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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: American journal of public health, August 2015, Vol.105(8), pp.1508
    Description: The answer is rooted in the debt crises stretching back to the late 1970s, when the International Monetary Fund (IMF) imposed austere structural adjustment programs (SAPs) to cut public spending and privatize services to pay the debt back. A new global awareness that health systems matter can translate...
    Keywords: Healthcare Financing ; Social Justice ; Delivery of Health Care -- Economics ; Organizations -- Economics
    ISSN: 00900036
    E-ISSN: 1541-0048
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  • 2
    In: Movement Disorders, November 2013, Vol.28(13), pp.1764-1765
    Description: Byline: Ronald Pfeiffer ***** No abstract is available for this article. ***** Article Note: Relevant conflicts of interest/financial disclosures: Nothing to report.
    Keywords: Enteritis–Complications ; Female–Complications ; Helicobacter Infections–Epidemiology ; Helicobacter Infections–Microbiology ; Humans–Complications ; Intestine, Small–Complications ; Male–Complications ; Parkinson Disease–Complications;
    ISSN: 0885-3185
    E-ISSN: 1531-8257
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Lancet, 30 May 2015, Vol.385(9983), pp.2144-2145
    Description: Further reading1 Biehl J Petryna A 2013 Princeton University Press Princeton When people come first: critical studies in global health 2 2009 Zed Books London The deadly ideas of neoliberalism: how the IMF has undermined public health and the fight against AIDS Rowden R 3 2013 Basic Books New York The body economic: why austerity kills Stuckler D Basu S 4 2006 World Health Organization Geneva The world health report 2006—working together for health WHO
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0140-6736
    E-ISSN: 1474-547X
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Science, July 10, 2015, Vol.349(6244), p.180(4)
    Description: Neuronal circuits produce self-sustaining sequences of activity patterns, but the precise mechanisms remain unknown. Here we provide evidence for autoassociative dynamics in sequence generation. During sharp-wave ripple (SWR) events, hippocampal neurons express sequenced reactivations, which we show are composed of discrete attractors. Each attractor corresponds to a single location, the representation of which sharpens over the course of several milliseconds, as the reactivation focuses at that location. Subsequently, the reactivation transitions rapidly to a spatially discontiguous location. This alternation between sharpening and transition occurs repeatedly within individual SWRs and is locked to the slow-gamma (25 to 50 hertz) rhythm. These findings support theoretical notions of neural network function and reveal a fundamental discretization in the retrieval of memory in the hippocampus, together with a function for gamma oscillations in the control of attractor dynamics. 10.1126/science.aaa9633
    Keywords: Hippocampus (Brain) – Physiological Aspects ; Artificial Neural Networks – Analysis
    ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 5
    In: Nature, 2013, Vol.497(7447), p.74
    Description: Effective navigation requires planning extended routes to remembered goal locations. Hippocampal place cells have been proposed to have a role in navigational planning, but direct evidence has been lacking. Here we show that before goal-directed navigation in an open arena, the rat hippocampus generates brief sequences encoding spatial trajectories strongly biased to progress from the subject's current location to a known goal location. These sequences predict immediate future behaviour, even in cases in which the specific combination of start and goal locations is novel. These results indicate that hippocampal sequence events characterized previously in linearly constrained environments as 'replay' are also capable of supporting a goal-directed, trajectory-finding mechanism, which identifies important places and relevant behavioural paths, at specific times when memory retrieval is required, and in a manner that could be used to control subsequent navigational behaviour.
    Keywords: Sciences (General) ; Physics;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 24 April 2012, Vol.109(17), pp.6626-31
    Description: The ability to specify the expression levels of exogenous genes inserted in the genomes of transgenic animals is critical for the success of a wide variety of experimental manipulations. Protein production can be regulated at the level of transcription, mRNA transport, mRNA half-life, or translation efficiency. In this report, we show that several well-characterized sequence elements derived from plant and insect viruses are able to function in Drosophila to increase the apparent translational efficiency of mRNAs by as much as 20-fold. These increases render expression levels sufficient for genetic constructs previously requiring multiple copies to be effective in single copy, including constructs expressing the temperature-sensitive inactivator of neuronal function Shibire(ts1), and for the use of cytoplasmic GFP to image the fine processes of neurons.
    Keywords: Enhancer Elements, Genetic ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Protein Biosynthesis ; Transgenes ; Drosophila -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Water Research, Feb 1, 2014, Vol.49, p.144(13)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2013.11.003 Byline: Valentin Pfeiffer, Benoit Barbeau Abstract: Despite its shortcomings, the T10 method introduced by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989 is currently the method most frequently used in North America to calculate disinfection performance. Other methods (e.g., the Integrated Disinfection Design Framework, IDDF) have been advanced as replacements, and more recently, the USEPA suggested the Extended T10 and Extended CSTR (Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor) methods to improve the inactivation calculations within ozone contactors. To develop a method that fully considers the hydraulic behavior of the contactor, two models (Plug Flow with Dispersion and N-CSTR) were successfully fitted with five tracer tests results derived from four Water Treatment Plants and a pilot-scale contactor. A new method based on the N-CSTR model was defined as the Partially Segregated (Pseg) method. The predictions from all the methods mentioned were compared under conditions of poor and good hydraulic performance, low and high disinfectant decay, and different levels of inactivation. These methods were also compared with experimental results from a chlorine pilot-scale contactor used for Escherichia coli inactivation. The T10 and Extended T10 methods led to large over- and under-estimations. The Segregated Flow Analysis (used in the IDDF) also considerably overestimated the inactivation under high disinfectant decay. Only the Extended CSTR and Pseg methods produced realistic and conservative predictions in all cases. Finally, a simple implementation procedure of the Pseg method was suggested for calculation of disinfection performance. Author Affiliation: Industrial NSERC Chair on Drinking Water, Civil, Geological and Mining Engineering Dept., Polytechnique Montreal, CP 6079, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3A7 Article History: Received 12 July 2013; Revised 30 October 2013; Accepted 3 November 2013
    Keywords: Tracers (Chemistry) -- Methods ; Tracers (Chemistry) -- Analysis ; Infection Control -- Methods ; Infection Control -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0043-1354
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    In: Nature, 2014
    Description: It is widely accepted that commensal bacteria in the human intestine have important physiological and health effects. This paper focuses on the much less studied relationship between eukaryotic viruses and mammalian hosts, and suggests that viral members of the gut microbiota can enter symbiotic relationships providing a beneficial effect similar to that provided by the bacteria colonizing our intestines. Ken Cadwell et al. demonstrate that persistent infection of mice with various strains of enteric murine norovirus (MNV) can reverse abnormalities in intestinal morphology and lymphoid cells. Additionally, MNV infection overcomes the deleterious effects of antibiotic treatment in models of infectious or chemical intestinal injury.
    Keywords: Sciences (General) ; Physics;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    ISSN: 14764687
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Operational Research, 2010, Vol.207(2), pp.697-710
    Description: While a broad branch of literature deals with the development of buyer–supplier relationships, limited research exists under which circumstances a buyer should terminate such a relationship and switch to a new supplier. Recently, have developed a framework to analyze a static one-shot supplier switching decision when the buyer has asymmetric information about the supplier’s production costs. We extend their basic framework to a dynamic one, assuming that the supplier learns the production costs over time when he sets up the production process. Since the supplier’s cost information at the individual stages crucially determines the setup and the switching decision, it becomes essential for supply chain management to provide proper incentives so that the supplier reveals his cost information truthfully over time. We characterize the optimal setup and switching strategy as well as the optimal supply chain contract. We also compare our findings with those of the static setting to provide further insights.
    Keywords: Purchasing ; Supplier Switching ; Supply Chain Contracts ; Information Asymmetry ; Engineering ; Business ; Computer Science
    ISSN: 0377-2217
    E-ISSN: 1872-6860
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  • 10
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association, Jan 6, 2010, Vol.303(1), p.14(1)
    Description: A poem is presented.
    Keywords: Pfeiffer, Eric ; Poetry;
    ISSN: 0098-7484
    E-ISSN: 15383598
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