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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Nature, Feb 12, 2009, Vol.457(7231), p.797(2)
    Description: [...] studies of this virus in animal models have been restricted to chimpanzees and to immunodeficient mice transplanted with human hepatocytes. By means of these contacts, cellular sheets such as the layer of epithelial cells lining the blood vessels prevent leakage. [...] tight junctions form a 'fence'...
    Keywords: Hepatitis C Virus -- Research ; Hepatitis C Virus -- Health Aspects ; Virus Replication -- Research
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 2
    Article
    Article
    BMJ Publishing Group Ltd and British Society of Gastroenterology
    Language: English
    In: Gut, 28 September 2014, Vol.63(9), p.1375
    Description: HCV has chronically infected an estimated number of 160 million individuals worldwide.1 In the course of 10–20 years of persistent infection, approximately 20% of these patients are at risk of developing severe liver disease, including fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.2 Besides the ability to establish chronic infection, the pronounced genetic variability of HCV and the diverse course of chronic infection ranging from relatively benign to exacerbating liver disease are hallmarks of hepatitis C. Moreover, response to classical antiviral treatment based on pegylated interferon alpha (PEG-IFN-α) and ribavirin is substantially influenced by viral and host factors, since viral genotypes 1 and 4 are more resilient to therapy compared with genotypes 2 and 3 and as polymorphisms in the vicinity of the IFN28B locus predict the chances to naturally clear HCV infection and of response to IFN-based therapies.3 4 The high degree of virus variability is also a formidable challenge in the emerging era of directly acting antivirals for treatment of hepatitis C by mediating drug escape through resistance mutations. Moreover, many molecules, most prominently the already licensed protease inhibitors telaprevir and boceprevir, display a genotype-dependent antiviral activity. Therefore, both viral and host genetic variability complicate provision of efficacious, safe, well-tolerated and cost-effective therapies to the large number of HCV patients.
    Keywords: Hcv ; Hepatitis C
    ISSN: 0017-5749
    ISSN: 00175749
    E-ISSN: 1468-3288
    E-ISSN: 14683288
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  • 3
    In: Nature, 2009, Vol.457(7231), p.797
    Keywords: Animals–Physiology ; Hepacivirus–Virology ; Hepatitis C–Virology ; Hepatocytes–Virology ; Humans–Virology ; Tight Junctions–Virology ; Virus Internalization–Virology;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, November 2011, Vol.53(9), pp.963-4
    Keywords: Cross Infection ; Disease Outbreaks ; Endoscopy -- Adverse Effects ; Hepatitis C -- Diagnosis ; Injections -- Adverse Effects
    ISSN: 10584838
    E-ISSN: 1537-6591
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of virology, 15 January 2017, Vol.91(2)
    Description: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes severe liver disease and affects ca. 146 million individuals. Novel directly acting antivirals targeting HCV have revolutionized treatment. However, high costs limit access to therapy. Recently, several related drugs used in humans to treat allergies or as neuroleptics emerged as potent HCV cell entry inhibitors. Insights into their antiviral modes of action may increase opportunities for drug repurposing in hepatitis C and possibly other important human viral infections.
    Keywords: Cell Entry ; Drug Repurposing ; Fusion Inhibitor ; Hepatitis C Virus ; Infectious Disease ; Ion Channel Inhibitors ; Membrane Fusion ; Drug Repositioning ; Antiviral Agents -- Therapeutic Use ; Hepacivirus -- Drug Effects ; Hepatitis C -- Drug Therapy ; Ion Channel Gating -- Drug Effects ; Ion Channels -- Antagonists & Inhibitors
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 1098-5514
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2015, Vol.10(7), p.e0134529
    Description: Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), an exchangeable apolipoprotein, is necessary for production of infectious Hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles. However, ApoE is not the only liver-expressed apolipoprotein and the role of other apolipoproteins for production...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2014, Vol.9(7), p.e102235
    Description: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is still a serious global health burden. Despite improved therapeutic options, a preventative vaccine would be desirable especially in undeveloped countries. Traditionally, highly conserved epitopes are targets for antibody-based prophylactic vaccines. In HCV-infected...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of infectious diseases, 15 December 2011, Vol.204(12), pp.1830-8
    Description: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) cross-contamination from inanimate surfaces or objects has been implicated in transmission of HCV in health-care settings and among injection drug users. We established HCV-based carrier and drug transmission assays that simulate practical conditions to study inactivation and survival of HCV on inanimate surfaces. Studies were performed with authentic cell culture derived viruses. HCV was dried on steel discs and biocides were tested for their virucidal efficacy against HCV. Infectivity was determined by a limiting dilution assay. HCV stability was analyzed in a carrier assay for several days or in a drug transmission assay using a spoon as cooker. HCV can be dried and recovered efficiently in the carrier assay. The most effective alcohol to inactivate the virus was 1-propanol, and commercially available disinfectants reduced infectivity of HCV to undetectable levels. Viral infectivity on inanimate surfaces was detectable in the presence of serum for up to 5 days, and temperatures of about 65-70°C were required to eliminate infectivity in the drug transmission assay. These findings are important for assessment of HCV transmission risks and should facilitate the definition of stringent public health interventions to prevent HCV infections.
    Keywords: Disinfectants -- Pharmacology ; Hepacivirus -- Drug Effects ; Hepatitis C -- Transmission ; Microbial Viability -- Drug Effects ; Virus Inactivation -- Drug Effects
    ISSN: 00221899
    E-ISSN: 1537-6613
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of infectious diseases, 15 January 2013, Vol.207(2), pp.281-7
    Description: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission among people who inject drugs remains a challenging public health problem. We investigated the risk of HCV transmission by analyzing the direct association of HCV with filters, water to dilute drugs, and water containers. Experiments were designed to replicate practices by people who inject drugs and include routinely used injection equipment. HCV stability in water was assessed by inoculation of bottled water with HCV. Viral association with containers was investigated by filling the containers with water, inoculating the water with HCV, emptying the water, and refilling the container with fresh water. Transmission risk associated with drug preparation filters was determined after drawing virus through a filter and incubating the filter to release infectious particles. HCV can survive for up to 3 weeks in bottled water. Water containers present a risk for HCV transmission, as infectious virions remained associated with water containers after washing. Physical properties of the water containers determined the degree of HCV contamination after containers were refilled with water. HCV was also associated with filter material, in which around 10% of the viral inoculum was detectable. This study demonstrates the potential risk of HCV transmission among injection drug users who share water, filters, and water containers and will help to define public health interventions to reduce HCV transmission.
    Keywords: Equipment Contamination ; Cross Infection -- Transmission ; Hepacivirus -- Physiology ; Hepatitis C -- Transmission ; Substance Abuse, Intravenous -- Complications
    ISSN: 00221899
    E-ISSN: 1537-6613
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(4), p.e36029
    Description: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients with high serum levels of bile acids (BAs) respond poorly to IFN therapy. BAs have been shown to increase RNA-replication of genotype 1 but not genotype 2a replicons. Since BAs modulate lipid metabolism including lipoprotein secretion and as HCV depends on lipids and lipoproteins during RNA-replication, virus production and cell entry, BAs may affect multiple steps of the HCV life cycle. Therefore, we analyzed the influence of BAs on individual steps of virus replication. ; We measured replication of subgenomic genotype (GT) 1b and 2a RNAs as well as full-length GT2a genomes in the presence of BAs using quantitative RT-PCR and luciferase assays. Cell entry was determined using HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp). Virus assembly and release were quantified using a core-specific ELISA. Replicon chimeras were employed to characterize genotype-specific modulation of HCV by BAs. Lunet CD81/GFP-NLS-MAVS cells were used to determine infection of Con1 particles. ; BAs increased RNA-replication of GT1b replicons up to 10-fold but had no effect on subgenomic GT2a replicons both in Huh-7 and HuH6 cells. They did not increase viral RNA translation, virus assembly and release or cell entry. Lowering replication efficiency of GT2a replicons rendered them susceptible to stimulation by BAs. Moreover, replication of full length GT1b with or without replication enhancing mutations and GT2a genomes were also stimulated by BAs. ; Bile acids specifically enhance RNA-replication. This is not limited to GT1, but also holds true for GT2a full length genomes and subgenomic replicons with low replication capacity. The increase of HCV replication by BAs may influence the efficacy of antiviral treatment in vivo and may improve replication of primary HCV genomes in cell culture.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Virology ; Infectious Diseases ; Gastroenterology And Hepatology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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