vocal signals in the particular contexts. In general, the vocal repertoire of Guinea baboons largely corresponded to the vocal repertoire other baboon taxa. The usage of calls, however, differed considerably from other baboon taxa and corresponded with the specific characteristics of the Guinea baboons' social behaviour. While Guinea baboons showed a diminished usage of contest and display vocalizations (a common pattern observed in chacma baboons), they frequently used vocal signals during affiliative and greeting interactions. Our study shows that the call structure of primates is largely unaffected by the species' social system (including grouping patterns and social interactions), while the usage of calls can be more flexibly adjusted, reflecting the quality of social interactions of the individuals. Our results support the view that the primary function of social signals is to regulate social interactions, and therefore the degree of competition and cooperation may be more important to explain variation in call usage than grouping patterns or group size.
    Keywords: Primates – Social Aspects ; Primates – Comparative Analysis ; Guinea Baboon – Social Aspects ; Guinea Baboon – Comparative Analysis ; Animal Communication – Social Aspects ; Animal Communication – Comparative Analysis ; Animal Sounds – Social Aspects ; Animal Sounds – Comparative Analysis;
    ISSN: 1742-9994
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2015, Vol.10(11), p.e0143100
    Description: The bacterium Treponema pallidum is known to cause syphilis (ssp. pallidum), yaws (ssp. pertenue), and endemic syphilis (ssp. endemicum) in humans. Nonhuman primates have also been reported to be infected with the bacterium with equally versatile clinical manifestations, from severe skin ulcerations to asymptomatic. At present all simian strains are closely related to human yaws-causing strains, an important consideration for yaws eradication. We tested clinically healthy Guinea baboons (Papio papio) at Parc National Niokolo Koba in south eastern Senegal for the presence of anti-T. pallidum antibodies. Since T. pallidum infection in this species was identified 50 years ago, and there has been no attempt to treat non-human primates for infection, it was hypothesized that a large number of West African baboons are still infected with simian strains of the yaws-bacterium. All animals were without clinical signs of treponematoses, but 18 of 20 (90%) baboons tested positive for antibodies against T. pallidum based on treponemal tests. Yet, Guinea baboons seem to develop no clinical symptoms, though it must be assumed that infection is chronic or comparable to the latent stage in human yaws infection. The non-active character is supported by the low anti-T. pallidum serum titers in Guinea baboons (median = 1:2,560) versus serum titers that are found in genital-ulcerated olive baboons with active infection in Tanzania (range of medians among the groups of initial, moderate, and severe infected animals = 1:15,360 to 1:2.097e+7). Our findings provide evidence for simian infection with T. pallidum in wild Senegalese baboons. Potentially, Guinea baboons in West Africa serve as a natural reservoir for human infection, as the West African simian strain has been shown to cause sustainable yaws infection when inoculated into humans. The present study pinpoints an area where further research is needed to support the currently on-going second WHO led yaws eradication campaign with its goal to eradicate yaws by 2020.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 23 April 2013, Vol.110(17), pp.6736-41
    Description: Detecting topological order in cold-atom experiments is an ongoing challenge, the resolution of which offers novel perspectives on topological matter. In material systems, unambiguous signatures of topological order exist for topological insulators and quantum Hall devices. In quantum Hall systems, the quantized conductivity and the associated robust propagating edge modes--guaranteed by the existence of nontrivial topological invariants--have been observed through transport and spectroscopy measurements. Here, we show that optical-lattice-based experiments can be tailored to directly visualize the propagation of topological edge modes. Our method is rooted in the unique capability for initially shaping the atomic gas and imaging its time evolution after suddenly removing the shaping potentials. Our scheme, applicable to an assortment of atomic topological phases, provides a method for imaging the dynamics of topological edge modes, directly revealing their angular velocity and spin structure.
    Keywords: Cold Temperature ; Models, Chemical ; Phase Transition ; Quantum Theory ; Gases -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Sensors & Actuators: B. Chemical, 2011, Vol.156(2), pp.517-526
    Description: Bio-hybrid microsystems actuated by living cells, as micro-bio-actuators and micro-bio-pumps have been developed recently. In these devices biological cells may be powered without external energy sources and the movement or the contraction of muscle cells trigger off the flow of fluid (i.e. culture medium or blood) through microchannels in micro-multi-bioreactor systems. Isolated and cultured cardiomyocytes (cardiac cells) are the most promising bio-material, which can be used to design a micro-bio-pump/actuator. These spontaneously contracting cells are autonomously powered with glucose as an energy source without any external power supply or stimulus, unlike conventional micro-actuators/micro-pumps. Cardio-micro-bio-pumps/actuators are using collective, synchronous contracting forces of cardiac cells or cardiac cell sheets to drive the flow of fluid. The feasibility of building such actuators was demonstrated in a few examples of bio-hybrid microsystems actuated by single or sheeted cardiomyocytes.
    Keywords: Cardio-Micro-Bio-Pump/Actuator ; Cardiomyocytes ; Cardiomyocyte Sheet ; Micro-Multi-Bioreactor System ; Multi-Organ-on-a-Chip Technology ; Bio-Hybrid Microsystem ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0925-4005
    E-ISSN: 1873-3077
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, 04 June 2008, Vol.130(22), pp.6924-5
    Description: The selection of rhodium precatalyst and phosphine ligand determines the course of the cycloisomerization of N-allylated bicyclo[1.1.0]butylalkylamines. Cyclopropane-fused pyrrolidines and azepines are obtained with high levels of stereo- and regiocontrol. Novel azatricyclo[6.1.0.0(1,5)]nonanes are the result of a tandem cycloisomerization-ring closing metathesis sequence. Allylic ethers lead to furans and oxepanes.
    Keywords: Azepines -- Chemical Synthesis ; Bridged Bicyclo Compounds -- Chemistry ; Cyclobutanes -- Chemistry ; Pyrrolidines -- Chemical Synthesis ; Rhodium -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00027863
    E-ISSN: 1520-5126
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(5), p.e20041
    Description: Tumor heterogeneity is a major obstacle for finding effective treatment of Glioblastoma (GBM). Based on global expression analysis, GBM can be classified into distinct subtypes: Proneural, Neural, Classical and Mesenchymal. The signatures of these different tumor subtypes may reflect the phenotypes of cells giving rise to them. However, the experimental evidence connecting any specific subtype of GBM to particular cells of origin is lacking. In addition, it is unclear how different genetic alterations interact with cells of origin in determining tumor heterogeneity. This issue cannot be addressed by studying end-stage human tumors. ; To address this issue, we used retroviruses to deliver transforming genetic lesions to glial progenitors in adult mouse brain. We compared the resulting tumors to human GBM. We found that different initiating genetic lesions gave rise to tumors with different growth rates. However all mouse tumors closely resembled the human Proneural GBM. Comparative analysis of these mouse tumors allowed us to identify a set of genes whose expression in humans with Proneural GBM correlates with survival. ; This study offers insights into the relationship between adult glial progenitors and Proneural GBM, and allows us to identify molecular alterations that lead to more aggressive tumor growth. In addition, we present a new preclinical model that can be used to test treatments directed at a specific type of GBM in future studies.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Oncology ; Neuroscience ; Neurological Disorders
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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